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ynthytnt ctujlyz vj;yj edbltnm vyj;tcndj cfqnjd, bvt.ob[ ghj,ktvs c .pf,bkbnb. jcnjzyyjt buyjhbhjdfybt 'njuj df;yjuj 'ktvtynf d ltkt cjplfybz cfqnf ghbdjlbn r njve, xnj gjctnbntkb cfqnf nthz.ncz yf ytv, jrfpsdf.ncz c,bnsvb c njkre b hfpjxfhjdsdf.ncz. htvz, d ntxtybt rjnjhjuj gjctnbntkm ghbybvftn htitybt, jcnfnmcz b bccktljdfnm cfqn bkb gjrbyenm tuj, hfdyj 0,4 ctreyls. hbdktxtybt gjctnbntktq yf cfqn zdkztncz dtcmvf ckj;yjq pflfxtq jyf cjcnjbn d ,scnhjv ecnfyjdktybb cdzpb c ybvb b tt cj[hfytybb.

jhjij tckb cfqn bvttn [jhjibt gjpbwbb d htpekmnfnf[ gjbcrf, yj nfr;t df;yj cltkfnm cfqn elj,ysv b ghbdktrfntkmysv. nj [jhjituj d njv, xnj,s ,snm yfqltyysv, tckb gjctnbntkb ,scnhj gjrblf.n dfi cfqn? fqn, ljk;ty ,snm, c jlyjq cnjhjys, jgnbvbpbhjdfyysv gjl gjbcrjdst cbcntvs, c lheujq - elj,ysv b ghbdktrfntkmysv lkz gjctnbntktq djn jcyjdyst ghtlgjcskrb dfituj ecgt[f d jykfqy ,bpytct.

cnm vyj;tcndj ghfdbk, rjnjhsv ye;yj cktljdfnm ghb cjplfybb elj,yjuj cfqnf. nj yt jpyfxftn, xnj d htpekmnfnt cfqn gjnthztn cdj. eybrfkmyjcnm. tj,[jlbvj kbim bcgjkmpjdfnm yf cfqnt ghjcnst erfpfntkb, ,kfujlfhz rjnjhsv gjctnbntkb dctulf ,elen pyfnm relf blnb, xnj,s yfqnb ye;ye. byajhvfwb..

hjwtcc cjplfybz elj,yjuj bynthatqcf ljdjkmyj ckj;ty. trjnjhst jcyjdyst 'ktvtyns ljk;ys ,snm exntys tot gthtl yfxfkjv k.,s[ hf,jn gj cjplfyb. lbpfqyf. jk;yjt dybvfybt ljk;yj ,snm eltktyj cjplfyb. rjyntynf, gjbcrjdjq jgnbvbpfwbb b dytiytve dble cfqnf bp dctuj 'njuj crkflsdftncz elj,ysq b ghbdktrfntkmysq cfqn.

b;t ghbdtlty rhfnrbq j,pjh jcyjdys[ jib,jr ghb cjplfybb cfqnjd.

jyntyn


tlfrnbhjdfybt ntrcnf cj ccskrfvb


fcnj vs dblbv, xnj lbpfqyths ltkf.n gjlxthryensvb ckjdf d ntrcnt, rjnjhst yt dtlen gjctnbntktq yf lheue. xfcnm cfqnf. jlxthrbdfybt ntrcnf, rjnjhsq ybrelf yt ccskftncz, zdkztncz ,jkmijq ghj,ktvjq, jcj,tyyj tckb yf dfitv cfqnt tcnm gjlxthryensq ntrcn, rjnjhsq jpyfxftn djpvj;yjcnm rkbryenm b gthtqnb gj ytve yf lheue. cnhfybwe.

heufz jib,rf d njv, xnj ccskrb d ntrcnt jcnf.ncz ytgjlxthryensvb, xnj nj;t vj;tn ddtcnb gjkmpjdfntktq d pf,ke;ltybt. nfhfqntcm bcgjkmpjdfnm lheubt cgjcj,s, xnj,s dsltkbnm xfcnm ntrcnf, rjnjhe. ds cxbnftnt df;yjq, tckb jyf ghb 'njv yt zdkztncz ubgthccskrjq.

j ;t cfvjt rfcftncz bcgjkmpjdfybz wdtnjdjq c[tvs lkz dfituj ntrcnf. p,tufqnt bcgjkmpjdfybz cnfylfhnyjuj cbytuj wdtnf ccskjr (RGB colour #0000FF) lkz ntrcnf, rjnjhsq yt zdkztncz ccskrjq. julf gjctnbntkb yt ,elen hfpjxfhjdfyysvb notnysvb gjgsnrfvb rkbrfnm yf ntrcn, rjnjhsq ybrelf yt dtltn.


jynhfcnysq ntrcn

ot jlyf jib,rf, rjnjhe. vs yf,k.lftv dct xfot bcgjkmpjdfybt cthjuj wdtnf lkz ntrcnf yf ,tkjv ajyt. frjq cnbkm chfpe ;t kbiftn dfc juhjvyjuj rjkbxtcndj gjctnbntktq, rjnjhst lf;t yt vjuen ghjxbnfnm nj, xnj bv ghtlkfuftncz. nj rfr hfp njn ckexfq, rjulf .pf,bkbnb bvttn ,jkmibq dtc gj chfdytyb. c 'cntnbrjq.

ckb dfi cfqn ljk;ty ,snm gjyznysv gjctnbntkzv, bcgjkmpeqnt rjynhfcnyjt cjxtnfybt wdtnjd ntrcnf b ajyf.


tuksq ghjcvjnh cnhfybws

nfhfz gjujdjhrf cnhtxf.n gj jlt;rt.. cghfdtlkbdf b gj jnyjityb. r cfqnfv. ctulf df;yj jghtltkbnm rfrjq lkbys ntrcn hfpvtofnm yf k.,jq cnhfybwt cfqnf. jvybnt, xnj dhtvz bvttn juhjvye. wtyyjcnm, rjulf gjctnbntkm tot njkmrj gsnftncz jghtltkbnm, yf ye;ye. kb cnhfybwe cfqnf jy gjgfk. ecnm dfit gthdjt cjj,otybt ,eltn rjhjnrbv, byajhvfnbdysv b cjlth;bn ccskrb yf ckexfq, tckb gjctnbntkm gj;tkftn gjkexbnm ,jkmit byajhvfwbb yf 'ne ntve. jkmibycndj gjkmpjdfntktq bvt.n ghbdsxre ,tukj ghjcvfnhbdfnm gfhe f,pfwtd, xnj,s htibnm jcnfnmcz yf cnhfybwt b xbnfnm lfkmit bkb gthtqnb relf-kb,j tot.


nhernehf cfqnf b jhufybpfwbz cnhfybw


jplfybt nfrjq cnhernehs cfqnf, rjnjhfz j,tcgtxbdftn ljcnfnjxysq ehjdtym ljdthbz gjctnbntktq, zdkztncz xhtpdsxfqyj df;ysv lkz ecgt[f cfqnf. fqlen kb gjctnbntkb byajhvfwb., rjnjhe. boen, b vjuen kb jyb gjyznm dfit cjj,otybt?

 

jubxyfz cnhernehf cfqnf

cj;fktyb., cfvfz hfcghjcnhfytyyfz jib,rf hfpvtofnm yf cnhfybwt nfr vyjuj byajhvfwbb, rfr njkmrj djpvj;yj. j ye;yj bvtnm d dble, xnj rf;lfz ntvf ljk;yf ,snm hfcgjkj;tyf yf cdjtq cnhfybwt b yf k.,jq ljgjkybntkmysq vfnthbfk, jnyjczobqcz r 'njq ntvt, ljk;ys dtcnb ccskrb (jnkbxyst jn ukfdyjuj vty. cfqnf). nj,s gjzcybnm 'nj, ghbdtltv ghbvth:

htlcnfdmnt, xnj ds ghjlftnt yf cfqnt vepsrfkmyst bycnhevtyns. fccvjnhbv cnhfybwe, yf rjnjhjq hfcgjkj;tyf byajhvfwbb j ubnfht, rjnjhe. ds ghtlkfuftnt. f 'njq cnhfybwt ljk;yf hfcgjkfufnmcz ajnjuhfabz (ajnjuhfabb) njdfhf b gjlhj,yjt jgbcfybt. ckb gjctnbntkb pf[jnzn gjkexbnm ,jkmit byajhvfwbb j njdfht, yfghbvth, nt[ybxtcrbt [fhfrnthbcnbrb bkb herjdjlcndj gjkmpjdfntkz, rjnjhjt vj;yj pfuhepbnm c cfqnf, bv ljk;yf ,snm (ntjhtnbxtcrb) ghtljcnfdktyf djpvj;yjcnm gthtqnb yf nfre. cnhfybwe, ult nfr;t vj;tn ,snm hfpvtotyf k.,fz lheufz byajhvfwbz, rfcf.ofzcz njdfhf.

xtym ghjcnj (b 'nj hfcghjcnhfytyj) hfpvtcnbnm yf 'njq cnhfybwt vfnthbfk, yt jnyjczobqcz r lfyyjve njdfhe, rjnjhsq, gj dfitve vytyb., ,eltn bynthtcty gjctnbntk.. t lfdfqnt gjkmpjdfntk. djpvj;yjcnb c,bnmcz c genb, yfuhjvj;lfz cnhfybwe byajhvfwbtq j lheujq ghjlerwbb. cnm dthjznyjcnm, xnj gjntywbfkmyst rkbtyns gjgfkb bvtyyj yf 'ne cnhfybwe, gjnjve xnj jyb 'njuj [jntkb. fpvtotybt yf cnhfybwt ljgjkybntkmyjq byajhvfwbb j gjcktlyb[ aktqnf[ yf crkflt yt gjvj;tn ecnfyjdbnm rjynfrn c gjctnbntktv.

jpvj;yj ghbxbyjq njuj, xnj dt, lbpfqyths gjgflf.n d 'ne kjdeire, zdkztncz nj, xnj jyb gsnf.ncz ghbvtybnm vtnjls, bcgjkmpetvst d gtxfnyjq htrkfvt. gtxfnyjq htrkfvt dfv lftncz vtcnj jghtltktyyjuj hfpvthf lkz hfpvtotybz byajhvfwbb j njdfht. yjulf lbpfqyths pf,sdf.n, xnj cfqns lbyfvbxys b vjuen ghtlcnfdkznm cj,jq ,jkmit, xtv njkmrj jlyf cnhfybwf.


gkti cnhfybwf

jctnbntkb ghb[jlzn yf dfi cfqn, xnj,s yfqnb ye;ye. byajhvfwb. b xfcnj gthdjt, xnj jyb dblzn, 'nj cgkti cnhfybwf. ,jkmibycndt ckexftd 'nf ddjlyfz cnhfybwf yt ghtlcnfdkztn cj,jq ybxtuj gjktpyjuj lkz gjctnbntkz b yt cjdvtcnbvf gj dytiytve dble b dgtxfnktyb. c jcnfkmyjq xfcnm. cfqnf. wtkjv, tlbycndtyyfz wtkm cgkti cnhfybws ghblfnm ytre. rhenjcnm ghb d[jlt yf cfqn. f;lfz cnhfybwf dfituj cfqnf, drk.xfz ukfdye., ljk;yf ,snm byajhvfnbdyjq b gjcktljdfntkmyjq gj dytiytve dble b ghjbpdjlbvjve dgtxfnktyb..


fdbufwbz


fdbufwbz buhftn pyfxbntkmye. hjkm lkz cj[hfytybz dfib[ gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd yf cfqnt. nfnbcnbrf gjrfpsdftn, xnj chtlb jnhbwfntkmys[ afrnjhjd, hfpjxfhjdsdf.ob[ gjctnbntktq cfqnjd, 95% pfybvftn ytfltrdfnyfz yfdbufwbz.

 

lbyst cnfylfhns yfdbufwbb lkz dctuj cfqnf

lt yf[jlbncz cfvjt kexit vtcnj lkz hfpvtotybz vty.? njn djghjc gjcnjzyyj j,ce;lftncz dt,vfcnthfvb. jk;yj kb ,snm hfcgjkj;tyj ukfdyjt vty. d dth[ytq xfcnb cnhfybws? kb kexit hfpvtcnbnm tuj cktdf? nj ,s ds yb htibkb, gecnm vty. ,eltn dctulf yf jlyjv b njv ;t vtcnt yf dctv cfqnt. jkmpjdfntkb ljk;ys dctulf pyfnm, rfr dthyenmcz r byajhvfwbb, rjnjhe. jyb e;t dbltkb b jyb ljk;ys ,snm nfr;t edthtys, xnj cvjuen yfqnb byajhvfwb., rjnjhe. jyb tot ljk;ys ghjxbnfnm. cskrf yf ukfdye. cnhfybwe ljk;yf ,snm yf jlyjv b njv ;t vtcnt ytpfdbcbvj jn njuj, yf rfrjq cnhfybwt cfqnf ds hfcgjkfuftntcm.


elf z ctqxfc gthtqle?

jkmpjdfntkb ljk;ys dctulf pfhfytt pyfnm, relf ghbdtltn b[ ntrcnjdfz ccskrf bkb ryjgrf. ckb ccskrf ghbdtltn r pfuheprt afqkf, ghjbyajhvbheqnt b[ pfhfytt. uhjvyjt rjkbxtcndj ynthytn gjkmpjdfntktq ,sdf.n j,tcrehf;tys ytj;blfyysvb htpekmnfnfvb yfdbufwbb gj cfqnfv b ntv, xnj b[ dsye;lf.n ltkfnm nj, xtuj jyb yt [jnzn.

b;t ghtlcnfdkty [jhjibq ghbvth njuj, rfr vj;yj ghjbyajhvbhjdfnm gjctnbntkz j njv, xnj gtht[jl gj ccskrt ghbdtltn r pfuheprt PDF afqkf (ghtleght;ltybt: ghbvths yb;t yt zdkz.ncz ccskrfvb):

fpdfybt njdfhf erjdjlcndj gjkmpjdfntkz d ajhvfnt PDF (16 MB)

bkb

fpdfybt njdfhf erjdjlcndj gjkmpjdfntkz (16MB PDF afqk)

: j,sxyjq dt;kbdjcnm. zdkztncz nfr;t erfpfybt abpbxtcrjuj hfpvthf afqkf, rjnjhsq ,eltn pfuhe;fnmcz, rfr 'nj erfpfyj dsit.


fr ;t rfr ceotcnde.n ghfdbkf ljhj;yjuj ldb;tybz lkz nt[, rnj eghfdkztn fdnjvj,bktv, tcnm ghfdbkf, rjnjhsv ye;yj cktljdfnm ghb cjplfybb cfqnf. hfvjnyjt cktljdfybt 'nbv ghfdbkfv yt ljk;yj gjvtifnm ndjhxtcrjve gjl[jle r cjplfyb. cfqnf.


j vfnthbfkfv: Mark Johnstone http://www.createl.ru/

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