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"rf;bnt vyt, rfrjt dbyj vyt ye;yj regbnm r rf;ljve bp ,k.l d 'njv vty.. , rcnfnb, z yt k.,k. jnthy."
tujlyz nhelyj ,skj ,s cjplfnm dt,-futynf, rjnjhsq cvju ,s dsgjkybnm gjbcr dby d tnb, eljdktndjhz.ob[ 'njve pfghjce. [jlysv j,hfpjv, hfccvjnhbnt yfpyfxtybt rjvgm.nthyjve futyne pflfxb cjukfcjdfybz ytcrjkmrb[ vfhihenjd gentitcndbz. (hbvths bcgjkmpjdfybz cvjnhbnt d ljrevtynt nht,jdfybq r OWL.)
kz gjllth;rb nfrjuj hjlf dsxbcktybq ytj,[jlbvj gjqnb lfkmit rk.xtds[ ckjd b jgbcfnm cjlth;fybt htcehcjd, ljcnegys[ d tnb. njn ljgjkybntkmysq ehjdtym bynthghtnfwbb bvttn ltkj c ctvfynbrjq lfyys[.

psr dt,-jynjkjubq OWL - 'nj zpsr lkz jghtltktybz b ghtlcnfdktybz dt,-jynjkjubq. ynjkjubz - nthvby, pfbvcndjdfyysq bp abkjcjabb, rjnjhsq j,jpyfxftn yfere, jgbcsdf.oe. ajhvs ,snbz b nj, rfr jyb jnyjczncz vt;le cj,jq. t,-jnyjkjubz vj;tn drk.xfnm jgbcfybz rkfccjd, cdjqcnd b b[ ghbvths. jhvfkmyfz ctvfynbrf OWL jgbcsdftn, rfr gjkexbnm kjubxtcrbt cktlcndbz, bvtz nfre. jynjkjub., n.t. gjkexbnm afrns, rjnjhst yt ghtlcnfdktys d jynjkjubb ,erdfkmyj, yj cktle.n bp tt ctvfynbrb. nb cktlcndbz vjuen ,snm jcyjdfys yf jlyjv ljrevtynt bkb vyj;tcndt hfcghtltktyys[ ljrevtynjd, rjnjhst rjv,bybhe.ncz c bcgjkmpjdfybtv jghtltktyys[ vt[fybpvjd OWL.

fyysq ljrevtyn - 'nj jlby bp rjvgjytynjd jgbcfybz OWL, zpsrf dt,-jynjkjubq, hfphf,fnsdftvjuj hf,jxtq uheggjq W3C Web Ontology (WebOnt). fpltk fhnf ljrevtynf d hfnrjv j,pjht ([hfnrbq j,pjh], 1.1) jgbcsdftn rf;lsq bp 'nb[ rjvgjytynjd b nj, rfr jyb cjjnyjczncz lheu c lheujv.

jghjc, rjnjhsq djpybrftn, rjulf jgbcsdftim tot jlby XML/Web cnfylfhn, - 'nj "nj 'nj lftn vyt, xnj yt vjuen lfnm XML b XML Schema?" cnm ldf jndtnf yf 'njn djghjc.

  • ynjkjubz jnkbxftncz jn c[tvs XML ntv, xnj 'nj ghtlcnfdktybt pyfybz, f yt ajhvfn cjj,otybq. jkmibycndj dt,-cnfylfhnjd cjcnjzn bp rjv,byfwbb ajhvfnjd cjj,otybq b cgtwbabrfwbq ghjnjrjkjd. nbv ajhvfnfv lfkb 'rcgkefnfwbjyye. ctvfynbre, nbgf, "j gjkextybb cjj,otybz frfpfjregre, gthtdtcnb jkbxtcndj he,ktq cj xtnjregfntkz yf xtnhjlfdwf b jngecnbnm jdfh." j cgtwbabrfwbz yt cjplfyf lkz gjllth;rb jgthfwbq dyt rjyntrcnf lfyyjq nhfypfrwbb. fghbvth, e yfc ytn, rfr ghfdbkj, vt[fybpvf, xnj,s pfrk.xbnm, xnj bp-pf njuj, xnj jdfh bvttn yfpdfybt fhljyt, jy ljk;ty nfr;t ,snm ,tksv dbyjv.
  • lybv bp ghtbveotcnd OWL jynjkjubq ,eltn ljcnegyjcnm bycnhevtynjd, rjnjhst vjuen hfcce;lfnm j yb[. ycnhevtyns j,tcgtxfn j,oe. gjllth;re, rjnjhfz yt zdkztncz cgtwbabxtcrjq lkz lfyyjq ghtlvtnyjq j,kfcnb, xnj ,skj ,s ntv ckexftv, rjulf yflj gjcnhjbnm cbcntve, xnj,s hfcce;lfnm d ghtltkf[ jlyjq cnfylfhnyjq lkz lfyyjq bylecnhbb XML c[tvt. jcnhjtybt xtnrjq b hf,jnjcgjcj,yjq cbcntvs hfcce;ltybz - ytghjcnjt ltkj. nhjbntkmcndj jynjkjubb yfvyjuj ,jktt ljcnegyj. s j;blfybtv, xnj vyjuj uhegg ghtlghbven cnhjbntkmcndj jynjkjubq. yb bpdktren dsujle bp bycnhevtynjd nhtnmb[ kbw, jcyjdfyys[ yf ajhvfkmys[ cdjqcndf[ zpsrf OWL, bycnhevtynjd, rjnjhst ghtljcnfdzn fccjhnbvtyn djpvj;yjcntq, rjnjhst ,jkmibycnde jhufybpfwbq ,skj ,s nhelyj htfkbpjdfnm cfvbv.

1.1. bls OWL

OWL j,tcgtxbdftn nhb hfpkbxys[ gj dshfpbntkmyjcnb lbfktrnf, cghjtrnbhjdfyys[ lkz bcgjkmpjdfybz jnltkmysvb cjj,otcndfvb hfphf,jnxbrjd b gjkmpjdfntktq.

  • OWL Lite gjllth;bdftn nt[ gjkmpjdfntktq, rjnjhst ye;lf.ncz, ght;lt dctuj, d rkfccbabrfwbjyyjq bthfh[bb b ghjcns[ juhfybxtybz[. fghbvth, ghbnjv, xnj jy gjllth;bdftn juhfybxtybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb (rjkbxtcndf 'ktvtynjd), ljgecrf.ncz pyfxtybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb njkmrj 0 bkb 1. kz hfphf,jnxbrjd ljk;yj ,snm ghjot d cdjb[ ghjlernf[ j,tcgtxbnm gjllth;re OWL Lite, xtv tuj ,jktt dshfpbntkmys[ cj,hfnmtd, d xfcnyjcnb, OWL Lite gjpdjkztn ,scnhe. vbuhfwb. ntpfehecjd b lheub[ nfrcjyjvbq.

  • OWL DL gjllth;bdftn nt[ gjkmpjdfntktq, rjnjhst [jnzn vfrcbvfkmyjq dshfpbntkmyjcnb ,tp gjnthb gjkyjns dsxbcktybq (dct pfrk.xtybz ufhfynbhjdfyj ,elen dsxbckztvsvb), b hfphtiftvjcnb hfcceljxys[ cbcntv (dct dsxbcktybz pfdthifncz d jghtltktyyjt dhtvz). OWL DL drk.xftn dct zpsrjdst rjycnherwbb OWL c juhfybxtybzvb dhjlt hfpltktybz nbgf (rkfcc yt vj;tn ,snm xfcnysv cdjqcndjv, f cdjqcndj yt vj;tn ,snm bylbdbljv bkb rkfccjv). OWL DL nfr yfpdfy bp-pf tuj cjjndtncndbz ltcrhbgnbdyjq kjubrt [tcrhbgnbdyfz kjubrf], lbcwbgkbyt, d rjnjhjq bpexty bvtyyj hfphtiftvsq ahfuvtyn kjubrb gthdjuj gjhzlrf. OWL DL ,skf cghjtrnbhjdfyf, xnj,s gjllth;fnm ceotcnde.obq ctuvtyn ,bpytcf, pfybvf.obqcz ltcrhbgnbdyjq kjubrjq, b bvtnm ;tkfntkmyst dsxbckbntkmyst cdjqcndf lkz cbcntv hfcce;ltybz.

  • OWL Full ghtlyfpyfxftncz lkz gjkmpjdfntktq, rjnjhst [jnzn vfrcbvfkmye. dshfpbntkmyjcnm b cbynfrcbxtcre. cdj,jle RDF ,tp dsxbckbntkmys[ ufhfynbq. fghbvth, d OWL Full rkfcc vj;tn jlyjdhtvtyyj hfccvfnhbdfnmcz b rfr cjdjregyjcnm bylbdbljd, b c hfdysv ghfdjv rfr bylbdbl. heujt ceotcndtyyjt jnkbxbt jn OWL DL d njv, xnj owl:DatatypeProperty vj;tn ,snm gjvtxtyj rfr owl:InverseFunctionalProperty. OWL Full gjpdjkztn nfrbt jynjkjubb, rjnjhst hfcibhz.n cjcnfd ghtljghtltktyyjuj (RDF bkb OWL) ckjdfhz. fkjdthjznyj, xnj rfrjt-kb,j hfcceljxyjt ghjuhfvvyjt j,tcgtxtybt ,eltn d cjcnjzybb gjllth;fnm gjkye. gjllth;re rf;ljq jcj,tyyjcnb OWL Full.

f;lsq bp 'nb[ lbfktrnjd - hfcibhtybt tuj ,jktt ghjcnjuj ghtlitcndtyybrf, b d njv, xnj rfcftncz dshfpbntkmys[ djpvj;yjcntq, b d njv, xnj rfcftncz djpvj;yjcntq ghjbpdjlbvs[ pfrk.xtybq. jllth;bdf.ncz cktle.obt jnyjitybz, yj yt yfj,jhjn.

  • f;lfz ljgecnbvfz OWL Lite jynjkjubz - ljgecnbvfz OWL DL jynjkjubz.
  • f;lfz ljgecnbvfz OWL DL jynjkjubz - ljgecnbvfz OWL Full jynjkjubz.
  • f;ljt ghfdbkmyjt OWL Lite pfrk.xtybt - ghfdbkmyjt OWL DL pfrk.xtybt.
  • f;ljt ghfdbkmyjt OWL DL pfrk.xtybt - ghfdbkmyjt OWL Full pfrk.xtybt.

fphf,jnxbrb jynjkjubq, bcgjkmpe.obt OWL, ljk;ys htibnm, rfrjq bp lbfktrnjd kexit gjl[jlbn r b[ pflfxfv. s,jh vt;le OWL Lite b OWL DL pfdbcbn jn cntgtyb njuj, yfcrjkmrj gjkmpjdfntkzv nht,e.ncz ,jktt dshfpbntkmyst rjycnherwbb, j,tcgtxbdftvst OWL DL. hbkj;tybz lkz OWL Lite ,elen bvtnm ;tkftvst dsxbckbntkmyst [fhfrnthbcnbrb. hbkj;tybz lkz OWL DL, ghb njv, xnj bvt.n ltkj c hfphtiftvsv lbfktrnjv, d cfvs[ nz;tks[ ckexfz[ ,elen cdzpfys c ,jktt dscjrjq ckj;yjcnm.. s,jh vt;le OWL DL b OWL Full, ukfdysv j,hfpjv, pfdbcbn jn cntgtyb njuj, yfcrjkmrj gjkmpjdfntkzv nht,e.ncz chtlcndf vtnf-vjltkbhjdfybz RDF [tv (yfghbvth, jghtltkz.obt rkfccs rkfccjd). hb bcgjkmpjdfybb OWL Full, gj chfdytyb. c OWL DL, hfcceljxyfz gjllth;rf vtytt ghtlcrfpetvf. kz lfkmytqitq byajhvfwbb cv. tvfynbrf OWL.

jkmpjdfntkb, vbuhbhe.obt bp RDF d OWL DL bkb OWL Lite ljk;ys gjpf,jnbnmcz j njv, xnj,s jhbubyfkmysq RDF-ljrevtyn dsgjkyzk juhfybxtybz, yfkj;tyyst OWL DL b OWL Lite. tnfkb 'nb[ juhfybxtybq j,]zcyz.ncz d hbkj;tybb E ghfdrb gj OWL.

julf vs ghtlcnfdkztv rjycnherwbb, rjnjhst hfphtif.ncz njkmrj d OWL DL bkb OWL Full, jyb gjvtxf.ncz "[OWL DL]".

1.2. nhernehf ljrevtynf

nj,s j,tcgtxbnm cdzpysq yf,jh ghbvthjd gj dctve herjdjlcnde, vs cjplfkb jynjkjubb dbyf b gbob. nj OWL DL jynjkjubb. t bp yfib[ hfcce;ltybq, rjnjhst ,elen rfcfnmcz djpvj;yjcntq OWL Full, ,elen cjjndtncndtyyj gjvtxtys. ynjkjubz dbyf b tls - 'nj ceotcndtyyfz vjlbabrfwbz 'ktvtynf ,b,kbjntrb DAML jynjkjubq c ljkujq bcnjhbtq. yf ,skf gthdjyfxfkmyj hfphf,jnfyf frbyytcjv rfr ghbvth ltcrhbgnbdyjq kjubrb, hfcibhtyysq d ext,ybr gj ltcrhbgnbdyjq kjubrt b d ext,ybr gj jynjkjubzv.

'njv ljrevtynt vs ghtlcnfdkztv ghbvths, bcgjkmpjdfyyst d RDF/XML cbynfrcbc ([RDF], 5), ghtlgjkfufz, xnj XML pyfrjv cfvjq j,ibhyjq felbnjhbb. jhvfnbdysq cbynfrcbc j,vtyf OWL - RDF/XML. fvtnmnt, xnj OWL ,sk cghjtrnbhjdfy c vfrcbvfkmyjq cjdvtcnbvjcnm. c RDF b RDF Schema. jhvfns XML b RDF - xfcnm cnfylfhnf OWL.

ct ghbvths, ghtlcnfdktyyst d 'njv ljrevtynt dpzns bp jynjkjubq, cjlth;fob[cz d wine.rdf b food.rdf, rhjvt jnvtxtyys[ d ghfdjv yb;ytv euke.


2. nhernehf jynjkjubq

OWL - 'nj rjvgjytyn bybwbfnbds Semantic Web. nj gjgsnrf cltkfnm dt,-htcehcs ,jktt ljcnegysvb lkz fdnjvfnbpbhjdfyys[ ghjwtccjd gentv lj,fdktybz byajhvfwbb j htcehcf[, rjnjhfz jgbcsdf.n bkb j,tcgtxbdftn dt,-rjyntyn. jcrjkmre tvfynbxtcrfz tnm gj jghtltktyb. hfcghtltktyf, OWL ljk;ty gjpdjkznm cj,bhfnm byajhvfwb. bp hfcghtltktyys[ bcnjxybrjd. nj xfcnbxyj j,tcgtxbdftncz djpvj;yjcnm. jynjkjubq ,snm cdzpfyysvb, drk.xfz ghzvjq bvgjhn byajhvfwbb bp lheub[ jynjkjubq.

ljgjkytybt, OWL ghtlgjkfuftn jnrhsnjcnm. j tcnm, jgbcfybz htcehcjd yt juhfybxtys tlbycndtyysv afqkjv bkb ntvjq. nj dhtvz rfr rkfcc C1 gthdjyfxfkmyj vj;tn ,snm jghtltkty d jynjkjubb O1, jy vj;tn ,snm hfcibhty d lheub[ jynjkjubz[. ktlcndbz bp 'nb[ ljgjkybntkmys[ ce;ltybq j C1 zdkz.ncz vjyjnjyysvb. jdfz byajhvfwbz yt vj;tn jghjdthufnm ghtlsleoe. byajhvfwb.. jdfz byajhvfwbz vj;tn ,snm ghjnbdjhtxfotq, yj afrns b cktlcndbz vjuen njkmrj lj,fdkznmcz, b yt vjuen elfkznmcz.

jpvj;yjcnm nfrb[ ghjnbdjhtxbq - 'nj nj, xnj hfphf,jnxbr jynjkjubb ljk;ty exbnsdfnm. ;blftncz, xnj bycnhevtyns, gjllth;bdf.obt OWL, gjvjuen j,yfhe;bdfnm nfrbt ckexfb.

nj,s yfgbcfnm jynjkjub., rjnjhfz vj;tn jlyjpyfxyj bynthghtnbhjdfnmcz b bcgjkmpjdfnmcz ghjuhfvvysvb futynfvb, vs nht,etv cbynfrcbc b ajhvfkmye. ctvfynbre OWL. OWL - 'nj hfcibhtybt ckjdfhz [RDF Semantics] RDF. tvfynbrf OWL jghtltktyf d ljrevtynt tvfynbrf b f,cnhfrnysq cbynfrcbc OWL.

2.1. Namespaces

ht;lt, xtv vs vj;tv bcgjkmpjdfnm yf,jh rjycnherwbq, yfv yflj njxyj erfpfnm, rfrbt ckjdfhb bcgjkmpe.ncz. nfylfhnysq yfxfkmysq rjvgjytyn jynjkjubb drk.xftn yf,jh j,]zdktybq XML namespace, pfrk.xtyys[ d jnrhsdf.obq n'u rdf:RDF. nj j,tcgtxbdftn djpvj;yjcnm jlyjpyfxyj bynthghtnbhjdfnm bltynbabrfnjhs b ltkftn jcnfkmye. xfcnm ghtlcnfdktybz jynjkjubb ,jktt xbnf,tkmyjq. bgbxyfz OWL jynjkjubz yfxbyftncz c j,]zdktybz ghjcnhfycndf bvty (namespace), gjlj,yjuj cktle.otve. jytxyj, URI rjyrhtnys[ jynjkjubq j,sxyj yt ,elen ccskrfvb yf w3.org.

<rdf:RDF xmlns ="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" xmlns:vin ="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" xml:base ="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" xmlns:food="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/food#" xmlns:owl ="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#" xmlns:rdf ="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:xsd ="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"> 

thdst ldt ltrkfhfwbb bltynbabwbhe.n namespace, cdzpfyysq c 'njq jynjkjubtq. thdfz ltkftn 'njn namespace pyfxtybtv gj evjkxfyb., pfzdkzz, xnj bvtyf n'ujd ,tp ghtabrcjd jnyjczncz r ntreotq jynjkjubb. njhfz bltynbabwbhetn namespace ntreotq jynjkjubb c ghbcnfdrjq vin:. htnmz bltynbabwbhetn ,fpjdsq URI ljrevtynf (cv. yb;t). tndthnfz bltynbabwbhetn namespace dcgjvjufntkmyjq gbotdjq jynjkjubb c ghtabrcjv food:.

znfz namespace ltrkfhfwbz ujdjhbn, xnj 'ktvtyns d 'njv ljrevtynt, ghtldfhz.obtcz owl:, ljk;ys gjybvfnmcz rfr j,hfotybt r gjyznbzv, dpznsv bp namespace, yfpsdftvjuj http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#. nj - j,sxyfz ltrkfhfwbz OWL, bcgjkmpjdfyyfz lkz ccskrb yf OWL.

OWL pfdbcbn jn rjycnherwbq, jghtltktyys[ RDF, RDFS, b XML Schema datatypes. 'njv ljrevtynt ghbcnfdrf rdf: j,hfoftncz r gjyznbzv, dpznsv bp namespace http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#. ktle.obt ldt ltrkfhfwbb namespace ltkf.n gj[j;bt j,]zdktybz RDF Schema (rdfs:) b XML Schema datatype (xsd:) namespaces.

fr gjvjom d yfgbcfybb lkbyys[ URL xfcnj vj;tn ,snm gjktpysv j,tcgtxbnm hzl jghtltktybq ENTITY d ltrkfhfwbb nbgf ljrevtynf (DOCTYPE), rjnjhfz ghtlitcndetn jghtltktybzv jynjkjubb. fpdfybz, jghtltktyyst d cjjndtncndbb c namespace ltrkfhfwbzvb bvt.n pyfxtybt njkmrj rfr xfcnb n'ujd XML. yfxtybz fnhb,enjd - ytxedcndbntkmys r namespace. j d OWL vs xfcnj ccskftvcz yf bltynbabrfnjhs jynjkjubb, bcgjkmpez pyfxtybz fnhb,enjd. yb vjuen ,snm pfgbcfys d gjkyjq ajhvt, yfghbvth "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#thkj". fr fkmnthyfnbdf, cjrhfotybz vjuen ,snm jghtltktys, bcgjkmpez jghtltktybt ENTITY, yfghbvth:

<!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [ <!ENTITY vin "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" > <!ENTITY food "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/food#" > ]> 

jckt 'njq gfhs ENTITY ltrkfhfwbq, vs vjukb ,s gbcfnm pyfxtybt "&vin;thkj" b 'nj hfcibahjdsdfkjcm ,s d "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#thkj".

jpvj;yj, ,jktt df;yj nj, xnj ltrkfhfwbb rdf:RDF namespace vjukb ,s njulf eghjcnbnmcz, nfr xnj bpvtytybz d ENTITY ltrkfhfwbz[ hfcghjcnhfybkbcm ,s yf dc. jynjkjub..

<rdf:RDF xmlns ="&vin;" xmlns:vin ="&vin;" xml:base ="&vin;" xmlns:food="&food;" xmlns:owl ="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#" xmlns:rdf ="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:xsd ="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"> 

2.2. fujkjdrb jynjkjubb

jckt njuj, rfr ecnfyjdktys namespaces, vs j,sxyj drk.xftv rjkktrwb. endth;ltybq j yfitq jynjkjubb, cuheggbhjdfyys[ gjl n'ujv owl:Ontology. nb n'ub gjllth;bdf.n nfrbt rhbnbxtcrbt dcgjvjufntkmyst pflfxb rfr rjvvtynfhbb, eghfdktybt dthcbzvb b drk.xtybt lheub[ jynjkjubq.

<owl:Ontology rdf:about=""> <rdfs:comment>An example OWL ontology</rdfs:comment> <owl:priorVersion rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031215/wine"/> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/food"/> <rdfs:label>Wine Ontology</rdfs:label> ... 

fvtnmnt, xnj vs bcgjkmpetv '...', xnj,s erfpfnm, xnj tcnm ljgjkybntkmysq ntrcn, rjnjhsq jn,hjity d lfyyjv ghbvtht.

ktvtyn owl:Ontology - 'nj vtcnj, ult cj,hfyf ,jkmifz xfcnm vtnflfyys[ OWL-ljrevtynf. nj yt ufhfynbhetn, xnj ljrevtyn jgbcsdftn jynjkjub. d nhflbwbjyyjv cvsckt. ytrjnjhs[ cjj,otcndf[ cjplf.ncz jynjkjubb yt j, bylbdblf[, f njkmrj j rkfccf[ b cdjqcndf[, rjnjhst jghtltkz.n ghtlvtnye. j,kfcnm. cgjkmpez OWL, xnj,s jgbcfnm rjkktrwb. xfcnys[ lfyys[ n'u owl:Ontology vj;tn ,snm ytj,[jlbv, xnj,s pfgbcfnm byajhvfwb. j dthcbb b bvgjhnbhjdfnm jghtltktybz, jn rjnjhs[ pfdbcbn lfyysq ljrevtyn. frbv j,hfpjv, d OWL nthvby jynjkjubz ,sk hfcibhty, xnj,s drk.xbnm xfcnyst lfyyst (cv. dsit).

nhb,en rdf:about j,tcgtxbdftn yfpdfybt bkb ccskre yf jynjkjub.. ckb pyfxtybt fnhb,enf "", nj yfpdfybtv jynjkjubb cke;bn ,fpjdsq URI 'ktvtynf owl:Ontology. fr ghfdbkj, 'nj URI ljrevtynf, cjlth;fotuj jynjkjub.. crk.xtybt bp 'njuj - njn ckexfq, tckb bcgjkmpetncz xml:base, rjnjhsq vj;tn ecnfyjdbnm ,fpjdsq URI 'ktvtynf yf xnj-yb,elm lheujt, xtv URI ntreotuj ljrevtynf.

rdfs:comment j,tcgtxbdftn jxtdblyj ytj,[jlbve. djpvj;yjcnm fyyjnbhjdfnm jynjkjub..

owl:priorVersion - zdkztncz cnfylfhnysv n'ujv, ghtlyfpyfxtyysv lkz gjllth;rb cbcntv eghfdktybz dthcbzvb, hf,jnf.ob[ c jynjkjubzvb. f,jnf c dthcbzvb jynjkjubq j,ce;lftncz lfktt.

owl:imports j,tcgtxbdftn vt[fybpv drk.xtybz. owl:imports ghbybvftn tlbycndtyysq fhuevtyn, j,jpyfxtyysq fnhb,enjv rdf:resource.

vgjhn lheujq jynjkjubb gthtyjcbn dtcm yf,jh endth;ltybq, j,tcgtxtyys[ d njq jynjkjubb, d ntreoe. jynjkjub.. nj,s yfbkexibv j,hfpjv bcgjkmpjdfnm bvgjhnbhjdfyye. jynjkjub., ghbyznj rjjhlbybhjdfnm tt c ltrkfhfwbtq namespace. fvtnmnt hfpkbxbt vt;le 'nbvb ldevz vt[fybpvfvb. namespace ltrkfhfwbb j,tcgtxbdf.n elj,yjt chtlcndj, xnj,s ccskfnmcz yf bvtyf, jghtltktyyst d lheub[ OWL jynjkjubz[. jywtgnefkmyj, owl:imports ghtlyfpyfxty lkz njuj, xnj,s gjrfpfnm fit yfvthtybt drk.xbnm dct endth;ltybz lheujq jynjkjubb. vgjhn lheujq jynjkjubb, O2, nfr;t bvgjhnbhetn dct jynjkjubb, xnj bvgjhnbhjdfys d O2.

fvtnmnt, xnj owl:imports yt dctulf vj;tn chf,jnfnm. fr s vjukb ,s j;blfnm, bvtz ltkj c tvfynbxtcrjq tnm., ljcneg r htcehcfv, hfcghtltktyysv gj tnb, yt dctulf vj;tn ,snm djpvj;ty. ycnhevtynfkmyst chtlcndf ljk;ys jndtxfnm yf 'ne cbnefwb. d cjjndtncndbb c b[ vfythjq bcgjkytybz.

fvtnmnt, xnj lkz njuj, xnj,s bcgjkmpjdfnm ckjdfhm OWL fv yt j,zpfntkmyj ye;yj bvgjhnbhjdfnm jynjkjub. owl.rdf. cfvjv ltkt, nfrjq bvgjhn yt htrjvtyletncz.

lby j,obq yf,jh ljgjkybntkmys[ n'ujd, rjnjhst vjukb ,s ,snm hfpevyj drk.xtys pltcm - 'nj ytrjnjhst bp cnfylfhnys[ n'ujd vtnflfyys[ Dublin Core. [ pyfxtybzvb cke;fn ghjcnst nbgs bkb cnhjrb. hbvths drk.xf.n Title, Creator, Description, Publisher b Date (cv. RDF declarations).

djqcndf, rjnjhst bcgjkmpe.ncz rfr fyyjnfwbb, ljk;ys ,snm j,]zdktys, bcgjkmpez owl:AnnotationProperty. fghbvth,

<owl:AnnotationProperty rdf:about="&dc;creator" /> 

OWL j,tcgtxbdftn ytcrjkmrj lheub[ vt[fybpvjd, xnj,s cdzpfnm ntreoe. jynjkjub. c bvgjhnbhjdfyysvb dvtcnt (cv. rfhnbhjdfybt jynjkjubq).

fr;t vs drk.xbkb rdfs:label, xnj,s erfpfnm lkz yfitq jynjkjubb vtnre yf yfnehfkmyjv zpsrt.

ghtltktybt pfujkjdrf jynjkjubb pfrfyxbdftncz cktle.obv n'ujv.

</owl:Ontology> 

f pfujkjdrjv cktle.n afrnbxtcrbt jghtltktybz, rjnjhst cjcnfdkz.n jynjkjub., b d rjytxyjv cxtnt pfdthif.ncz

</rdf:RDF> 

2.3. uhtufwbz lfyys[ b ctrhtnyjcnm

gjcj,yjcnm OWL dshf;fnm jynjkjubxtcre. byajhvfwb. j, bylbdblf[, cjlth;fob[cz dj vyj;tcndt ljrevtynjd, ghbywbgbfkmysv j,hfpjv gjllth;bdftn cdzpsdfybt lfyys[ bp hfpys[ bcnjxybrjd. t;fofz d jcyjdt ctvfynbrf j,tcgtxbdftn djpvj;yjcnm ltkfnm dsdjls bp 'nb[ lfyys[, xnj vj;tn ghbdtcnb r ytj;blfyysv htpekmnfnfv. xfcnyjcnb cgjcj,yjcnm dshf;fnm 'rdbdfktynyjcnm c gjvjom. owl:sameAs vj;tn ,snm bcgjkmpjdfyf, xnj,s pfzdbnm, xnj rfr ,elnj ,s hfpkbxyst bylbdbls yf cfvjv ltkt jlyj b nj ;t. Owl:InverseFunctionalProperty nfr;t vj;tn ,snm bcgjkmpjdfyj, xnj,s cdzpfnm bylbdbljd dvtcnt. fghbvth, tckb nfrjt cdjqcndj rfr "" zdkztncz owl:InverseFunctionalProperty, nj ldf jnltkmys[ xtkjdtrf vjukb ,s ,snm hfcwtytys rfr jlby b njn ;t yf jcyjdt njuj, xnj jyb bvt.n jlyj b nj ;t pyfxtybt 'njuj cdjqcndf. julf bltynbxyjcnm bylbdbljd jghtltkztncz nfrbvb chtlcndfvb, byajhvfwbz j yb[ bp hfpys[ bcnjxybrjd vj;tn ,snm ckbnf. nf fuhtufwbz vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz, xnj,s jghtltkbnm afrns, rjnjhst yt ghtlcnfdktys ghzvj yb d jlyjv bp bcnjxybrjd.

gjcj,yjcnm tvfynbxtcrjq tnb cdzpsdfnm byajhvfwb. bp vyjub[ bcnjxybrjd - ;tkfntkmyjt b vjoyjt cdjqcndj, rjnjhjt vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz dj vyjub[ ghbkj;tybz[. lyfrj, cgjcj,yjcnm j,]tlbyznm lfyyst bp vyjub[ bcnjxybrjd d cjxtnfybb c vjom. kjubxtcrjuj dsdjlf OWL, ltqcndbntkmyj bvttn gjntywbfk lkz pkjegjnht,ktybz. jkmpjdfntkb OWL ljk;ys ,snm pf,jnbnmcz j gjntywbfkmyjq euhjpt ctrhtnyjcnb. tnfkmyst htitybz gj pfobnt byajhvfwbb ,skb hfcwtytys rfr ds[jlzobt pf j,kfcnm hfccvjnhtybz lfyyjq hf,jxtq uheggjq. yj;tcndj jhufybpfwbq, pfybvf.ob[cz 'nbvb djghjcfvb, ghtlkfuftn ibhjrbq cgtrnh htitybq gj ,tpjgfcyjcnb b ctrhtnyjcnb. fghbvth, cv. SAML b P3P.


3. cyjdyst 'ktvtyns

jkmibycndj 'ktvtynjd jynjkjubb OWL jnyjczncz r rkfccfv, cdjqcndfv, ghtlcnfdbntkzv rkfccjd b jnyjitybzv vt;le 'nbvb ghtlcnfdbntkzvb. njn hfpltk ghtlcnfdkztn rjvgjytyns zpsrf, ytj,[jlbvst lkz ghtlcnfdktybz 'nb[ 'ktvtynjd.

3.1. hjcnst rkfccs b bylbdbls

hbvtytybt jynjkjubb ,elen pfdbctnm jn ghtljcnfdkztvjq t. djpvj;yjcnb hfccelbnm j, bylbdblf[. nj,s cltkfnm 'nj elj,ysv, vs ljk;ys bvtnm vt[fybpv, xnj,s jgbcfnm rkfccs 'nb[ bylbdbljd b cdjqcndf, rjnjhst jyb yfcktle.n yf jcyjdfybb xktycndf d rkfcct. s dctulf vj;tv j,jpyfxbnm jghtltktyyst cdjqcndf bylbdbljd, yj jcyjdyfz cbkf jynjkjubq kt;bn d hfcce;ltybz[ yf jcyjdt rkfccjd.

yjulf vs [jnbv gjlxthryenm hfpkbxbt vt;le rkfccjv rfr j,]trnjv b rkfccjv rfr yf,jhjv, cjlth;fobv 'ktvtyns. s yfpsdftv yf,jh bylbdbljd, rjnjhst zdkz.ncz xktyfvb rfrjuj-nj rkfccf hfcibhtybtv 'njuj rkfccf.

3.1.1. hjcnst bvtyjdfyyst rkfccs
Class, rdfs:subClassOf

fb,jktt aeylfvtynfkmyst gjyznbz d rfrjq-nj j,kfcnb ljk;ys cjjndtncndjdfnm rkfccfv, rjnjhst yf[jlzncz d rjhyt hfpkbxys[ nfrcjyjvbxtcrb[ lthtdmtd. f;lsq bylbdbl d vbht OWL zdkztncz xktyjv rkfccf owl:Thing. frbv j,hfpjv rf;lsq jghtltktyysq gjkmpjdfntktv rkfcc fdnjvfnbxtcrb zdkztncz gjlrkfccjv owl:Thing. gtwbabxyst lkz lfyyjq j,kfcnb rjhytdst rkfccs jghtltkz.ncz ghjcnsv j,]zdktybtv bvtyjdfyyjuj rkfccf. OWL nfr;t jghtltkztn gecnjq rkfcc, owl:Nothing.

kz j,kfcnb dbyjltkbz, rjnjhe. vs bcgjkmpetv d rfxtcndt ghbvthf, vs cjplftv nhb rjhytds[ rkfccf: byjltkmyz, tubjy b hjlernbnfybz.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byjltkmyz"/> <owl:Class rdf:ID="tubjy"/> <owl:Class rdf:ID="hjlernbnfybz"/> 

fvtnmnt, xnj 'nbv vs njkmrj crfpfkb, xnj ceotcnde.n rkfccs, rjnjhsv lfkb 'nb bvtyf, j,jpyfxtyyst c gjvjom. 'rdf:ID ='. jhvfkmyj, vs yt pyftv gjxnb ybxtuj j, 'nb[ rkfccf[, rhjvt njuj, xnj jyb ceotcnde.n, ytcvjnhz yf bcgjkmpjdfybt d rfxtcndt vtnjr pyfrjvs[ heccrjzpsxys[ nthvbyjd. jnz rkfccs ceotcnde.n, r ybv ytkmpz jnytcnb ybrfrb[ bylbdbljd. j njve, xnj vs pyftv d lfyysq vjvtyn j, 'nb[ rkfccf[, b[ vj;yj nfr;t yfpdfnm tom1, tom2 b tom3.

f;yj gjvybnm, xnj jghtltktybz vjuen ,snm hfcibhz.obvbcz b hfcghtltktyysvb. xfcnyjcnb, gjp;t vs ljk;ys ,eltv ,jkmit rjyrhtnbpbhjdfnm gjyznbt byjltkmyz.

bynfrcbc rdf:ID="tubjy" bcgjkmpetncz, xnj,s ddtcnb yfpdfybt, rfr xfcnm tuj jghtltktybz. nhb,en rdf:ID ([RDF], 7.2.22) gj[j; yf fnhb,en ID bp XML. tgthm dyenhb 'njuj ljrevtynf yf rkfcc tubjy vj;yj ccskfnmcz c gjvjom. #tubjy, yfghbvth, rdf:resource="#tubjy". heubt jynjkjubb vjuen ccskfnmcz yf 'nj yfpdfybt, bcgjkmpez tuj gjkye. ajhve "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#tubjy".

heufz ajhvf ccskjr bcgjkmpetn cbynfrcbc rdf:about="#tubjy", xnj,s hfcibhbnm jghtltktybt htcehcf. cgjkmpjdfybt cbynfrcbcf rdf:about="&ont;#x" - rk.xtdjq 'ktvtyn d cjplfybb hfcghtltktyyjq jynjkjubb. nj gjpdjkztn hfcibhbnm bvgjhnbhjdfyyjt jghtltktybt x, yt bpvtyzz jhbubyfk ljrevtynf b rjycnhebhjdfnm ,jkmibt jynjkjubb bp ,kjrjd.

tgthm vj;yj j,hfnbnmcz r rkfccfv, rjnjhst vs jghtltkbkb d lheub[ OWL rjycnherwbz[, bcgjkmpez b[ ;t bltynbabrfnjhs. kz gthdjuj rkfccf, pflfyyjuj d 'njv ljrevtynt, vs vj;tv bcgjkmpjdfnm jnyjcbntkmysq bltynbabrfnjh, #byjltkmyz. jpvj;yj, lheubv ljrevtynfv nfr;t gjnht,etncz ccskrf yf 'njn rkfcc. fvsq hfpevysq cgjcj, cltkfnm 'nj - j,tcgtxbnm namespace b jghtltktybz ENTITY, rjnjhst drk.xf.n jghtltkztvsq ljrevtyn d rfxtcndt bcnjxybrf:

... <!ENTITY vin "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" > <!ENTITY food "http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/food#" > ... <rdf:RDF xmlns:vin ="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#" xmlns:food="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/food#" ... > ... 

ltkfd 'nb jghtltktybz vs vj;tv j,hfofnmcz r rkfcce dbyjltkmyz bkb bcgjkmpez XML-ntu vin:byjltkmyz bkb pyfxtybt fnhb,enf &vin;byjltkmyz. hjvt 'njuj, dctulf vj;yj cjckfnmcz yf htcehc, bcgjkmpez tuj gjkysq URI, d yfitv ckexft http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/wine#byjltkmyz.

eylfvtynfkmysv nfrcjyjvbxtcrbv rjycnhernjhjv lkz rkfccjd zdkztncz rdfs:subClassOf. y cdzpsdftn ,jktt xfcnysq rkfcc c ,jktt j,obv rkfccjv. ckb X - gjlrkfcc Y, nj rf;lsq ghtlcnfdbntkm X - nfr;t ghtlcnfdbntkm Y. nyjitybt rdfs:subClassOf zdkztncz nhfypbnbdysv. ckb X - gjlrkfcc Y, b Y - gjlrkfcc Z, nj X - gjlrkfcc Z.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="fgbnjr"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#hjlernbnfybz" /> ... </owl:Class> 

s jghtltkztv fgbnjr (;blrjcnm, ghbujlyfz lkz gbnmz) rfr gjlrkfcc hjlernbnfybz.

vbht dt,-jynjkjubq, j,f 'nb[ rkfccf vjuen ,snm jghtltktys d jnltkmyjq jynjkjubb, rjnjhfz j,tcgtxbkf ,s jcyjdyst cnhjbntkmyst ,kjrb lkz ibhjrjuj rheuf gbotds[ b gbnmtds[ jynjkjubq, xnj vs b cltkfkb - vs jghtltkbkb b[ d jynjkjubb gbof, rjnjhfz bvgjhnbhjdfyf d jynjkjub. dbyf. ynjkjubz gbob drk.xftn vyj;tcndj rkfccjd, yfghbvth, bof, ]tlj,yfztom, k.lj b jkk.crb, rjnjhst yt jnyjczncz r pyfybzv j dbyt, yj ljk;ys ,snm cdzpfys cj ckjdfhtv dbyys[ nthvbyjd, tckb vs cj,bhftvcz cjdthifnm gjktpyst hfcce;ltybz. bof b dbyj dpfbvjpfdbcbvs, b yfv 'nj ghbujlbncz, xnj,s bltynbabwbhjdfnm gjl[jlzobt rjv,byfwbb dbyf/gbob.

ghtltktybt rkfccf cjcnjbn bp lde[ xfcntq: erfpfybt yfpdfybz bkb ccskrf b cgbcjr juhfybxtybq. f;ljt bp ytgjchtlcndtyyj cjlth;fob[cz d jghtltktybb rkfccf dshf;tybq juhfybxbdftn (enjxyztn) cdjqcndf ghtlcnfdbntktq jghtltktyyjuj rkfccf. htlcnfdbntkb rkfccf ghbyflkt;fn r gthtctxtyb. erfpfyys[ juhfybxtybq. (jnz cv. jgbcfybt owl:equivalentClass.) jrf vs dbltkb njkmrj ghbvths, rjnjhst drk.xf.n tlbycndtyyjt juhfybxtybt, j,zpsdf.ott yjdsq rkfcc ,snm gjlrkfccjv ytrjnjhjuj lheujuj bvtyjdfyyjuj rkfccf.

ltcm vs cjplftv ghjcnjt (b ytgjkyjt) jghtltktybt lkz rkfccf byj. byj - 'nj fgbnjr. fr;t vs jghtltkztv fcnf rfr ]tlj,yfztom.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byj"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;fgbnjr"/> <rdfs:label xml:lang="en">wine</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang="ru">dbyj</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang="fr">vin</rdfs:label> ... </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="fcnf"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#]tlj,yfztom" /> ... </owl:Class> 

jycnherwbz rdfs:label j,tcgtxbdftn ytj,zpfntkmyjt elj,jxbnftvjt yfpdfybt 'njuj rkfccf. ycnhevtynfkmyst chtlcndf ghtlcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb gjkmpjdfntk. vjuen tuj bcgjkmpjdfnm. nhb,en "lang" j,tcgtxbdftn gjllth;re hfpys[ zpsrjd. jycnherwbz rdfs:label (vtnrf) gjlj,yf rjvvtynfhb. b ybxtuj yt dyjcbn d kjubxtcre. bynthghtnfwb. jynjkjubb.

fit jghtltktybt dbyf dct tot jxtym ytgjkyj. s yt pyftv ybxtuj j dbyf[ pf bcrk.xtybtv njuj, xnj jyb - dtob b yfgbnrb, yj vs bvttv ljcnfnjxyj byajhvfwbb, xnj,s cjplfdfnm bylbdbljd 'njuj rkfccf b ghjbpdjlbnm ce;ltybz j yb[.

3.1.2. ylbdbls

ljgjkytybt r rkfccfv vs [jnbv bvtnm djpvj;yjcnm jgbcfnm b[ xktyjd. ,sxyj vs levftv j yb[ rfr j, jnltkmys[ bylbdblf[ d yfitv ghjcnhfycndt dtotq. kz jghtltktybz bylbdblf ljcnfnjxyj j,]zdbnm tuj xktyjv rfrjuj-nj rkfccf.

<tubjy rdf:ID="tubjytynhfkmyjujj,tht;mz" /> 

fvtnmnt, xnj cktle.ott bltynbxyj gj pyfxtyb. ghbvthe dsit.

<owl:Thing rdf:ID="tubjytynhfkmyjujj,tht;mz" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#tubjytynhfkmyjujj,tht;mz"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="#tubjy"/> </owl:Thing> 

rdf:type - 'nj cdjqcndj RDF, rjnjhjt cdzpsdftn bylbdblf c rkfccjv, xktyjv rjnjhjuj jy zdkztncz.

cnm gfhf vjvtynjd, yf rjnjhs[ pltcm cktletn jcnfyjdbnmcz. j-gthds[, vs htibkb, xnj tubjytynhfkmyjujj,tht;mz (jghtltktyyfz j,kfcnm) zdkztncz xktyjv tubjy, rkfccf, cjlth;fotuj dct utjuhfabxtcrbt htubjys. j-dnjhs[, ytn ybrfrb[ nht,jdfybq d ghbvtht bp lde[ xfcntq, xnj 'nb ldf 'ktvtynf ljk;ys cktljdfnm lheu pf lheujv, bkb lf;t yf[jlbnmcz d jlyjv b njv ;t afqkt ([jnz, d ghjnbdyjv ckexft b[ yfpdfybz ljk;ys ,skb ,s ,snm hfcibhtys c gjvjom. URI). hb ghjtrnbhjdfybb dt,-jynjkjubq ye;yj gjvybnm, xnj jyb ghtlyfpyfxtys lkz hfcghtltktyyjq chtls. yb vjuen ,snm bvgjhnbhjdfys b hfcibhtys, cjplfdfz yjdst ghjbpdjlyst jynjkjubb.

nj,s bvtnm d cdjtv hfcgjhz;tybb tot ytcrjkmrj rkfccjd lkz ghtlcnfdktybz cdjqcnd d cktle.ob[ hfpltkf[, vs jghtltkztv dtndm nfrcjyjvbb byjuhfl c bylbdbljv, j,jpyfxf.obv cjhn dbyjuhflf f,thyt-jdbymjy. byjuhfl jghtltkty d jynjkjubb gbob:

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byjuhfl"> ... </owl:Class> 

ntgthm d jynjkjubb dbyf vs bvttv:

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byysqbyjuhfl"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;byjuhfl" /> </owl:Class> <byysqbyjuhfl rdf:ID="byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy" /> 

fr j,ce;lftncz d cktle.otv hfpltkt, byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy - bylbdbl, gjnjve xnj j,jpyfxftn jlby rjyrhtnysq cjhn dbyjuhflf.

3.1.3. bpfqy lkz bcgjkmpjdfybz

eotcnde.n ,jkmibt ghj,ktvs jnyjcbntkmyj hfpkbxbz vt;le rkfccjv b bylbdbljv d OWL. kfcc - 'nj ghjcnj yfpdfybt b cjdjregyjcnm cdjqcnd, rjnjhst jgbcsdf.n yf,jh bylbdbljd. ylbdbls - 'nj xktys 'nb[ yf,jhjd. frbv j,hfpjv, rkfccs ljk;ys cjjndtncndjdfnm tcntcndtyyj j,hfpjdfyysv yf,jhfv dtotq d hfccvfnhbdftvjq j,kfcnb, f bylbdbls ljk;ys cjjndtncndjdfnm htfkmysv j,]trnfv, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm cuheggbhjdfys d 'nb rkfccs.

hb cjplfybb jynjkjubq, 'nj hfpkbxbt xfcnj hfpvsdftncz d lde[ yfghfdktybz[:

  • hjdyb ghtlcnfdktybz: jghtltktyys[ rjyntrcnf[ xnj-nj, xnj jxtdblyj zdkztncz rkfccjv, vj;tn cfvjcnjzntkmyj cxbnfnmcz ghtlcnfdbntktv xtuj-nj tot. fghbvth, d jynjkjubb dbyf vs bvttv gjyznbt byjuhfl, rjnjhjt ghbpdfyj j,jpyfxfnm yf,jh dct[ hfpyjdblyjcntq dbyjuhflf. byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy - ghbvth ghtlcnfdbntkz 'njuj rkfccf, gjcrjkmre jy j,jpyfxftn afrnbxtcrbq cjhn dbyjuhflf, yfpsdftvjuj f,thyt-jdbymjy. lyfrj, byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy vju ,s cfv cxbnfnmcz rkfccjv, j,jpyfxf.obv yf,jh dct[ htfkmys[ recnjd dbyjuhflf f,thyt-jdbymjy.

  • jlrkfcc bkb xfcnysq ckexfq: sdftn jxtym ghjcnj cgenfnm jnyjitybz gj nbge ghtlcnfdbntkm-rkfcc c jnyjitybtv gj nbge gjlrkfcc-yflrkfcc. fghbvth, ds,jh cltkfnm byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy bylbdbljv, zdkz.obvcz ghtlcnfdbntktv rkfccf byjuhfl, f yt gjlrkfccjv rkfccf byjuhfl vj;tn gjrfpfnmcz xbcnj ghjbpdjkmysv. j 'nj yt ghjbpdjkmyjt htitybt. kfcc byjuhfl j,jpyfxftn yf,jh dct[ cjhnjd dbyjuhflf, b gj'njve k.,jq gjlrkfcc byjuhflf ljk;ty j,jpyfxfnm gjlvyj;tcndj 'nb[ cjhnjd. frbv j,hfpjv, byjuhflf,thytjdbymjy ljk;ty cxbnfnmcz ghtlcnfdbntktv byjuhflf, b yt gjlrkfccjv. tlm jy yt jgbcsdftn gjlvyj;tcndj cjhnjd dbyjuhflf, jy cfv zdkztncz cjhnjv.

fvtnmnt, xnj nj ;t cfvjt hfpkbxbt djpybrftn d jnyjitybt rkfccf byj. kfcc byj afrnbxtcrb j,jpyfxftn yf,jh dct[ hfpyjdblyjcntq dbyf, yj yt yf,jh htfkmys[ ,enskjr, rjnjhst vj;yj regbnm. nfrjv ,s ckexft, rf;lsq ghtlcnfdbntkm rkfccf byj d yfitq jynjkjubb jghtltkzk ,s rkfcc, cjcnjzobq bp dct[ ,enskjr dbyf lfyyjuj nbgf. jcnfnjxyj kturj djj,hfpbnm nfre. byajhvfwbjyye. cbcntve, nbgf cbcntvs extnf lkz dbyyjuj njhujdwf, rjnjhfz ljk;yf hfccvfnhbdfnm bylbdblefkmyst ,enskrb dbyf. nj,s gjllth;fnm nfre. bynthghtnfwb., yfif jynjkjubz dbyf, d njv dblt rfr jyf ctqxfc, gjnht,jdfkf ,s djpvj;yjcnb hfccvfnhbdfnm rkfccs rfr bylbdbls. nvtnmnt, xnj OWL Full hfphtiftn nfre. 'rcghtccbdyjcnm, gjpdjkzz yfv hfccvfnhbdfnm rjyrhtnyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz cjhnf dbyjuhflf jlyjdhtvtyyj rfr rkfcc, ghtlcnfdbntkb rjnjhjuj - ,enskrb dbyf.

j njq ;t kjubrt, dbyf, ghjbpdtltyyst dbyjltkmyzvb d jghtltktyyst ujls cxbnf.ncz dbynf;tv. nj,s ghtlcnfdkznm gjyznbt dbynf;f, vs ljk;ys jghtltkbnm tuj vtcnj d yfitq jynjkjubb. htlcnfdbntkm rkfccf byj, rfr j,ce;lfkjcm dsit, ghtlcnfdkztn rjyrhtnysq cjhn dbyf, ghjbpdjlbvjuj rjyrhtnyjq dbyjltkmytq, yfghbvth, Formanfhljyt.

njxytybt, xnj dbyj, ghjbpdtltyyjt d 2000 ujle, cxbnftncz dbynf;tv, ,hjcftn yfv dspjd, gjnjve xnj vs yt bvttv djpvj;yjcnb ghtlcnfdbnm gjlvyj;tcndj lfyyjuj bylbdblf dbyf. njn dbynf; - yt yjdsq cjhn dbyf, 'nj - jcj,jt gjlvyj;tcndj dbyf - njuj, xnj ,skj ghjbpdtltyj d 2000 ujle. lybv bp dfhbfynjd ,skj ,s bcgjkmpjdfnm OWL Full b hfccvfnhbdfnm ghtlcnfdbntktq dbyf rfr rkfccs c gjlrkfccfvb (gjlvyj;tcndfvb), j,jpyfxf.obvb dbynf;b. heujq dfhbfyn j,jqnb 'ne ghj,ktve - 'nj hfccvfnhbdfnm bynf; rfr jnltkmysq rkfcc, xmb ghtlcnfdbntkb bvt.n jnyjitybt r njve bye, dbynf;tv rjnjhjuj jyb zdkz.ncz. fghbvth, Formanfhljyt2000 - 'nj bylbdbl rkfccf bynf; c cj cdjqcndjv zdkztnczbynf;tv, pyfxtybt rjnjhjuj - bylbdbl rkfccf byj, Formanfhljyt. s jghtltkbv rkfcc bynf; yb;t .

tkm 'njuj j,ce;ltybz - gjrfpfnm, xnj hfpdbnbt jynjkjubb ljk;yj cnhjuj gjlxbyznmcz tt ghtlgjkfuftvjve ghbvtytyb.. fr;t 'nb djghjcs gjlxthrbdf.n jlyj bp ukfdys[ hfpkbxbq vt;le OWL Full b OWL DL. OWL Full gjpdjkztn bcgjkmpjdfnm rkfccs rfr bylbdbljd, f OWL DL - ytn. ynjkjubz dbyf ghjtrnbhetncz, xnj,s hf,jnfnm d OWL DL, b gj'njve nfrbt bylbdbls rfr Formanfhljyt yt hfccvfnhbdf.ncz jlyjdhtvtyyj rfr rkfccs.

3.2. hjcnst cdjqcndf

bh rkfccjd b bylbdbljd ,sk ,s cjdthityyj ytbynthtcysv, tckb ,s vs vjukb njkmrj jghtltkznm nfrcjyjvbb. djqcndf gjpdjkz.n yfv endth;lfnm j,obt afrns j xktyf[ rkfccjd b jcj,st afrns j, bylbdblf[.

3.2.1. ghtltktybt cdjqcnd
ObjectProperty, DatatypeProperty, rdfs:subPropertyOf,
rdfs:domain, rdfs:range

djqcndj - 'nj ,byfhyjt jnyjitybt. fpkbxf.n ldf nbgf cdjqcnd:

  • cdjqcndf-pyfxtybz, jnyjitybz vt;le ghtlcnfdbntkzvb rkfccjd b RDF-kbnthfkfvb bkb nbgfvb lfyys[, jghtltkztvs[ XML Schema
  • cdjqcndf-j,]trns, jnyjitybz vt;le ghtlcnfdbntkzvb lde[ rkfccjd. fvtnmnt, xnj ckjdj j,]trn d yfpdfybb yt cdzpfyj c RDF-nthvbyjv rdf:object ([RDF], 5.3.4).

hb jghtltktybb cdjqcndf ceotcndetn vyj;tcndj cgjcj,jd juhfybxbnm 'nj jnyjitybt. j;yj jghtltkbnm ljvty b lbfgfpjy. djqcndj vj;tn ,snm jghtltktyj rfr cgtwbfkbpfwbz (gjlcdjqcndj) ceotcnde.otuj cdjqcndf. jpvj;ys b ,jktt ckj;yst juhfybxtybz, rjnjhst jgbcfys gjp;t.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="cltkfyjpbyjuhflf"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#byj"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#byjuhfl"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=",k.lj"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#hbtvbob" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#blk.lf" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 

OWL gjcktljdfntkmyjcnm 'ktvtynjd ,tp zdyjuj erfpfybz jgthfnjhf ghtlcnfdkztn cj,jq ytzdyjt cjtlbytybt. djqcndj cltkfyjpbyjuhflf bvttn ljvty byj b lbfgfpjy byjuhfl. frbv j,hfpjv, 'nj cdzpsdftn ghtlcnfdbntktq rkfccf byj c ghtlcnfdbntkzvb rkfccf byjuhfl. yj;tcndtyyst ljvtys jpyfxf.n, xnj ljvtyjv cdjqcndf cke;bn gthtctxtybt erfpfyys[ rkfccjd (b gjlj,ysv j,hfpjv lkz lbfgfpjyf).

jxyj nfr ;t cdjqcndj ,k.lj cdzpsdftn lfyysq hbtvbob c rfrbv-nj bljvk.lf.

fvtnmnt, xnj bcgjkmpjdfybt byajhvfwbb j lbfgfpjyt b ljvtyt d OWL jnkbxftncz jn byajhvfwbb j nbgt lfyys[ d zpsrf[ ghjuhfvvbhjdfybz. xfcnyjcnb, d zpsrf[ ghjuhfvvbhjdfybz nbgs lfyys[ bcgjkmpe.ncz, xnj,s jnckt;bdfnm dpfbvjedzpfyyjcnm rjlf. OWL lbfgfpjy pyfxtybq vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz, xnj,s yfcktljdfnm nbg. fghbvth, bp cktle.otuj jghtltktybz:

<owl:Thing rdf:ID="LindemansBin65fhljyt"> <cltkfyjpbyjuhflf rdf:resource="#byjuhflfhljyt" /> </owl:Thing>    

vs vj;tv pfrk.xbnm, xnj LindemansBin65fhljyt - 'nj dbyj, gjnjve xnj ljvtyjv cdjqcndf cltkfyjpbyjuhflf zdkztncz byj.

djqcndf, nfr ;t rfr rkfccs, vjuen ,snm jhufybpjdfys d bthfh[b..

<owl:Class rdf:ID="fhfrnthbcnbrfbyf" /> <owl:Class rdf:ID="dtnbyf"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#fhfrnthbcnbrfbyf" /> ... </owl:Class> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="j,kflftnfhfrnthbcnbrjqbyf"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#byj" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#fhfrnthbcnbrfbyf" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="bvttndtn"> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="#j,kflftnfhfrnthbcnbrjqbyf" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#dtnbyf" /> ... </owl:ObjectProperty> 

djqcndj fhfrnthbcnbrfbyf cdzpsdftn dbyf c b[ wdtnjv b rjvgjytynfvb drecf, drk.xfz ckfljcnm, rhtgjcnm b ,ertn. bvttndtn - gjlcdjqcndj cdjqcndf j,kflftnfhfrnthbcnbrjqbyf c ,jktt juhfybxtyysv lbfgfpjyjv: dtnbyf. nyjitybt rdfs:subPropertyOf d 'njv ckexft jpyfxftn, xnj xnj-kb,j cj pyfxtybtv X cdjqcndf bvttndtn nfr;t bvttn cdjqcndj j,kflftnfhfrnthbcnbrjqbyf cj pyfxtybtv X.

b;t vs ddjlbv cdjqcndj hfcgjkj;ty, rjnjhjt cdzpsdftn dtob c htubjyfvb, d rjnjhs[ jyb hfcgjkj;tys.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="hfcgjkj;ty"> ... <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Thing" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#tubjy" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 

fvtnmnt, rfr jghtltktys ljvty b lbfgfpjy hfcgjkj;ty. jvty hfphtiftn ,snm hfcgjkj;tyysv d htubjyt xtve eujlyj, drk.xfz cfvb htubjys. nhfypbnbdyjt bcgjkmpjdfybt 'njuj jnyjitybz gj ceotcnde cjplftn ctnm utjuhfabxtcrb jghtltktyys[ ce,htubjyjd b dtotq. t dtob, d rjnjhs[ ybxtuj yt hfcgjkj;tyj, vjuen jnyjcbnmcz r k.,jve rkfcce, d nj dhtvz rfr nt, d rjnjhs[ hfcgjkj;tys lheubt dtob, ljk;ys zdkznmcz htubjyfvb.

tgthm vj;yj hfcibhbnm jghtltktybt byf, xnj,s drk.xbnm gjyznbt j njv, xnj dbyj cltkfyj gj rhfqytq vtht bp jlyjuj byjuhflf. fr b c jghtltktybzvb cdjqcnd, jghtltktybz rkfccf bvt.n vyjujrhfnyst gjlhfpltks, rjnjhst ytzdyj cjtlbytys.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byj"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;fgbnjr"/> <rdfs:subClassOf>  <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#cltkfyjpbyjuhflf"/> <owl:minCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:minCardinality> </owl:Restriction>  </rdfs:subClassOf> ... </owl:Class> 

sltktyyjt dsit juhfybxtybt gjlrkfccf

 <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#cltkfyjpbyjuhflf"/> <owl:minCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:minCardinality> </owl:Restriction> 

jghtltkztn ytbvtyjdfyysq rkfcc, rjnjhsq ghtlcnfdkztn yf,jh dtotq c gj rhfqytq vtht jlybv cdjqcndjv cltkfyjpbyjuhflf. s yfpsdftv nfrbt rkfccs fyjybvysvb. rk.xtybt 'njuj juhfybxtybz d jghtltktybt rkfccf byj jpyfxftn, xnj dtob, zdkz.obtcz dbyfvb, nfr;t zdkz.ncz xktyfvb 'njuj fyjybvyjuj rkfccf. frbv j,hfpjv, rf;ljt bylbdblefkmyjt dbyj ljk;yj ,snm pfltqcndjdfyysv gj rhfqytq vtht d jlyjv jnyjitybb cltkfyjpbyjuhflf.

tgthm vs vj;tv jgbcfnm rkfcc bynf;, j,ce;lftvsq hfytt.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="bynf;"> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#zdkztnczbynf;tv"/> <owl:minCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:minCardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> </owl:Class>    

djqcndj zdkztnczbynf;tv cdzpsdftn bynf; c byjv.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="zdkztnczbynf;tv"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#bynf;" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#byj" /> </owl:ObjectProperty>    

cktle.otv hfpltkt vs cdz;tv bynf;b c b[ ujlfvb.

3.2.2. djqcndf b nbgs lfyys[

s jnkbxftv cdjqcndf gj njve, cdzpsdf.n kb jyb bylbdbljd c bylbdblfvb (cdjqcndf-j,]trns) bkb bylbdbljd c nbgfvb lfyys[ (cdjqcndf-pyfxtybz). djqcndf-pyfxtybz vjuen bvtnm lbfgfpjy kbnthfkjd RDF bkb ghjcns[ nbgjd, jghtltktyys[ d XML Schema datatypes.

OWL bcgjkmpetn ,jkmibycndj dcnhjtyys[ nbgjd XML Schema. cskrb yf 'nb nbgs jceotcndkz.ncz gjchtlcndjv URI lkz nbgjd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema. ktle.obt nbgs lfyys[ htrjvtyle.ncz lkz bcgjkmpjdfybz c OWL:

xsd:string xsd:normalizedString xsd:boolean
xsd:decimal xsd:float xsd:double
xsd:integer xsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:positiveInteger
xsd:nonPositiveInteger xsd:negativeInteger
xsd:long xsd:int xsd:short xsd:byte
xsd:unsignedLong xsd:unsignedInt xsd:unsignedShort xsd:unsignedByte
xsd:hexBinary xsd:base64Binary
xsd:dateTime xsd:time xsd:date xsd:gYearMonth
xsd:gYear xsd:gMonthDay xsd:gDay xsd:gMonth
xsd:anyURI xsd:token xsd:language
xsd:NMTOKEN xsd:Name xsd:NCName

sitegjvzyenst nbgs gk.c rdfs:Literal ajhvbhe.n dcnhjtyyst nbgs lfyys[ OWL. ct OWL-hfcce;lfntkb j,zpfys gjllth;bdfnm nbgs xsd:integer b xsd:string.

heubt dcnhjtyyst nbgs XML Schema vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz d OWL Full, yj c ghtljcntht;tybzvb, jgbcfyysvb d ljrevtynt tvfynbrf b f,cnhfrnysq cbynfrcbc OWL.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="jlbynf;f" /> <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID="ujl"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#jlbynf;f" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="&xsd;positiveInteger"/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> 

djqcndj ujl cdzpsdftn jlbynf;f cj pyfxtybzvb gjkj;bntkmyjuj wtkjuj xbckf. b;t vs ddjlbv cdjqcndj bvttnjlbynf;f, rjnjhjt cdzpsdftn bynf; c jlbynf;f.

ghfdrt gj OWL ([Reference], 6.2) jgbcsdftncz bcgjkmpjdfybt owl:oneOf, rdf:List b rdf:rest lkz njuj, xnj,s jghtltkbnm gthtxbcktyysq nbg lfyys[. hbvth gjrfpsdftn, rfr cjplfnm owl:DatatypeProperty cxtnuhstyybc c lbfgfpjyjv, drk.xf.obv 'ktvtyns cgbcrf wtkjxbcktyys[ pyfxtybq {0, 15, 30, 40}.

3.2.3. djqcndf bylbdbljd

yfxfkf vs jgbitv bylbdbljd rkfccjd tubjy b byjltkmyz, f pfntv vs jghtltkbv yfit gthdjt dbyj, f,thyt-jdbymjy.

<tubjy rdf:ID="tubjyjhsfynfhep"> <locatedIn rdf:resource="#tubjyfkbajhybz" /> </tubjy> <byjltkmyz rdf:ID="byjuhflybrjhffynfhep" /> <f,thytjdbymjy rdf:ID="f,thytjdbymjybyjltkmyzjhffynfhep" > <hfcgjkj;ty rdf:resource="#tubjyjhsfynfhep"/> <bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz rdf:resource="#byjuhflybrjhffynfhep" /> </f,thytjdbymjy> 
   

nj jghtltktybt dct tot ytgjkyj. cnm lheubt fcgtrns dbyyjuj ,ertnf, rjnjhst jghtltktys d gjkyjq jynjkjubb. j xfcnb chfcnf.ncz djtlbyj. s e;t vjukb ,s yfxfnm hfcce;lfnm j njv, r rfrbv geyrnfv vty. d yfitq jynjkjubb gbob gjljikj ,s 'nj dbyj. p gjcktlytuj jghtltktybz vs pyftv, xnj tuj bpujnfdkbdf.n yf dbyjuhflybrt jhf fynf-hep. jcrjkmre 'nj f,thyt-jdbymjy (cv. wine.rdf), vs pyftv, xnj 'nj - ce[jt rhfcyjt dbyj.

jlj,ysv j,hfpjv r bylbdblfv vjuen ,snm lj,fdktys cdjqcndf-pyfxtybz. b;t vs jgbcsdftv ghtlcnfdbntkz rkfccf jlbynf;f b cdzpsdftv tuj c jghtltktyysv pyfxtybtv nbgf &xsd;positiveInteger.

<jlbynf;f rdf:ID="jl1998"> <ujl rdf:datatype="&xsd;positiveInteger">1998</ujl> </jlbynf;f> 

3.3. fhfrnthbcnbrb cdjqcnd

ktle.obt ytcrjkmrj hfpltkjd jgbcsdf.n vt[fybpvs, bcgjkmpetvst lkz ,jktt njxyjuj jghtltktybz cdjqcnd. eotcndetn djpvj;yjcnm jghtltkbnm [fhfrnthbcnbrb cdjqcndf, xnj j,tcgtxbdftn vjoysq vt[fybpv lkz ecjdthitycndjdfyyjuj hfcce;ltybz j cdjqcndt.

3.3.1. TransitiveProperty

ckb cdjqcndj P, jghtltktyj rfr nhfypbnbdyjt, njulf lkz k.,juj x, y, b z:

P(x,y) b P(y,z) ghtlgjkfuf.n P(x,z) 

djqcndj hfcgjkj;ty zdkztncz nhfypbnbdysv.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="hfcgjkj;ty"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;TransitiveProperty" /> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="&owl;Thing" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#tubjy" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <tubjy rdf:ID="tubjyjhsfynfhep"> <hfcgjkj;ty rdf:resource="#tubjyfkbajhybz" /> </tubjy> <tubjy rdf:ID="tubjyfkbajhybz"> <hfcgjkj;ty rdf:resource="#tubjy" /> </tubjy> 

p-pf njuj, xnj tubjyjhsfynfhep hfcgjkj;ty tubjyfkbajhybz, jy nfr;t ljk;ty ,snm hfcgjkj;ty tubjy, gjcrjkmre cdjqcndj hfcgjkj;ty - nhfypbnbdyjt.

3.3.2. SymmetricProperty

ckb cdjqcndj P gjvtxtyj rfr cbvvtnhbxtcrjt, njulf lkz k.,juj x b y:

P(x,y) tckb P(y,x) 

djqcndj ghbktuftntubjye - cbvvtnhbxyjt, njulf rfr hfcgjkj;ty - ytn. ckb ,snm ,jktt njxysv, hfcgjkj;ty yt ghtlyfpyfxtyj, xnj,s ,snm cbvvtnhbxysv. j d yfcnjzott dhtvz ybxnj d jynjkjubb dbyf yt ghtgzncndetn tve ,snm cbvvtnhbxysv.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="ghbktuftntubjye"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;SymmetricProperty" /> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#tubjy" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#tubjy" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <tubjy rdf:ID="tubjyMendocino"> <hfcgjkj;ty rdf:resource="#tubjyfkbajhybz" /> <ghbktuftntubjye rdf:resource="#tubjySonoma" /> </tubjy> 

tubjyMendocino ghbktuftn r tubjySonoma b yfj,jhjn. tubjyMendocino hfcgjkj;ty d tubjyfkbajhybz, yj yt yfj,jhjn.

3.3.3. FunctionalProperty

ckb cdjqcndj P gjvtxtyj rfr aeyrwbjyfkmyjt, njulf lkz k.,juj x, y b z:

P(x,y) b P(x,z) ghtlgjkfuf.n y = z 

yfitq jynjkjubb dbyf cdjqcndj bvttnjlbynf;f aeyrwbjyfkmyj. czrjt dbyj bvttn eybrfkmysq ujl dbynf;f. frbv j,hfpjv, lfyysq bylbdblefkmysq bynf; vj;tn ,snm cdzpfy njkmrj c tlbycndtyysv ujljv, bcgjkmpez cdjqcndj bvttnjlbynf;f. hb 'njv owl:FunctionalProperty yt nht,etn, xnj,s dct 'ktvtyns ljvtyf bvtkb pyfxtybz. vjnhbnt j,ce;ltybt rfhlbyfkmyjcnb bynf;f.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="jlbynf;f" /> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="bvttnjlbynf;f"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;FunctionalProperty" /> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#bynf;" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#jlbynf;f" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 

3.3.4. inverseOf

ckb cdjqcndj P1, gjvtxtyj rfr owl:inverseOf P2, nj lkz dct[ x b y:

P1(x,y) tckb P2(y,x) 

fvtnmnt, xnj cbynfrcbc lkz owl:inverseOf ,thtn d rfxtcndt fhuevtynf yfpdfybt cdjqcndf. A tckb B jpyfxftn (A ghtlgjkfuftn B) b (B ghtlgjkfuftn A).

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;FunctionalProperty" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="ghjbpdjlbnbyj"> <owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="#bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 

by tcnm ghjbpdjlbntkb, rjnjhst gj jghtltktyb. rkfccf byj juhfybxtys byjltkmyzvb. julf rf;lfz byjltkmyz ghjbpdjlbn yf,jh dby, rjnjhst bltynbabwbhe.n tt rfr ghjbpdjlbntkz.

3.3.5. InverseFunctionalProperty

ckb cdjqcndj P gjvtxtyj rfr j,hfnyj aeyrwbjyfkmyjt, nj lkz dct[ x, y b z:

P(y,x) b P(z,x) ghtlgjkfuftn y = z 

,hfnbnt dybvfybt, xnj ghjbpdjlbnbyj d ghtlsleotv hfpltkt j,hfnyj aeyrwbjyfkmyjt. hbxbyf 'njuj d njv, xnj cdjqcndj, j,hfnyjt aeyrwbjyfkmyjve cdjqcnde, ljk;yj ,snm j,hfnyj aeyrwbjyfkmysv. s vjukb ,s jghtltkbnm bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz b ghjbpdjlbnbyj cktle.obv j,hfpjv, b gjkexbkb ,s njn ;t 'aatrn, rfr b d ghtlsleotv ghbvtht.

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz" /> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="ghjbpdjlbnbyj"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;InverseFunctionalProperty" /> <owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="#bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz" /> </owl:ObjectProperty>    

fccvfnhbdfqnt 'ktvtyns lbfgfpjyf j,hfnyj aeyrwbjyfkmyjuj cdjqcndf rfr jghtltktybt rk.xtdjuj gjkz ghb gjcnhjtybb ,fp lfyys[. owl:InverseFunctional ghtlgjkfuftn, xnj 'ktvtyns lbfgfpjyf j,tcgtxbdf.n eybrfkmysq bltynbabrfnjh lkz rf;ljuj 'ktvtyn ljvtyf.

OWL Full vs vj;tv gjvtnbnm DatatypeProperty rfr j,hfnyj aeyrwbjyfkmyjt. nj gjpdjkztn yfv bltynbabwbhjdfnm cnhjre rfr eybrfkmysq rk.x. OWL DL kbnthfks (cnhjrjdst pyfxtybz) jnltktys jn owl:Thing, b gj'njve OWL DL yt hfphtiftn ghbvtyznm InverseFunctional r DatatypeProperty.

3.4. uhfybxtybz cdjqcnd

 

ljgjkytybt r j,jpyfxtyb. [fhfrnthbcnbr cdjqcnd, vj;yj hfpysvb cgjcj,fvb tot ,jkmit juhfybxbnm lbfgfpjy cdjqcndf d jghtltktyys[ rjyntrcnf[. s ltkftv 'nj c gjvjom. juhfybxtybq cdjqcnd. fpkbxyst cgjcj,s, jgbcfyyst yb;t, vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz njkmrj d rjyntrcnt owl:Restriction. ktvtyn owl:onProperty erfpsdftn yf juhfybxbdftvjt cdjqcndj.

3.4.1. allValuesFrom, someValuesFrom

s e;t hfccvjnhtkb jlby cgjcj, juhfybxbdfnm nbgs 'ktvtynjd, rjnjhst j,hfpe.n cdjqcndj. j cb[ gjh 'nb vt[fybpvs ,skb ukj,fkmysvb d njv cvsckt, xnj jyb jnyjcbkbcm rj dctv ghtlcnfdbntkzv lfyyjuj cdjqcndf. ktle.obt ldf, allValuesFrom b someValuesFrom - kjrfkmyst gj jnyjityb. r cjlth;fotve b[ rkfcce.

uhfybxtybt owl:allValuesFrom nht,etn, xnj,s lkz rf;ljuj ghtlcnfdbntkz lfyyjuj rkfccf, rjnjhsq bvttn lfyyjt cdjqcndj, dct pyfxtybz 'njuj cdjqcndf zdkzkbcm ghtlcnfdbntkzvb rkfccf, pflfyyjuj d geyrnt owl:allValuesFrom.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byj"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;fgbnjr" /> ... <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz" /> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="#byjltkmyz" /> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> ... </owl:Class> 

hjbpdjlbntktv byf ljk;yf ,snm byjltkmyz. uhfybxtybt allValuesFrom yf cdjqcndj bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz yfrkflsdftncz njkmrj lkz 'njuj rkfccf byj. hjbpdjlbntktq shf 'nj kjrfkmyjt juhfybxtybt yt rfcftncz.

owl:someValuesFrom ltqcndetn gj[j;bv j,hfpjv. ckb ,s vs d gjcktlytv ghbvtht pfvtybkb owl:allValuesFrom yf owl:someValuesFrom, nj 'nj jpyfxfkj ,s, xnj gj rhfqytq vtht jlyj bp cdjqcnd bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz lkz rf;ljuj byj ljk;yj erfpsdfnm yf bylbdblf rkfccf byjltkmyz.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byj"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;fgbnjr" /> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz" /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#byjltkmyz" /> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> ... </owl:Class>    

fpkbxbt vt;le 'nbvb ldevz ajhvekbhjdrfvb - 'nj hfpkbxbt vt;le eybdthcfkmysv b 'rpbcntywbfkmysv jghtltktybtv rjkbxtcndf.

nyjitybt tpekmnfn
allValuesFrom kz dct[ dby, tckb jyb bvt.n ghjbpdjlbntktq, dct ghjbpdjlbntkb - dbyjltkmyb.
someValuesFrom ct dbyf bvt.n [jnz ,s jlyjuj ghjbpdjlbntkz, rjnjhsq zdkztncz dbyjltkmytq.

thdjt jnyjitybt yt nht,etn, xnj,s dbyj bvtkj ghjbpdjlbntkz. ckb e ytuj tcnm jlby bkb ,jktt ghjbpdjlbntktq, nj dct jyb ljk;ys ,snm dbyjltkmyzvb. njhjt jnyjitybt nht,etn, xnj,s ,sk gj rhfqytq vtht jlby ghjbpdjlbntkm-dbyjltkmyz, yj nfr;t vjuen ,snm ghjbpdjlbntkb, rjnjhst yt dbyjltkmyb.

3.4.2. fhlbyfkmyjcnm

s e;t dbltkb ghbvths erfpfybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb. j ntreotuj vjvtynf 'nj ,skb erfpfybz vbybvfkmyjq rfhlbyfkmyjcnb. jktt njxyj 'nj ,sk gfhfvtnh owl:cardinality, rjnjhsq gjpdjkztn erfpfnm njxyjt rjkbxtcndj 'ktvtynjd d cdzpb. fghbvth, vs erfpfkb, xnj e rkfccf bynf; tcnm cnhjuj jlby jlbynf;f.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="bynf;"> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#bvttnjlbynf;f"/> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> </owl:Class> 

s pflfkb cdjqcndj bvttnjlbynf;f rfr aeyrwbjyfkmyjt, xnj nj ;t cfvjt, rfr tckb crfpfnm, xnj rf;lsq bynf; bvttn yt ,jktt jlyjuj jlbynf;f. hbvtytybt 'njuj cdjqcndf r bynf; c bcgjkmpjdfybtv juhfybxtybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb pflftn ,jktt cnhjujt jnyjitybt, xnj rf;lsq bynf; bvttn cnhjuj jlby jlbynf;f.

shf;tybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb cj pyfxtybzvb, juhfybxtyysvb 0 bkb 1 zdkz.ncz xfcnm. OWL Lite. nj gjpdjkztn gjkmpjdfntk. enjxybnm jnyjitybz 'gj vtymitq vtht jlby', 'yt ,jktt jlyjuj' b 'njxyj jlby'. jpbnbdyst wtkjxbcktyyst pyfxtybz rhjvt 0 b 1 hfphtitys d OWL DL. owl:maxCardinality vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz lkz erfpfybz dth[ytuj ghtltkf. owl:minCardinality vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz lkz erfpfybz yb;ytuj ghtltkf. rjv,byfwbb lheu c lheujv jyb vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz lkz juhfybxtybz rfhlbyfkmyjcnb cdjqcndf d ghtltkf[ xbckjdjuj bynthdfkf.

3.4.3. hasValue [OWL DL]

hasValue gjpdjkztn yfv jghtltkznm rkfccs, jcyjdfyyst yf ceotcndjdfybb cgtwbabxtcrb[ pyfxtybq cdjqcndf. ktljdfntkmyj, bylbdbl ,eltn xktyjv nfrjuj rkfccf dczrbq hfp, rjulf gj rhfqytq vtht jlyj bp tuj pyfxtybq cdjqcndf ,eltn hfdyj htcehce, erfpfyyjve c gjvjom. hasValue.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="ehueylcrjt"> ... <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#bvttnkfljcnm" /> <owl:hasValue rdf:resource="#e[jt" /> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> </owl:Class> 

ltcm vs j,]zdkztv, xnj dct ehueylcrbt dbyf - ce[bt. j tcnm, b[ cdjqcndj bvttnkfljcnm ljk;yj bvtnm gj rhfqytq vtht jlyj pyfxtybt, hfdyjt e[jt.

fr b lkz allValuesFrom b someValuesFrom, 'nj kjrfkmyjt juhfybxtybt. yj jnyjcbncz r cdjqcnde bvttnkfljcnm njkmrj d jnyjitybb ehueylcrjuj.

4. fhnbhjdfybt jynjkjubq

kz njuj, xnj,s jynjkjubb bvtkb vfrcbvfkmysq 'aatrn, jyb ljk;ys ,snm ibhjrj hfcghjcnhfytys. xnj,s vbybvbpbhjdfnm byntkktrnefkmyst ecbkbz, pfnhfxbdftvst yf hfphf,jnre jynjkjubq, jyb ljk;ys ,snm ghbujlysvb lkz vyjujrhfnyjuj bcgjkmpjdfybz. kexitv bp dct[ djpvj;ys[ dfhbfynt jyb ljk;ys ,snm cjcnfdktys bp rjvgjytynjd. fghbvth, s vjukb ,s djcgjkmpjdfnmcz jynjkjubtq lfns bp jlyjuj bcnjxybrf b jynjkjubtq abpbxtcrjuj vtcnjgjkj;tybz bp lheujuj, b pfntv hfcibhbnm gjyznbt vtcnjgjkj;tybz, drk.xbd d ytuj gthbjl dhtvtyb, d ntxtybt rjnjhjuj lfyyjt vtcnjgjkj;tybt cj[hfyztncz.

f;yj gjyznm, xnj ,jkmifz xfcnm ecbkbq gj hfphf,jnrt jynjkjubb gjcdzotyf cdzpsdfyb. dvtcnt rkfccjd b cdjqcnd nfr, xnj,s vfrcbvfkmyj njxyj gthtlfnm pfkj;tyysq d gjyznbz cvsck. s [jnbv, xnj,s ghjcnst endth;ltybz j xktycndt d rkfcct bvtkb ibhjrbt b gjktpyst gjcktlcndbz. nj - cfvfz ckj;yfz xfcnm hfphf,jnrb jynjkjubb. ckb s vj;tnt yfqnb ceotcnde.oe. jynjkjub., rjnjhfz e;t ibhjrj bcgjkmpetncz b [jhjij ghjhf,jnfyf, nj bvttn cvsck ghbcgjcj,bnm tt lkz cdjb[ ye;l.

fr;t pfvfyxbdj ,eltn ckbnm djtlbyj wtke. rjkktrwb. jynjkjubq. 'njv ckexft gjvjom cgtwbfkmyjuj bycnhevtynfhbz ,eltn gjxnb yfdthyzrf ytj,[jlbvf lkz gjllth;fybz cjukfcjdfyyjcnb.

4.1. rdbdfktynyjcnm vt;le rkfccfvb b cdjqcndfvb
equivalentClass, equivalentProperty

nj,s cdzpfnm dvtcnt hzl jynjkjubq, d[jlzob[ d rfxtcndt rjvgjytynjd d rfre.-nj nhtnm. jynjkjub., xfcnj gjktpyj bvtnm djpvj;yjcnm erfpfnm, xnj lfyyst rkfcc bkb cdjqcndj d jlyjq jynjkjubb 'rdbdfktynys rkfcce bkb cdjqcndj dj dnjhjq jynjkjubb. nf cgjcj,yjcnm ljk;yf bcgjkmpjdfnmcz c jcnjhj;yjcnm.. ckb j,]tlbytyyst jynjkjubb zdkz.ncz ghjnbdjhtxfobvb (dct - 'nj , d lheujq dct - 'nj yt ), nj yt ,eltn ybrfrjuj hfcibhtybz (yb bylbdbljd, yb jnyjitybq), rjnjhsq eljdktndjhzkb ,s gjkexf.oe.cz rjv,byfwb..

jynjkjubb gbob vs [jnbv cdzpfnm jcj,tyyjcnb dbyf d jgbcfybz[ j,tltyys[ ,k.l j,hfnyj c jynjkjubtq dbyf. lby bp cgjcj,jd cltkfnm 'nj - jghtltkbnm rkfcc d jynjkjubb gbob (&food;Wine), f pfntv j,]zdbnm tuj 'rdbdfktynysv ceotcnde.otve rkfcce dbyf d dbyyjq jynjkjubb.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="byj"> <owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource="&vin;byj"/> </owl:Class> 

djqcndj owl:equivalentClass bcgjkmpetncz, xnj,s gjrfpfnm, xnj ldf rkfccf bvt.n f,cjk.nyj jlbyfrjds[ ghtlcnfdbntktq. fvtnmnt, xnj d OWL DL rkfccs ghjcnj j,jpyfxf.n yf,jhs bylbdbljd, yj yt cfvb[ bylbdbljd. lyfrj, d OWL Full vs vj;tv bcgjkmpjdfnm owl:sameAs vt;le ldevz rkfccfvb, xnj,s gjrfpfnm, xnj jyb bltynbxys dj dct[ jnyjitybz[.

jytxyj, ghbvth dsit ytcrjkmrj pfgenfyysq, nfr rfr vs dctulf vj;tv bcgjkmpjdfnm &vin;byj dtplt, ult vs bcgjkmpjdfkb ,s #byj, b gjkexfkb ,s ghb 'njv njn ;t cfvsq 'aatrn ,tp gthtjghtltktybz. jktt jghfdlfyyjt bcgjkmpjdfybt ,skj ,s d ckexft, tckb , vs pfdbctkb jn lde[ ytpfdbcbvj cjplfyys[ jynjkjubq, b pfvtnbkb, xnj jyb bcgjkmpe.n URI O1:foo b O2:bar lkz ccskrb yf jlby b njn ;t rkfcc. nj,s cdtcnb b[ dvtcnt, vju ,s bcgjkmpjdfnmcz owl:equivalentClass, n.t., xnj,s gjcnekfns jn 'nb[ lde[ jynjkjubq ,skb j,]tlbytys.

s e;t dbltkb, xnj dshf;tybz rkfccf vjuen ,snm flhtcfnfvb rjycnherwbq rdfs:subClassOf. fr;t jyb vjuen ,snm flhtcfnjv owl:equivalentClass. gznm nfrb, 'nj bp,fdkztn jn ytj,[jlbvjcnb bpj,htnfnm yfpdfybz lkz rf;ljuj dshf;tybz rkfccf b j,tcgtxbdftn vjoye. cgjcj,yjcnm jghtltktybz, jcyjdfyye. yf eljdktndjhtybb [fhfrnthbcnbr cdjqcnd.

<owl:Class rdf:ID="t[fccrbttob"> <owl:equivalentClass> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hfcgjkj;ty" /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#tubjyt[fc" /> </owl:Restriction> </owl:equivalentClass> </owl:Class>    

t[fccrbttob - 'nj bvtyyj nt dtob, xnj hfcgjkj;tys d t[fccrjv tubjyt. fpkbxbt vt;le nfrbv bcgjkmpjdfybtv owl:equivalentClass b bcgjkmpjdfybtv rdfs:subClassOf - 'nj hfpkbxbt vt;le eckjdbzvb "ytj,[jlbvjuj" b "ytj,[jlbvjuj b ljcnfnjxyjuj". ckexft bcgjkmpjdfybz subClassOf dtob, hfcgjkj;tyyst d t[fct yt j,zpfntkmyj ljk;ys jnyjcbncz r rkfcce t[fccrbttob. j ghb bcgjkmpjdfybb owl:equivalentClass dct, xnj hfcgjkj;tyj d t[fct, ljk;yj ,snm d rkfcct t[fccrbttob.

nyjitybt tpekmnfn
subClassOf t[fccrbttob(x) ghtlgjkfuftn hfcgjkj;ty(x,y) b tubjyt[fc(y)
equivalentClass t[fccrbttob(x) ghtlgjkfuftn hfcgjkj;ty(x,y), b tubjyt[fc(y)
hfcgjkj;ty(x,y) b tubjyt[fc(y) cxbnftncz t[fccrbttob(x)

nj,s cdzpfnm gjlj,ysv j,hfpjv cdjqcndf, vs bcgjkmpetv owl:equivalentProperty.

4.2. ltynbxyjcnm vt;le bylbdblfvb
sameAs

njn vt[fybpv gj[j; yf njn, xnj lkz rkfccjd, yj j,]zdkztn bltynbxysvb lde[ bylbdbljd. hbvthjv vj;tn ,snm:

<byj rdf:ID=".,bvjtbyjb[fbkf"> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="#StGenevievet[fccrjttkjt" /> </byj>    

fyysq ghbvth yt ytctn ,jkmijq gjkmps. ct, xnj vs epyftv bp ytuj - 'nj nj, xnj b[fbk k.,bn ytljhjujt vtcnyjt dbyj. jktt nbgbxyj bcgjkmpjdfnm sameAs lkz njuj, xnj,s ghbhfdyznm lheu c lheujv bylbdbljd, jghtltkztvs[ d hfpys[ ljrevtynf[ c wtkm. eybabwbhjdfnm ldt jynjkjubb.

ltcm vs cnfkrbdftvcz c df;ysv vjvtynjv. OWL ytn ljgeotybz j, eybrfkmyjv bvtyb. j, xnj ldf bvtyb jnkbxys lheu jn lheuf, yt jpyfxftn, xnj jyb j,jpyfxf.n hfpkbxys[ bylbdbljd.

gjcktlytv ghbvtht vs ghjdjpukfcbkb bltynbxyjcnm vt;le ldevz hfpysvb bvtyfvb. j nfrjq dbl bltynbxyjcnb nfr;t vj;yj gjkexbnm gentv dsdjlf. cgjvybnt cktlcndbz, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm gjkextys bp aeyrwbjyfkmyjt cdjqcndf. hb njv, xnj cdjqcndj bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz - aeyrwbjyfkmyjt, cktle.obq ghbvth yt j,zpfntkmyj ghbdtltn r rjyakbrne.

<owl:Thing rdf:about="#Bancroftfhljyt"> <bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz rdf:resource="#Bancroft" /> <bvttnhjbpdjlbntkz rdf:resource="#Beringer" /> </owl:Thing>    

njv ckexft, tckb 'nj yt yf[jlbncz d ghjnbdjhtxbb c lheujq byajhvfwbtq d yfitq jynjkjubb, 'nj ghjcnj jpyfxftn, xnj Bancroft = Beringer.

fvtnmnt, xnj bcgjkmpjdfybt sameAs lkz njuj, xnj,s ghbhfdyznm ldf rkfccf - 'nj yt nj ;t cfvjt, xnj ghbhfdybdfybt b[ c gjvjom. equivalentClass; 'nj pfcnfdkztn rkfccs ,snm bynthghtnbhetvsvb rfr bylbdbls, f 'njuj ljcnfnjxyj, xnj,s jnytcnb jynjkjub. r rfntujhbb OWL Full. OWL Full sameAs vj;tn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz, xnj,s ghbhfdyznm xnj-eujlyj: rkfcc b bylbdblf, cdjqcndj b rkfcc, b n.l., b ghbdjlbn r njve, xnj j,f gfhfvtnhf bynthghtnbhe.ncz rfr bylbdbls.

4.3. fpkbxyjcnm bylbdbljd
differentFrom, AllDifferent

njn vt[fybpv j,tcgtxbdftn 'aatrn, ghjnbdjgjkj;ysq sameAs.

<kfljcnmbyf rdf:ID="e[jt" /> <kfljcnmbyf rdf:ID="kflrjt"> <owl:differentFrom rdf:resource="#e[jt"/> </kfljcnmbyf> <kfljcnmbyf rdf:ID="jkece[jt"> <owl:differentFrom rdf:resource="#e[jt"/> <owl:differentFrom rdf:resource="#kflrjt"/> </kfljcnmbyf> 

nj - jlby bp cgjcj,jd endth;lfnm, xnj 'nb nhb pyfxtybz dpfbvyj jnkbxys. hzlt ckexftd df;yj ufhfynbhjdfnm nfrbt ytgthtrhsdf.obtcz [fhfrnthbcnbrb. tp nfrb[ endth;ltybq vs vjukb , jgbcfnm nfrjt dbyj, rjnjhjt ,skj ,s b e[jt, b kflrjt jlyjdhtvtyyj. tgthm ;t vs pfzdbkb, xnj cdjqcndj hasSugar, [fhfrnthbpe.ott dbyj, yt vj;tn bvtnm ,jktt jlyjuj pyfxtybz. ckb ,s vs ljgecnbkb jib,re b endth;lfkb ,s, xnj dbyj jlyjdhtvtyyj b e[jt, b kflrjt, ,tp nt[ 'ktvtynjd differentFrom, xnj erfpfys dsit, 'nj gjlhfpevtdfkj ,s, xnj e[jt b kflrjt bltynbxys. 'ktvtynfvb - vs dvtcnj 'njuj gjkexbkb ,s ghjnbdjhtxbt.

eotcndetn ,jktt elj,ysq vt[

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