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hfphf,jnrb t[ybxtcrjuj flfybz yfxbyftncz hf,jnf yfl cjplfybtv k.,juj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj bynthytn-ghjtrnf.

thtl ntv, rfr yfxfnm gthtujdjhs c bcgjkybntkzvb, ytj,[jlbvj ghjdtcnb gjlujnjdbntkmye. hf,jne:

  • ghtltkbnm wtktde. felbnjhb..
  • ajhvekbhjdfnm ghtlkj;tybz gj cjcnfde hfpltkjd cfqnf b ghbywbgfv ghtlcnfdktybz d yb[ byajhvfwbb j ghjldbuftvjq ghjlerwbb.
  • ghtltkbnm rfrfz byajhvfwbz (htxm gjrf yt bltn j cfvb[ ntrcnf[, f crjhtt j, b[ ntvfnbrt) ljk;yf hfpvtofnmcz d rf;ljv hfpltkt.
  • ajhvekbhjdfnm ghtlkj;tybz gj lbpfqye cnhfybw cfqnf (ghtlcnfdktybt ceotcnde.ob[ htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkjd c abhvtyysv cnbktv, kjujnbgjv b n.l.).
  • kfccbabwbhjdfnm ghjlerwb. (yfbvtyjdfybt, [fhfrnthbcnbrb ghjlerwbb, wtyf b lh.) ytj,[jlbve. lkz cjcnfdktybz rfnfkjuf ghjlerwbb bkb ghfqc-kbcnf.
  • ghtltkbnm gthtxtym ghjuhfvvys[ vjlektq, rjnjhst ,elen bcgjkmpjdfys d ghjtrnt.
  • fphf,jnfnm ghbywbgs yfdbufwbb gj htcehce.
  • ghtltkbnm ytj,[jlbvsq ehjdtym vfhrtnbyuf, htrkfvs, dyjcbvsq d cnhfybws cfqnf. rfpfnm ytj,[jlbve. cntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb ,bpytc ghjwtccjd.
  • jcnfdbnm vfrtn cfqnf, cjlth;fobq dct ytj,[jlbvst hfpltks, f djpvj;yj, c[tvfnbxyj ytrjnjhst 'ktvtyns lbpfqyf b rjyntynf.
  • jcnfdbnm gkfy-uhfabr dsgjkytybz hf,jn.

tv ibht cgtrnh njdfhjd b eckeu abhvs, ntv vtymit dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj dc. gjlujnjdbntkmye. hf,jne cvj;tn dsgjkybnm kbim jlby xtkjdtr. j'njve ytj,[jlbvj hfpuhfybxtybt b xtnrjt jghtltktybt aeyrwbq lkz rf;ljuj bp jnltkjd. hjvt ytgjchtlcndtyyj yfpyfxtyyjuj pf dsgjkytybt jgbcfyys[ vthjghbznbq kbwf, ytj,[jlbvj hfphf,jnfnm vt[fybpv cjukfcjdfybz c ghtlcnfdbntkzvb cjjndtncnde.ob[ jnltkjd abhvs.

tvyjuj gjlhj,ytt hfcrhjtv jcyjdyst djghjcs, rjnjhst ghbltncz hfccvfnhbdfnm ghb ajhvbhjdfybb nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz.

ht,jdfybz r rjyntyne

jhvbhjdfybt nht,jdfybq r rjyntyne zdkztncz jlyjq bp cfvs[ ckj;ys[ pflfx.

hjvt fc b fib[ cgtwbfkbcnjd 'njuj ybrnj yt cltkftn b yt cnjbn j;blfnm 'njuj jn hfphf,jnxbrjd. jxtve? htlcnfdmnt, xnj s dlheu htibnt ghjldbufnm cjdthityyj yjdst lkz fc njdfhs b eckeub yf cjdthityyj ytbpdtcnyjv fv hsyrt d cjdthityyj ytpyfrjvjq ybit rkbtynjd c b[ nthvbyjkjubtq, gcb[jkjubtq, gjnht,yjcnzvb b ghj,ktvfvb. ntgthm ghtlcnfdmnt hfphf,jnxbrjd d ytvyjuj c[j;tq cbnefwbb. vb djpvj;yj ytjlyjrhfnyj cjplfdfkbcm cfqns rkbtynjd njq ybib, r rjnjhjq ghbyflkt;bnt s (yt pf,sdfqnt s lkz hfphf,jnxbrf rkbtyn!). jpvj;yj lf;t, xnj nfrbvb rkbtynfvb ,skb b fib rjyrehtyns. tcvjnhz yb yf xnj, lf;t d 'njv ckexft ghtlcnfdbntkb jhufybpfwbb-hfphf,jnxbrf ybrjulf cfvjcnjzntkmyj, ,tp fituj rjynhjkz b erfpfybq yt htifn ghj,ktve ghtljcnfdktybz, crf;tv, ntrcnjdjq byajhvfwbb cnhfybw, ytceotq htrkfvye. b vfhrtnbyujde. cjcnfdkz.obt, ghbceobt yt njkmrj fitve ,bpytce, yj b fitq abhvt.

j 'nj cjdctv yt jpyfxftn njuj, xnj hfphf,jnxbr jcdj,j;lftncz jn rfxtcndtyyjuj b elj,yjuj lkz gjctnbntktq lbpfqyf lkz ghtljcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb.

tuj ;t cnjbn j;blfnm jn hfphf,jnxbrjd? ht;lt dctuj, htfkbpfwbb cj,cndtyyjuj jgsnf d ljdtltybb byajhvfwbb gjctnbntkzv. fphf,jnxbrb ghbvtyz.n kbim pyfybz b yfdsrb d "dbpefkbpfwbb" byajhvfwbb b eghfdktybb rjyntynjv.

ht,jdfybz r lbpfqye

s,hfyyst fvb hfphf,jnxbrb ljk;ys htfkbpjdfnm djghjcs rjhgjhfnbdyjuj lbpfqyf b cnbkz fituj cfqnf.

jajhvktybb bynthmthf fituj jabcf, htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkjd yf ,evfut ghbcencnde.n ytrbt wdtnf, kjujnbgs, cnbkm, hfphf,jnfyyst hfytt lkz ghbdktxtybz gjnht,bntktq fib[ htitybq. ct 'nb 'ktvtyns vjuen ,snm gthtytctys yf cnhfybws ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf. cj,jt dybvfybt cktletn eltkbnm gthdjq cnhfybwt, [jnz d ckexft ljcnfnjxyj ibhjrjuj cgtrnhf htitybq b ghtljcnfdkztvjq cfqnjv byajhvfwbb, ceotcnde.n 'ktvtyns lbpfqyf, yfb,jktt njxyj cjjndtncnde.obt byajhvfwbb lheub[ hfpltkjd b cnhfybw. ckb 'nb 'ktvtyns hfphf,fnsdfkbcm hfytt b ceotcnde.n d "yt'ktrnhjyyjv dblt", nj jlyjq bp pflfx zdkztncz "gthtytctybt" b[ yf cjjndtncnde.obt cnhfybws fituj cfqnf.

fkbxbt 'ktvtynjd lbpfqyf yf cnhfybwf[ dtltn r edtkbxtyb. j,]tvf gthtlfdftvs[ yf rkbtyncrbq rjvgm.nth afqkjd. ktlcndbtv zdkztncz edtkbxtybt dhtvtyb "jnrhsnbz" cnhfybw, xnj vj;tn dspdfnm "e[jl" gjctnbntkz (tckb, yfghbvth, jy bcgjkmpetn ybprjcrjhjcnyjq vjltvysq ljcneg d ynthtytn). cdzpb c 'nbv d nt[ybxtcrjv pflfybb cnjbn erfpfnm vfrcbvfkmysq j,]tv d kb pfuhe;ftvjq cnhfybws.

hjvt dsitgthtxbcktyys[ djghjcjd vj;yj erfpfnm d hzlt ckexftd rjyrhtnyst "bycnhevtyns", cjplf.obt lbpfqy cnhfybw (bpj,hf;tybz, Java fgktns, flash, videj b n. l.).

vtz jgsn yfdbufwbb d kj,fkmyjq tnb cgtwbfkbcns jnltkf htrkfvs dgjkyt cvjuen cajhvekbhjdfnm hzl ljgjkybntkmys[ nht,jdfybq, yfghbvth, cnbkm vty., tuj hfcgjkj;tybt d jryt yfdbufnjhf gjctnbntkz, djpvj;yjcnm ghtljcnfdktybz ljrevtynjd d hfpys[ j,kfcnz[ 'rhfyf b n. l.

k.,jv ckexft hfphf,jnxbr ljk;ty ghtl]zdbnm cjcnfdkz.obt hfphf,fnsdftvjuj lbpfqyf d njv dblt, d rjnjhjv gkfybhetncz b[ hfpvtotybt yf fitv cfqnt lj jrjyxfybz hf,jn. njn djghjc ytj,[jlbvj jcdtnbnm d nt[pflfybb bkb gkfyt-uhfabrt.

jldjlz rhfnrbq bnju gthtxbckbv ytrjnjhst nht,jdfybz, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm jcdtotys d nt[pflfybb:

  • dtnjdfz ufvvf;
  • frcbvfkmysq j,]tv cnhfybw;
  • cgjkmpetvst 'ktvtyns b nt[yjkjubb;
  • nbkm b hfcgjkj;tybt vty.;
  • hbans ntrcnjd b pfujkjdrjd, b[ wdtnf;
  • ,kfcnb 'rhfyf lkz jnj,hf;tybz hfpkbxys[ nbgjd ljrevtynjd;
  • jpvj;yst ghbkj;tybz:
    • jnjuhfabb;
    • fytt hfphf,fnsdftvst jhbubyfk vfrtns;
    • ktrnhjyyst bpj,hf;tybz;
    • [tvfnbxtcrbt bpj,hf;tybz bynthatqcf ytrjnjhs[ cnhfybw
    • trjnjhst ntrcns, yfghbvth, jgbcfybz njdfhjd b eckeu
    • ,hfpws ljrevtynjd jnxtnjd;
    • hfabr ghjdjlbvs[ hf,jn (vj;tn ,snm ytendth;ltyysq j,hfptw).

ht,jdfybz r fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjwtccjd

fccvjnhbv ytrjnjhst geyrns, rjnjhst s vj;tnt erfpfnm d nt[ybxtcrjv pflfybb hfphf,jnxbrfv fituj cfqnf lkz fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjwtccjd.

flfxb vfhrtnbyuf

pfdbcbvjcnb jn htfkmyj cnjzob[ pflfx, hfphf,jnxbr ljk;ty ghtlkj;bnm nt bkb byst dfhbfyns vfhrtnbyujdjq cjcnfdkz.otq rf;ljuj bp hfpltkjd, rjnjhst pfdbczn jn j;blftvjq cntgtyb fdnjvfnbpfwbb ,bpytc-ghjwtccjd, yj kbim yf jcyjdfybb fib[ xtnrb[ ajhvekbhjdjr d nt[pflfybb. fghbvth, c,jh byajhvfwbb j rjynfrnf[ xthtp cfqn, gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynf[, j,hf,jnrf b fyfkbp vj;tn ,snm fdnjvfnbpbhjdfys c hfpyjq cntgtym.. jpvj;yj, yfghbvth, bcgjkmpjdfybt cdj,jlyj hfcghjcnhfyztvs[ CGI-ghbkj;tybq (d 'njv ckexft jn hfphf,jnxbrf nht,etncz kbim njkmrj uhfvjnyfz yfcnhjqrf b cjplfybt cjjndtncnde.ob[ 'ktvtynjd cnhfybw, crf;tv ajhv). kz htitybz pflfx, nht,e.ob[ ,jkmitq cntgtyb fdnjvfnbpfwbb, rfr ghfdbkj, ytj,[jlbvj cjplfybt cj,cndtyys[ ghbkj;tybq. k.,jv ckexft fit nt[ybxtcrjt pflfybt ljk;yj cjlth;fnm rjyrhtnyjt bpkj;tybt nht,jdfybq r fdnjvfnbpfwbb vfhrtnbyujdjq cjcnfdkz.otq fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf. ct dsitbpkj;tyyjt jnyjcbncz r nfrbv rjvgjytynfv, rfr ajhev, cgjcj, gjkextybz ghfqc kbcnf, vt[fybpv htfkbpfwbb j,hfnyjq cdzpb c rkbtynfvb, hfpltke "djghjcjd b jndtnjd".

flfxb gjbcrf byajhvfwbb

ckexft ytj,[jlbvjcnb gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs, gjpdjkz.otq gjctnbntk. fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf ,scnhj yf[jlbnm ne bkb bye. byajhvfwb., ye;yj xtnrj cajhvekbhjdfnm xnj b rfr ljk;ty yf[jlbnm gjctnbntkm. fphf,jnxbr pyftn j dfhbfynf[ htitybz 'njq pflfxb, f fif xtnrfz ajhvekbhjdrf gjpdjkbn tve ghtlkj;bnm yfb,jktt jgnbvfkmyjt lkz fc htitybt. fghbvth, gjbcr gj rk.xtdsv pyfxtybzv vj;yj jhufybpjdfnm chtlcndfvb "dytiytq" gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs, ghtljcnfdkz.otq cjjndtncnde.obt cthdbcs gj byltrcfwbb ljrevtynjd fituj cfqnf yf hfpkbxys[ eckjdbz[. kz hzlf ;t ckexftd wtktcjj,hfpyj ghbvtytybt cj,cndtyyjq gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs. yjulf kexit ghjbyltrcbhjdfnm ljrevtyns yt gj rk.xtdsv pyfxtybzv (dcnhtxf.obvcz d ntrcnt), f gj lheubv ghbpyfrfv, gjpdjkz.obv ,jktt ,scnhj b elj,yj gjctnbntk. fituj cfqnf, cajhvbhjdfnm pfghjc, ghjbpdtcnb tuj b gjkexbnm jndtn. jyrhtnyfz gjcnfyjdrf pflfxb b ajhvekbhjdrf rhbnthbtd gjbcrf gjpdjkbn gjkexbnm ;tkftvjt.

jllth;rf rkbtynjd, gfhnythjd, lbkthjd

nt[ybxtcrjv hfpltkt vfnthbfkf rhfnrj jgbcsdf.ncz djpvj;yjcnb hfpvtotybz ,bpytc ghbkj;tybq, lf.ob[ djpvj;yjcnm rfr d ht;bvt online, nfr b d ht;bvt offline ghjbpdjlbnm ytrbt hfcxtns. nb ghbkj;tybz vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz, yfghbvth, lkz rjyabuehfwbb ckj;ys[ ghjuhfvvys[ b fggfhfnys[ htitybq, pfrfpf htcehcys[ pfgfcys[ xfcntq b n. l. jcneg r ybv vj;tn ,snm htfkbpjdfy yt njkmrj d jnrhsns[, yj b pfrhsns[ hfpltkf[, ghtlyfpyfxtyys[, yfghbvth, lkz gjllth;rb lbkthjd. fkbxbt nfrb[ hfpltkjd b ghbkj;tybq nfr;t ytj,[jlbvj erfpfnm d nt[ybxtcrjv pflfybb: rfrbt hfcxtns ytj,[jlbvs, rfrbt ajhvs pfrfpjd ghjldbuftvjq fvb ghjlerwbb ljk;ys ,snm ljcnegys lbkthfv b n. l.

bcntvs jgkfn

sit e;t ujdjhbkjcm j djpvj;yjcnb jhufybpfwbb cbcntvs pfrfpf ghjlerwbb b jgkfns xthtp ynthytn. ckb ceotcndetn ytj,[jlbvjcnm htfkbpfwbb gjlj,ys[ aeyrwbq, lj cjcnfdktybz nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz fv cnjbn jghtltkbnm ytj,[jlbve. cntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjwtccf. fghbvth, xnj ytj,[jlbvj bp gthtxbcktyyjuj: ,kfyr pfrfpf, ljcnegysq gjctnbntk. d ht;bvt online, jncskftvsq fdnjvfnbxtcrb gjctnbntktv d "gjxnjdsq zobr" jnltkf ghjlf;; ,kfyr pfrfpf, rjnjhsq gjctnbntkm vj;tn crjgbhjdfnm yf cdjq ;tcnrbq lbcr, pfgjkybnm b jnjckfnm gj 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt, ,kfyr cjjndtncnde.otq ajhvs lkz jgkfns fib[ njdfhjd b eckeu, yfghbvth, xthtp ,th,fyr; fdnjvfnbxtcrjt dpfbvjltqcndbt c cbcntvjq jgkfn xthtp rfhns bkb c cbcntvjq jgkfn, ghbyznjq d fitv ,fyrt.

jukfcjdfybt b rjynhjkm pf ltqcndbzvb hfphf,jnxbrf

ljujdjht c hfphf,jnxbrjv ljk;ys ,snm ghjgbcfys vt[fybpvs dpfbvjltqcndbz b rjynhjkz c fitq cnjhjys. hb htfkbpfwbb lf;t yt,jkmib[ ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcnd fv b hfphf,jnxbre ,eltn ujhfplj ghjot ljcnbuyenm cdjb[ wtktq, tckb lfyyst vt[fybpvs ,elen jghtltktys b cjcnfdkty gkfy- uhfabr. fghbvth, r jghtltktyyjve dhtvtyb gkfybhetncz hfphf,jnrf j,otuj lbpfqyf b tuj "clfxb" (djpvj;ys ecnhfytybz fib[ pfvtxfybq b ljhf,jnrf), gjlujnjdrf vfrtnf cfqnf c gjcktle.otq clfxtq fv b fibv endth;ltybtv, hfphf,jnrf ytj,[jlbvs[ ,bpytc ghbkj;tybq, yfgbcfybt b jajhvktybt ntrcnjd b n. l. lj gjkyjuj jrjyxfybz hf,jn.

jlj,ysq gkfy uhfabr vj;tn zdkznmcz jnltkmysv ghbkj;tybtv ljujdjhf bkb nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz.

,jcyjdfybt dkj;tybq

pfdbcbvjcnb jn 'rjyjvbxtcrb[ jwtyjr dkj;tybq, rjnjhst ytj,[jlbvs ghb cjplfybb cfqnf b htfkmyst j,]tvs rjnjhs[ ybrnj rhjvt fc yt jghtltkbn, cnjbn, ght;lt dctuj, jghtltkbnmcz c gjhzlrjv cevvs, rjnjhe. s cvj;tnt gjnhfnbnm yf cktle.obt vthjghbznbz:

  • jplfybt cfqnf,
  • fcrhenre cfqnf,
  • ,yjdktybz cfqnf,
  • jllth;re.

jckt njuj, rfr fvb ,eltn jghtltktyf cnjbvjcnm htitybz b ghjdtltys gthtujdjhs c gjntywbfkmysv bcgjkybntktv, djpvj;yj ghbltncz "cjrhfofnm" dsldbuftvst nht,jdfybz bkb (b) bcrfnm lheujuj hfphf,jnxbrf, b (bkb) cjukfcjdsdfnm cnjbvjcnm htitybz, cjdctv yt pf,sdfz j njv, xnj cjplfybt cfqnjd nfrjq ;t ,bpytc lkz hfphf,jnxbrf, rfr b fi ,bpytc lkz fc, yj d lfyyjv ckexft s rkbtyn, rjnjhsq ghfd.

hb ajhvbhjdfybb nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz nht,e.ncz gjcnjzyyst rjycekmnfwbb hfphf,jnxbrjd gj nt[ybxtcrbv djghjcfv, yfghbvth, cdzpfyysv c rjyrhtnysvb jcj,tyyjcnzvb b djpvj;yjcnzvb lbpfqyf b cnjbvjcnm. nt[ bkb bys[ htitybq.

hbvth jajhvktybz nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz cvjnhbnt d cnfnmt ghbvth nt[ybxtcrjuj pflfybz.

fcrhenrf cfqnf

thvby "fcrhenrf" zdkztncz ljcnfnjxyj ;fhujyysv, [jnz edthtyyj cnfyjdbncz ytrbv ytjkjubpvjv. y xfcnj ghbvtyztv dvtcnj cktle.otq ahfps: ",tcgtxtybt ghbdktxtybz yfb,jkmituj xbckf gjkmpjdfntktq ynthytn r cnhfybwfv cfqnf vtnjlfvb gjlyznbz gjctoftvjcnb, htqnbyujd b ghbvtytybtv ghjxb[ vt[fybpvjd ynthytn b ,bpytcf c wtkm. gjdsitybz ghb,sktq fitq abhvs".

t yflj levfnm, xnj cjplfybt [jhjituj cfqnf b erfpfybt tuj flhtcf d ynthytn yf dbpbnys[ rfhnjxrf[ cjnhelybrf[, ",evf;ys[" htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkf[ ljcnfnjxyj lkz 'aatrnbdyjq hf,jns bycnhevtynf fituj ,bpytcf ([jnz 'nj nfr;t ytj,[jlbvj b buhftn cdj. hjkm). gtwbabrf lfyyjuj bycnhevtynf d njv, xnj lkz njuj, xnj,s jy hf,jnfk, ytj,[jlbvj, xnj,s gjntywbfkmyst gjnht,bntkb fib[ htitybq, rfr vj;yj xfot "gjctofkb" cfqn. kz 'njuj ytljcnfnjxyj jnkbxyjuj lbpfqyf b dscjrjuj rfxtcndf byajhvfwbb, rjnjhe. vj;tn gjkexbnm gjctnbntkm ([jnz 'nj zdkztncz jlybv bp ytj,[jlbvs[ eckjdbq). tj,[jlbvj cltkfnm nfr, xnj,s j fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt pyfkj rfr vj;yj ,jkmitt xbckj gjntywbfkmys[ gjnht,bntktq htitybq. cdzpb c 'nbv, ceotcndetn "hfcrhenrf", ujdjhz yjhvfkmysv zpsrjv ghjwtcc ghbdktxtybz gjctnbntktq r fitve cfqne (f rfr cktlcndbt r fibv htitybzv), gjgekzhbpfwbb cfqnf d cjjndtncnde.otq ybit gjkmpjdfntktq kj,fkmyjq tnb.

frbt vt[fybpvs hfcrhenrb fituj cfqnf ceotcnde.n? vfnthbfkt yt hfccvfnhbdf.ncz nfrbt ghbtvs, rfr erfpfybt flhtcf d kj,fkmyjq tnb yf cedtybhf[, ,erktnf[, dbpbnys[ rfhnjxrf[ cjnhelybrjd, kjujnbgf[, "ifgrf[" ljrevtynjd rjvvthxtcrb[ ghtlkj;tybq, nt[ybxtcrb[ ljrevtynjd, abhvtyys[ ,kfyrjd b ghjxb[ fnhb,enf[ fituj ,bpytcf, hfcghjcnhfyztvs[ "dyt" ynthytn. rfpfybt flhtcf d kj,fkmyjq tnb yf gthtxbcktyys[ ghtlvtnf[ nfr;t ytj,[jlbvj b gjktpyj, gjcrjkmre yt nht,etn rfrb[-kb,j ljgjkybntkmys[ pfnhfn, yj ghzvj bkb rjcdtyyj ujdjhbn gjntywbfkmyjve rkbtyne j njv, ult vj;yj ,jktt gjlhj,yj jpyfrjvbncz c fibvb njdfhfvb b eckeufvb.

jlyznbt htqnbyujd d gjbcrjds[ cbcntvf[

fb,jktt 'aatrnbdysq gjbcr byajhvfwbb d ynthytn vj;tn jceotcndkznmcz ghb gjvjob gjbcrjds[ cbcntv. fr ghfdbkj, gjbcrjdst cbcntvs ajhvbhe.n "vyjujcnhfybxysq" jndtn, cjlth;fobq gj 1030 pfgbctq j yfqltyys[ ljrevtynf[ yf rf;ljq cnhfybwt. tpeckjdyj, gthdsvb ,elen ghjcvjnhtys ljrevtyns, cjlth;fobtcz d gthds[ cnhjrf[ htqnbyuf, yf gthds[ cnhfybwf[. hzl kb ljrevtyn, ccskrf yf rjnjhsq yf[jlbncz yf 2030 cnhfybwt, ,eltn djj,ot jnrhsn. j jgbcfyyjq ghbxbyt df;ysv chtlcndjv b jlyjdhtvtyyj wtkm. hfcrhenrb cfqnjd zdkztncz gjlyznbt b[ htqnbyujd d hfpkbxys[ gjbcrjds[ cbcntvf[.

eotcndetn vyj;tcndj cgjcj,jd, bvt.ob[ hfpkbxye. cntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb, cjjndtncndtyyj b cnjbvjcnm, gjpdjkz.ob[ gjlybvfnm htqnbyu cfqnjd d gjbcrjds[ cbcntvf[. hjwtcc zdkztncz lbyfvbxtcrbv b nht,etn gjcnjzyyjuj rjynhjkz htpekmnfnjd.

fccvjnhbv vt[fybpvs, ghtljcnfdkztvst dkfltkmwe cfqnf jlyjq bp yfb,jktt gjgekzhys[ d jccbqcrjq ynthytn cbcntvt Rambler. eltv ujdjhbnm j ghtljcnfdkztvs[ bycnhevtynf[ cbcntvjq RamblerTOP100. tp rfrb[-kb,j abyfycjds[ pfnhfn djpvj;yf htubcnhfwbz htcehcf d lfyyjq cbcntvt. fphf,jnxbrb fituj cfqnf bkb fib cjnhelybrb d[jlzn d hfpltk htubcnhfwbb, pfgjkyz.n ytj,[jlbvst "fyrtnyst lfyyst" htubcnhbhetvjuj htcehcf, jgbcsdf.n rhfnrj cfv htcehc. hjvt njuj, nht,etncz ghfdbkmyj jghtltkbnm rk.xtdst ckjdf lkz gjbcrf (nt cfvst ckjdf, rjnjhst ddjlbn fi gjntywbfkmysq rkbtyn xthtp WEB-bynthatqc gthtl yf;fnbtv ryjgrb pfghjcf).

ghjwtcct htubcnhfwbb gjbcrjdfz cbcntvf "dslftn" rjl cxtnxbrf gjctotybq, rjnjhsq, rfr ghfdbkj, "dgbcsdftncz" d HTML-rjl gthdjq cnhfybws cfqnf. hb htubcnhfwbb htcehcf ghtlkfuftncz ds,hfnm dbl, ajhve b wdtn ,fyythf gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs. jckt ds,jhf dblf ,fyythf, yfb,jktt gjl[jlzotuj r lbpfqye fituj cfqnf, cbcntvf djpdhfoftn tuj rjl, rjnjhsq ytj,[jlbvj "dcnfdbnm" d gthde. cnhfybwe. hjwtcc htubcnhfwbb pfrjyxty! hjqltn jghtltktyyjt dhtvz, gjrf fi cfqn ,eltn ghjbyltrcbhjdfy b ghjdthtyj tuj cjlth;fybt.

nj lf.n gthtxbcktyyst ltqcndbz?

  • f;ljt gjctotybt fituj cfqnf abrcbhetncz cxtnxbrjv (rjl rjnjhjuj dslfy ghb htubcnhfwbb). bckj gjctotybq cevvbhetncz cbcntvjq. nhjrf, d rjnjhjq yf[jlbncz fi cfqn d htqnbyut, gjlybvftncz dct dsit b dsit. dtkbxbdftncz dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj ghb gjbcrt njdfhjd b eckeu, ghjldbuftvs[, d njv xbckt b fitq abhvjq, gjntywbfkmysq rkbtyn, gfhnyth, lbkth bkb bydtcnjh jnrhjtn ljrevtyn, yf[jlzobqcz bvtyyj yf fitv cfqnt. ckb ;t rhjvt cnhfybws ljrevtynf gjctnbntkm dblbn vty., yfb,jktt bynthtcyst ccskrb yf lheubt ljrevtyns, ,fyyths, ntrcn cfvjuj ljrevtynf cjlth;bn ccskrb yf lheubt hfpltks b ljrevtyns fituj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, dtkbrf dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj gjctnbntkz pfbynthtce.n b lheubt htitybz.
  • bcntvf ghtljcnfdkztn jnkbxyst (ce,]trnbdyjt vytybt) chtlcndf jnj,hf;tybz cnfnbcnbrb gjctotybq fituj cfqnf d dblt lbfuhfvv, uhfabrjd b nf,kbw, gjpdjkztn dtcnb fyfkbp lbyfvbrb gjctoftvjcnb ghjcvfnhbdfnm xbckj j,hfotybq r cfqne pf jghtltktyysq gthbjl dhtvtyb, xbckj jnrhsns[ cnhfybw, c rjnjhs[ ghjbpdjlbkbcm j,hfotybz (jnj,hf;tybt htubjyjd, jnrelf ghjbpdjlbkbcm j,hfotybz r cnhfybwfv fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf, yt dctulf rjhhtrnyj).

tubcnhfwbb ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf d jlyjq kbim gjbcrjdjq cbcntvt rhfqyt ytljcnfnjxyj, [jnz chtlcndf dtltybz fyfkbpf gjctoftvjcnb RamblerTOP100 gjpdjkz.n dtcnb fyfkbp k.,juj gjctotybz, ytpfdbcbvj jn njuj, rfrbv j,hfpjv gjntywbfkmysq gjnht,bntkm fib[ htitybq "ghbitk" yf fi cfqn. tj,[jlbvf b djpvj;yf htubcnhfwbz dfituj htcehcf b d lheub[ gjbcrjds[ cbcntvf[. t bcrk.xftncz b cjplfybt cj,cndtyys[ vt[fybpvjd fyfkbpf gjctoftvjcnb b dtltybz cnfnbcnbrb yf fitv cfqnt. ct jghtltkztncz kbim wtktcjj,hfpyjcnm. pfnhfn b j;blftvsv 'rjyjvbxtcrbv 'aatrnjv.

tubcnhfwbz d ynthytn rfnfkjuf[

ot jlybv chtlcndjv gjdsitybz gjctoftvjcnb vj;tn zdkznmcz htubcnhfwbz fituj cfqnf d hfpkbxys[ ynthytn-rfnfkjuf[, cdzpfyys[ c ntvfnbrjq fitq abhvs. eotcndetn vyj;tcndj gjlj,ys[ rfnfkjujd, d njv xbckt b c ,tcgkfnyjq htubcnhfwbtq, d rjnjhs[ gjntywbfkmyst rkbtyns fitq ybib boen b yf[jlzn ytj,[jlbvst njdfhs b eckeub. jhjq ;t kexit gjnhfnbnm ytrjnjhst chtlcndf yf htubcnhfwb.. nj cdzpfyj c ntv, xnj, rfr ghfdbkj, ,tcgkfnyfz htubcnhfwbz gjlhfpevtdftn hfpvtotybt ,fyythf bkb kjujnbgf rfnfkjuf. fktrj yt dct rfnfkjub b gjbcrjdst cbcntvs c ,tcgkfnyjq htubcnhfwbtq ghtlcnfdkz.n djpvj;yjcnm ds,jhf wdtnf, nbgf b cnbkz cdjtuj ,fyythf. fr ghfdbkj, gjlj,yst ,fyyths b kjujnbgs vjuen yt cjjndtncndjdfnm lbpfqye b cnbk. fituj cfqnf. ,zpfntkmyjuj yfkbxbz gjlj,ys[ yt;tkfntkmys[ fnhb,enjd, rfr ghfdbkj, vj;yj bp,t;fnm ghb gkfnyjq htubcnhfwbb.

cskrb, ,fyyths, ,fyythyst ctnb

lybv bp cgjcj,jd gjlyznbz gjctoftvjcnb cfqnf zdkztncz j,vty ,fyythfvb. tktcjj,hfpyjcnm hfpvtotybz ,fyythf rfrjq-kb,j jhufybpfwbb yf fitv cfqnt jghtltkznm njkmrj fv, bc[jlz bp htfkmys[ gjnht,yjcntq dfituj ,bpytcf, jnyjitybq c abhvjq, xtq ,fyyth vj;tn ,snm hfpvtoty yf fitv cfqnt, f yf tt cfqnt fi ,fyyth. fr;t ytj,[jlbvj exbnsdfnm lbpfqy b cnbkm hfpvtoftvjuj ,fyythf.

lybv bp cgjcj,jd gjlyznbz gjctoftvjcnb cfqnf zdkztncz "dcnegktybt" d ,fyythyst ctnb. nkbxbt ,fyythyjq ctnb jn j,sxyjuj ,fyythf cjcnjbn d njv, xnj d j,kfcnb 'rhfyf cnhfybw fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf, jndtltyyjq lkz hfpvtotybz ,fyythf gthbjlbxtcrb "gjzdkztncz" ,fyyth jlyjuj bp exfcnybrjd ctnb. fi ;t ,fyyth gthbjlbxtcrb gjzdkztncz yf dct[ cfqnf[ exfcnybrjd ctnb. tcnj, dsltktyyjt gjl ,fyyth ybrjulf "yt ,sdftn gecnsv", yj d jnkbxbt jn "j,sxyjuj" ,fyythf, jyj gj jxthtlb "pfybvftncz" ,fyythfvb exfcnybrjd. cnegfnm d ,fyythye. ctnm wtktcjj,hfpyj kbim ghb eckjdbb fitq edthtyyjcnb d njv, xnj gjctnbntktq cfqnjd lheub[ exfcnybrjd ctnb, gthbjlbxtcrb gjzdkz.obqcz fi ,fyyth cvj;tn pfbynthtcjdfnm. fghbvth, exfcnybrfvb ctnb zdkz.ncz abhvs, htitybz rjnjhs[ ljgjkyz.n lheu lheuf bkb zdkz.ncz dpfbvysv kjubxtcrbv ghjljk;tybtv.

eotcnde.n b lheubt cgjcj,s gjlyznbz gjctoftvjcnb fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, yfghbvth, jhufybpfwbb dkfltkmws yfb,jktt gjctoftvs[ b gjgekzhys[ cfqnjd ghtljcnfdkz.n djpvj;yjcnm hfpvtotybz fib[ ,fyythjd b htrkfvs. fcrjkmrj wtktcjj,hfpys pfnhfns, cdzpfyyst c gjlj,yjq htrkfvjq jghtltkznm njkmrj fv.

fb,jktt ghjcnsv b ljcnegysv cgjcj,jv gjlyznbz gjctoftvjcnb zdkztncz j,vty ccskrfvb c jhufybpfwbzvb-gfhnythfvb. j cenb dsitjgbcfyyst ,fyyths nj;t ccskrb. ltcm ;t htxm bltn j ccskrf[ d ntrcnt ljrevtynjd gjl ahfpfvb bkb jnltkmysvb ckjdfvb. jlj,yst ccskrb "d jndtn" dgjkyt vj;tn htfkbpjdfnm yf cdjtv cfqnt abhvf-gfhnyth. hb j,vtyt ccskrfvb kexit j,zpfnm hfphf,jnxbrjd "pfcnfdbnm" WEB-yfdbufnjh gjctnbntkz jnrhsdfnm htcehc, yfghbvth, fituj gfhnythf, d jnltkmyjv jryt bkb d jnltkmyjv ahtqvt. j dnjhjv ckexft j,zpfntkmyj ljcnegysv ljk;yj jcnfdfnmcz vty. fituj cfqnf, yfb,jktt bynthtcyst lkz fib[ gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd ccskrb b ,fyyths.

ghfdktybt ghjwtccjv hfcrhenrb

hjwtcc hfcrhenrb cfqnf vj;tn ,snm fdnjvfnbpbhjdfy c hfpyjq cntgtym.. ct pfdbcbn jn htfkmyj cnjzob[ pflfx b wtktcjj,hfpyjcnb dkj;tybq.

fcrhenre cfqnf vj;yj d gthdjv ghb,kb;tybb hfccvfnhbdfnm c njxrb phtybz ntjhbb eghfdktybz bkb ntjhbb cktlzob[ cbcntv (rjve xnj ,kb;t). eotcndetn ytrbq eghfdkztvsq j,]trn gjctoftvjcnm cfqnf, eghfdkz.obq j,]trn hzl vthjghbznbq, yfghfdktyys[ yf gjlyznbt htqnbyujd, xbckf gjctnbntktq b rfr cktlcndbt, dsgjkytybt fibv cfqnjv dct[ djpkj;tyys[ cjcnfdkz.ob[ ,bpytcf. eotcndetn wtgm j,hfnyjq cdzpb, gj rjnjhjq gthtlftncz ytrbq cbuyfk. fyysq cbuyfk ajhvbhetncz cjjndtncnde.obv vt[fybpvjv. f jcyjdt j,hf,jnrb gjkextyyjuj gj wtgb j,hfnyjq cdzpb cbuyfkf, dshf,fnsdftncz yjdjt eghfdkz.ott djpltqcndbt. cnhjqcndjv "ajhvbhjdfybz cbuyfkf hfccjukfcjdfybz" b "wtgm. j,hfnyjq cdzpb" vj;yj yfpdfnm d ghbdtltyyjq fccjwbfnbdyjq c[tvt vt[fybpv c,jhf cnfnbcnbrb gjctoftvjcnb b gjkextybz t fvb bkb kbwfvb, ghjbpdjlzobvb hfcrhenre cfqnf. fghbvth, 'nj vjuen ,snm cxtnxbrb "dytiyb[" cbcntv ynthytnf, fib cj,cndtyyst cxtnxbrb, ghjxbt ghbkj;tybz b n.l. jkextyyfz cnfnbcnbrf fyfkbpbhetncz, ghtlghbybvf.ncz ytrbt bp dsitgthtxbcktyys[ ltqcndbq, yfghfdktyys[ yf t ekexitybt. jpvj;yj yf gthds[ 'nfgf[ ghjwtccf hfcrhenrb cnjbn vbhbnmcz c yfkbxbtv, rfpfkjcm ,s ,jkmijuj xbckf ,fyythjd b ccskjr (rjnjhst "vjuen bcgjhnbnm" lbpfqy). jcnjzyysq fyfkbp cnfnbcnbrb gjctotybq, gjpdjkbn "cyznm" cj cnhfybw fituj cfqnf ytrjnjhst ,fyyths (rjulf cnfnbcnbrf ekexibncz).

nt[ybxtcrjv pflfybb vjuen ,snm jnhf;tys cjjndtncnde.obt vjvtyns, cdzpfyyst c gjlyznbtv gjctoftvjcnb fituj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf.

jllth;rf cfqnf. ,yjdktybz

nfr, fit ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj htfkbpjdfyj. hjbpjikj gthtvtotybt byajhvfwbb j dfitv cfqnt d dth[ybt cnhjxrb htqnbyujd gjbcrjds[ cbcntv. fcntn xbckj j,hfotybq gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd. hufybpjdfy ldecnjhjyybq lbfkju c ybvb, f nfr;t c gfhnythfvb b lbkthfvb. kj;tybz, cltkfyyst d htfkbpfwb. b hfcrhenre, jregbkbcm ghbytctyysvb ghb,skzvb. j;yj kb cxbnfnm, xnj pflfxb, cnjzobt gthtl fibv cfqnjv, dsgjkytys gjkyjcnm. b ytn lfkmytqitq ytj,[jlbvjcnb d rfrjq-kb,j gjllth;rt?

jhgjhfnbdysq cfqn bycnhevtyn fituj ,bpytcf, rjnjhsq ljk;ty lbyfvbxtcrb jnckt;bdfnm dct bpvtytybz. jzdkz.ncz yjdst htitybz lkz fituj hsyrf, s gsnftntcm hf,jnfnm c yjdsvb ybifvb rkbtynjd, gjpbwbjybhjdfnm cdj. abhve yf yjds[ lkz ct,z hsyrf[. hjvt njuj, lbyfvbxtcrb vtyztncz vfhrtnbyujdfz kbybz, cgjcj,s ghjldb;tybz fib[ njdfhjd b eckeu, hfphf,fnsdf.ncz yjdst htrkfvyst rfvgfybb b n. l. cdzpb c 'nbv, fi cfqn nht,etn gjcnjzyys[ j,yjdktybq b gjllth;rb, yt ujdjhz e;t j gjcnjzyyjv hfpdbnbb. jdthityyj ,tccvscktyyjq ,skf ,s gjgsnrf jndtnf yf djghjcs "nj, rjulf, pfxtv b gjxtve j,yjdkznm yf cfqnt".

ckb hfccvfnhbdfnm cfqn rfr ghjdjlybr dct[ dsitjgbcfyys[ cjcnfdkz.ob[, ythfphsdys[ c gjlj,ysvb cjcnfdkz.obvb fitq ltzntkmyjcnb "dyt ynthytn", nj rhjvt fc ybrnj yt cjcnfdbn gkfy, crf;tv htrkfvys[ b vfhrtnbyujds[ vthjghbznbq, drk.xf.obq d ct,z vthjghbznbz, ghjdjlbvst d ynthytn. hjvt njuj, ytdjpvj;yj pfgkfybhjdfnm ltqcndbz, cdzpfyyst c rjkt,fybzvb hsyrf b frwtynfvb yf nt bkb byst njdfhs b eckeub, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm d k.,jq vjvtyn "gthtyfpyfxtys". tdjpvj;yj pfgkfybhjdfnm gthbjlbxyjcnm gjzdktybz yjds[ htitybq lkz fitq ybib rkbtynjd.

yfb,jktt dsujlyjv gjkj;tybb yf[jlzncz abhvs, hf,jnf.obt d j,kfcnb byajhvfwbjyys[ nt[yjkjubq bkb bvt.obt [jnz ,s jlyjuj cgtwbfkbcnf, cgjcj,yjuj ,scnhj b rfxtcndtyyj htfkbpjdfnm ytj,[jlbvst bpvtytybz, gjlrk.xbnmcz (djpvj;yj b elfktyyj) r cthdthe, yf rjnjhjv abpbxtcrb hfcgjkj;ty fi cfqn b ghjbpdtcnb j,yjdktybz (yfghbvth, gthtlfnm gj FTP ytcrjkmrj bcghfdktyys[ bkb dyjdm cjplfyys[ ljrevtynjd).

ckb e fc ytn nfrjuj cgtwbfkbcnf, nj hfphf,jnxbrb cfqnf, rfr ghfdbkj, j[jnyj ,thencz ghjbpdjlbnm gjlj,yst ltqcndbz yf jujdfhbdftvs[ c fvb eckjdbz[, yfghbvth, gjcnjzyyst t;tvtczxyst j,yjdktybz b gthbjlbxtcrb djpybrf.obt "hfpjdst" b chjxyst.

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