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jgsnrb jghtltkbnm, rnj, cj,cndtyyj, nfrjq lbpfqyth bynthatqcjd, ytjlyjrhfnyj ghtlghbybvfkbcm d ghjikjv, d njv xbckt b d yfitq cnhfyt. ct jyb, jlyfrj, ,skb vfkjecgtiysvb dj dczrjv ckexft, exfcnybrb gjlj,ys[ j,ce;ltybq ybrjulf yt gjrblfkb lbcreccb. c xedcndjv uke,jrjuj cjukfcbz c jcnfkmysvb.

f vjq dpukzl, jncencndbt gjpbnbdyjuj htpekmnfnf d lfyyjv ckexft ytkmpz d gjkyjq vtht j,]zcybnm jlyjq kbim ckj;yjcnm. pflfxb. jkfuf., xnj ,skf ljgeotyf b vtnjljkjubxtcrfz jib,rf cgtwbfkbcn jgbcsdfkcz rfr yf,jh ljk;yjcnys[ j,zpfyyjcntq. tpeckjdyj, jyb df;ys, yj, gjcrjkmre htxm bltn j ndjhxtcrjq ghjatccbb, jlyb[ b[ zdyj ytljcnfnjxyj. ,zpfyyjcnm k.,juj gjdfhf ujnjdbnm gboe, yj, gjxtve-nj, jlyb gjdfhf pfrfyxbdf.n cdj. rfhmthe d atityt,tkmys[ htcnjhfyf[, f lheubt yf re[yz[ pf,tufkjdjr.

frbv j,hfpjv, gjvbvj njuj, xnj cgtwbfkbcn ljk;ty ltkfnm djj,ot, df;yj nfr;t jghtltkbnm, xnj bvtyyj jy ltkftn [jhjij b d xtv 'nf [jhjitcnm pfrk.xftncz.

bpfqyth/ghjtrnbhjdobr bynthatqcf

kz yfbvtyjdfybz gj cenb jlyjq b njq ;t cdzpfyyjq c bynthatqcfvb ghja. ltzntkmyjcnb bcgjkmpe.ncz ldf hfpys[ yfpdfybz ghjtrnbhjdobr (bkb hfphf,jnxbr) b lbpfqyth. hbpyfnm b[ nj;ltcndtyysvb ybrfr yt gjkexftncz, nfr xnj gjcnjzyyj djpybrftn genfybwf.

f vjq dpukzl, hfpltkbnm 'nb ghjatccbb ghjcnj. bpfqyth bynthatqcf hf,jnftn d jcyjdyjv yfl ce,]trnbdysvb rfxtcndf ghjlernf, f ghjtrnbhjdobr d jcyjdyjv yfl j,]trnbdysvb rfxtcndfvb.

jzcy. cdj. vsckm d gjnht,bntkmcrb[ ghjlernf[ j,]trnbdyst rfxtcndf bynthatqcf df;ys hjdyj d njq cntgtyb, d rfrjq ghjwtcc ds,jhf (b gjregrb) ghjlernf gjnht,bntkzvb hfwbjyfkty d ghbywbgt. jcrjkmre 'njn ghjwtcc yt dgjkyt hfwbjyfkty (lf;t rjulf gjregftncz, r ghbvthe, cbcntvf fdnjvfnbpfwbb cnjbvjcnm. d cjnyb nsczx ljkkfhjd), ce,]trnbdyst rfxtcndf bynthatqcf df;ys xfcnj cbkmytt, yt;tkb rfxtcndf j,]trnbdyst.

jktt njuj, cfvb j,]trnbdyst rfxtcndf gjnht,bntkmcrb[ ghjlernjd ye;yj hfccvfnhbdfnm xthtp ghbpve ce,]trnbdyjuj. fghbvth, j,]trnbdyfz crjhjcnm hf,jns vj;tn hfccvfnhbdfnmcz gjnht,bntkzvb rfr gjkj;bntkmyjt rfxtcndj ghjlernf. 'njv ckexft jgnbvbpbhjdfnm crjhjcnyst [fhfrnthbcnbrb bynthatqcf ye;yj, gjcrjkmre jyb gjdsif.n ce,]trnbdye. eljdktndjhtyyjcnm. j gjdsif.n kb? ct ghjlerns hfpyst, rfr b felbnjhbb ghjlernjd. ctulf kb gjdsitybt crjhjcnb ghbdjlbn r gjdsityb. eljdktndjhtyyjcnb? tpeckjdyj, ytn. jktt njuj, lf;t tckb crjhjcnm hf,jns gjdsiftn eljdktndjhtyyjcnm, dctulf kb vs pyftv, yfcrjkmrj bvtyyj? fpevyj kb drkflsdfnm htcehcs d gjdsitybt crjhjcnb hf,jns, tckb 'nj kbim ytpyfxbntkmyj edtkbxbn eljdktndjhtyyjcnm, f pyfxbn b ghjlf;b?

fghjnbd, d ,bpytc-cbcntvf[, pf hf,jne c rjnjhsvb k.lzv gkfnzn ltymub, djghjcs eljdktndjhtyyjcnb jn cbcntvs df;ys jxtym juhfybxtyyj (njkmrj yt yflj genfnm eljdktndjhtyyjcnm jn cbcntvs c eljdktndjhtyyjcnm. jn ltzntkmyjcnb), f yf gthdjt vtcnj ds[jlzn rfr hfp j,]trnbdyst gjrfpfntkb bynthatqcf.

hj,ktvf d njv, xnj rfr ce,]trnbdyst, nfr b j,]trnbdyst afrnjhs nht,e.n jn cgtwbfkbcnjd cjdthityyj jghtltktyys[ kbxys[ rfxtcnd b yfdsrjd. j;yj, rjytxyj, gjgsnfnmcz b[ cjdvtcnbnm, yj pf 'nj ghbltncz pfgkfnbnm ytdjpvj;yjcnm. cnfnm vfcnthjv d rf;ljq bp j,kfcntq.

jzcy. vj. vsckm yf ghbvtht. uke,jrj e,t;lty, xnj j,f, b lbpfqyth b ghjtrnbhjdobr, j,zpfys evtnm gjkmpjdfnmcz GOMS. j z yt yflt.cm yf nj, xnj lbpfqyth gjvybn lkbntkmyjcnm hfpys[ nbgjd jgthfwbq, hfdyj rfr b yt hfccxbnsdf., xnj lbpfqyth evttn gjkmpjdfnmcz xtv-yb,elm ,jktt ckj;ysv, xtv GOMS KLM. bpfqythe GOMS ye;ty [jhjij tckb hfp d ytcrjkmrj ktn. fghjnbd, ghjtrnbhjdobr, yt gjvyzobq pyfxtybq GOMS, dspjdtn e vtyz hfpdt xnj ytljevtybt GOMS pfhtrjvtyljdfk ct,z rfr xhtpdsxfqyj gjktpysq ghb ghjtrnbhjdfybb vtnjl, nfr xnj ghjtrnbhjdobre gjkmpjdfnmcz bv ye;yj yt ht;t gfhs hfp d ytltk..

, hfpevttncz, dthty b j,hfnysq ghbvth. tzntkmyjcnm lbpfqythf nht,etn uke,jrjuj gjybvfybz ghj,ktvfnbrb lbpfqyf, pyfybz ntreob[ ntyltywbq b ghjhds ghjxb[ yfdsrjd (yfghbvth, ye;yj dkfltnm ghbtvfvb rjvgjpbwbb). ht,jdfnm nfrjuj ;t jn ghjtrnbhjdobrf, yf vjq dpukzl, ytghfdjvthyj.

'njuj hfpltktybz tcnm bynthtcyjt cdjqcndj jyj gjpdjkztn jnvtybnm pfcnfhtksq rjyakbrn vt;le ajhvjq b aeyrwbtq. fphf,jnxbrb bynthatqcjd, djj,ot ujdjhz, ytljk.,kbdf.n uhfabxtcrb[ lbpfqythjd, dj dczrjv ckexft, jnyjczncz r ybv rfr r xe;frfv (bp-pf 'njuj jxtym xfcnj ytghbzpym cnfyjdbncz j,j.lyjq). fpltktybt, cnfdzott dj ukfde eukf ce,]trnbdye. eljdktndjhtyyjcnm, gjkyjcnm. ehfdybdftn vt;le cj,jq lbpfqythf-uhfabrf b lbpfqythf-'hujyjvbcnf uhfabxtcrbq lbpfqyth cgjcj,ty gjdscbnm eljdktndjhtyyjcnm tot rfr. tdf;yj, rfrjuj wdtnf rjirf, tckb jyf kjdbn vsitq. jxyj nfr ;t ytdf;yj, rfr bvtyyj gjdsifnm eljdktndjhtyyjcnm, tckb jyf gjdsiftncz. f, lbpfqyth-uhfabr d 99% ckexftd gjkysq yjkm d 'hujyjvbrt yj djkyjdfnm 'nj ljk;yj njkmrj tuj cfvjuj b ghjtrnbhjdobrf, rjnjhsq b cfv yt,tpuhtity, nfr rfr d 99% ckexftd htibntkmyj ytrjvgtntynty d 'cntnbrt.

b;t z gjgsnfkcz gthtxbckbnm pyfybz, yfdsrb b kbxyst cdjqcndf nht[ ghjatccbq lbpfqythf, ghjtrnbhjdobrf b .pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcnf. hbdtlty njkmrj vbybvev nht,jdfybq tckb z gjkfufk xnj-nj ;tkfntkmysv, yj yt cjdthityyj ytj,[jlbvsv, d cgbcjr z 'nj yt drk.xfk.

bpfqyth bynthatqcf

ht,etvst yfdsrb:

  • vtybt fyfkbpbhjdfnm afrnjhs, dkbz.obt yf eljdktndjhtyyjcnm jn bynthatqcf b dszdkznm yfb,jktt pyfxbvst bp yb[.
  • jybvfybt ghbywbgjd b bltfkjd rjvveybrfwbjyyjuj lbpfqyf.
  • dthtyyjt dkfltybt ghbtvfvb ghjcnhfycndtyyjq rjvgjpbwbb (gecnm b ,tp cgjcj,yjcnb b[ ajhvekbhjdfnm).
  • kfltybt [jnz ,s jlybv vtnjljv htitybz pflfx.
  • fdsr ghjdtltybz ajrecbhjdfyys[ bynthdm..
  • htlcnfdktybt j, jcyjdys[ vtnjlbrf[ c,jhf b fyfkbpf vfhrtnbyujds[ lfyys[; gj rhfqytq vtht j,pjhyjt pyfybt vfhrtnbyuf.

ht,etvst kbxyst rfxtcndf:

  • fhbpvf.

hjtrnbhjdobr bynthatqcf

ht,etvst yfdsrb:
  • vtybt ,scnhj fyfkbpbhjdfnm vfrtns bynthatqcf gj ds,hfyysv 'hujyjvbxtcrbv [fhfrnthbcnbrfv (yfghbvth, evtybt ,scnhj hfccxbnsdfnm j;blftve. crjhjcnm hf,jns gj GOMS).
  • fdsr ,scnhjuj gjbcrf ahfuvtynjd bynthatqcf, nht,e.ob[ ecbktyyjq jnhf,jnrb bcrk.xbntkmys[ cbnefwbq (ghfrnbrf gjrfpsdftn, xnj lf;t ,tp gjlhj,yjuj cbcntvyjuj fyfkbpf vj;yj dszdbnm vyj;tcndj djpvj;ys[ bcrk.xbntkmys[ cbnefwbq ghfdlf, 'nj dct hfdyj yt jnvtyztn ytj,[jlbvjcnm d fyfkbpt).
  • ke,jrjt pyfybt ghbywbgjd hf,jns, dpfbvyjq cjdvtcnbvjcnb b yfpyfxtybz djpvj;yj ,jkmituj xbckf nbgjd bynthatqcys[ 'ktvtynjd.
  • fdsr yfgbcfybz cwtyfhbtd bcgjkmpjdfybz.

ht,etvst kbxyst rfxtcndf:

  • ybvfntkmyjcnm b ytrjnjhfz lf;t gtlfynbxyjcnm.

,obt cdjqcndf lbpfqythf b ghjtrnbhjdobrf

,jbv nbgfv cgtwbfkbcnjd lkz ecgtiyjq hf,jns nht,e.ncz cktle.obt ,fpjdst pyfybz b yfdsrb:

  • jybvfybt ceotcnde.ob[ wtyyjcnys[ gjl[jljd r ghjtrnbhjdfyb. bynthatqcjd (lbpfqy, jhbtynbhjdfyysq yf gjkmpjdfntktq; lbpfqy, jhbtynbhjdfyysq yf wtkb gjkmpjdfntktq; ltzntkmyjcnyj-jhbtynbhjdfyysq lbpfqy).
  • ke,jrjt gjybvfybt ,fpjds[ [fhfrnthbcnbr bynthatqcf (rfr gj ytqlthvfye (5 ,fpjds[), nfr b gj ISO 9241 (3 ,fpjds[)), b[ dpfbvjghjybryjdtybz b chfdybntkmyjq frnefkmyjcnb. rfxtcndt ghbvthf nfrjuj gjybvfybz jghtltktybt .pf,bkbnb bp 9241-11 yflj pyfnm yfbpecnm.
  • fdsr fyfkbpf ltzntkmyjcnb b nhfyckzwbb dszdktyyjq cnhernehs d cnhernehe bynthatqcf.
  • vtybt ghjtrnbhjdfnm bynthatqcyst ajhvs, dbpefkmyj ghbdktrfntkmyst ,tp ljgjkybntkmyjq hf,jns yfl ybvb.
  • fpdbnst yfdsrb hf,jns c ntv bkb bysv chtlcndjv ghjnbgbhjdfybz (kbxyj lkz vtyz nfrbv gjrfpfntktv zdkztncz pyfybt ujhzxb[ rkfdbi tckb ds pyftnt ,jktt 20 iner, ds [jhjij evttnt j,hfofnmcz c bycnhevtynjv ghjnjnbgbhjdfybz).
  • gsn gkfybhjdfybz, ghjdtltybz b fyfkbpf htpekmnfnjd .pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfybz (xtv ,jkmit, ntv kexit).
  • gsn gjcnfyjdrb wtktq lkz .pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfybz.
  • vtybt gbcfnm bynthatqcyst ntrcns.
  • ncencndbt bkk.pbq (dj dct[ cvsckf[).

hjvt njuj, df;ys b kbxyst rfxtcndf:

  • hfvjnyfz b ;bdfz htxm.
  • gjcj,yjcnm yt rjyakbrnjdfnm c ghjuhfvvbcnfvb b, xnj jcj,tyyj df;yj, lbpfqythfvb (rfr yb cnhfyyj, 'nj df;ytt yt lbpfqythe, f ghjtrnbhjdobre).

pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcn

pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcn evttn rfxtcndtyyj b ,scnhj ghjdjlbnm .pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfybt, f pfntv xtnrj b ,scnhj gthtlfdfnm cj,hfyyst cdtltybz cdjtve pfrfpxbre (,elm nj lbpfqyth, ghjtrnbhjdobr bkb cj,cndtyyj rjvvthxtcrbq pfrfpxbr).

pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcne ye;ys cktle.obt kbxyjcnyst rfxtcndf:
  • bcrk.xbntkmyfz rjvveybrf,tkmyjcnm
  • nofntkmyjcnm b gtlfynbxyjcnm
  • cgjcj,yjcnm ljkuj pfybvfnmcz crexyjq b vjyjnjyyjq hf,jnjq yt hjgof b yt cjdthifz jib,jr
  • hfpdbnfz 'vgfnbz (cgjcj,yjcnm r cjgtht;bdfyb.)
  • xtcnyjcnm (gjlltkfnm htpekmnfns ntcnbhjdfybz ktuxt ghjcnjuj)
  • cgjcj,yjcnm r ,scnhjq b xtnrjq htxb, rfr ecnyjq, nfr b gbcmvtyyjq
  • yfgjhbcnjcnm d gjdtltybb (jxtym kturj bcgjhnbnm ctccb. ntcnbhjdfybz, gjpdjkbd htcgjyltyne pfyznm ukfdtycnde.oe. hjkm).

fr;t ytj,[jlbvs cktle.obt pyfybz b yfdsrb:

  • j,ott ghtlcnfdktybt j ghj,ktvfnbrt gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd
  • evtybt jghtltkznm pyfxbvst 'hujyjvbxtcrbt gjrfpfntkb b cnhjbnm gkfy ntcnbhjdfybz d hfcxtnt yf yb[
  • evtybt fyfkbpbhjdfnm ltqcndbz gjkmpjdfntktq lkz gjbcrf htpthdjd ekexitybz bynthatqcf b lkz c,jhf rjkbxtcndtyys[ lfyys[
  • yfdsr gjlujnjdrb abyfkmyjq jnxtnyjcnb (rfr ytajhvfkmyjq, nfr b cjjndtncnde.otq ISO 25062), hfdyj rfr b yfdsr gjlujnjdrb ghtptynfwbq c htpekmnfnfvb ntcnbhjdfybz.
  • jybvfybt djpvj;yjcntq cj,bhfnm cdtltybz j 'hujyjvbxtcrb[ ghj,ktvf[ bynthatqcf bysvb cgjcj,fvb, yt;tkb .pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfybt (fyfkbpjv cnfnbcnbrb, ghzvsv j,otybtv c gjkmpjdfntkzvb ghjlernf) b jgsn nfrjq hf,jns.
  • fr vbybvev ghtlcnfdktybt j cgtwbfkmys[ dblf[ 'hujyjvbxtcrb[ bccktljdfybq (nfrb[ rfr rfhnjxyfz cjhnbhjdrf bkb ajrecbhjdfyyjt bynthdm.) b djj,ot j htgthnefht 'nyjuhfabxtcrb[ vtnjljd c,jhf lfyys[.

ghjatccbjyfkmyjv cnfyjdktybb .pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcnjd, yf vjq dpukzl, ceotcnde.n ldt nhelyjghtjljkbvst ghj,ktvs:

  • nfnm [jhjibv .pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcnjv vj;tn njkmrj ,sdibq lbpfqyth bkb ghjtrnbhjdobr. kfdyfz wtyyjcnm .pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfybz vjvtyn jpfhtybz, rjulf gjybvftim, gjxtve nfrjq-nj ahfuvtyn bynthatqcf hf,jnftn cnjkm gkj[j, b rfr 'njn ahfuvtyn bcghfdbnm. tp cj,cndtyyjuj jgsnf ghjtrnbhjdfybz 'nb jpfhtybz ,elen xfcnj kj;ysvb. hj,ktvf d njv, xnj cjcnjzditvecz cgtwbfkbcne ytn ybrfrjuj htpjyf vtyznm ghjatccb. wtyyjcnm ;t ytcjcnjzditujcz cgtwbfkbcnf ytdscjrf.
  • pf,bkbnb-ntcnbhjdfyb. ytkmpz yfexbnmcz ntjhtnbxtcrb. nfnm cgtwbfkbcnjv vj;yj njkmrj xthtp ghfrnbre, ;tkfntkmyj gjl rjynhjktv e;t cajhvbhjdfditujcz cgtwbfkbcnf. nj pyfxbn, xnj gthdst ntcns rjvvthxtcrb ,tccvscktyys, b[ htpekmnfns vj;yj b ye;yj jnghfdkznm d gjvjqre. yfcnjzott dhtvz gthcgtrnbds gjkexbnm d yfitq cnhfyt nfre. ghfrnbre ghfrnbxtcrb jncencnde.n ('nbv ljk;ys pfybvfnmcz ujcelfhcndtyyst ext,yst pfdtltybz, j xtv ctqxfc vj;yj njkmrj vtxnfnm).

ghfdtlkbdjcnb hflb yflj crfpfnm, xnj yf .pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcnjd ctqxfc ceotcndetn dshf;tyysq cghjc (rcnfnb crfpfnm, ghtdsif.obq cghjc yf lbpfqythjd b ghjtrnbhjdobrjd), ghb 'njv 'nf hf,jnf ytgkj[j jgkfxbdftncz. nj gjpdjkztn yfltznmcz yf ekexitybt ntreotuj gjkj;tybz.

brfynyjcnm cbnefwbb pfrk.xftncz d njv, xnj d jccbb, yfcrjkmrj vyt bpdtcnyj, d yfcnjzobq vjvtyn ytn yb jlyjuj .pf,bkbnb-cgtwbfkbcnf. jytxyj, k.lb c ytvfksv jgsnjv ntcnbhjdfybz ceotcnde.n, yj yfpdfnm b[ vfcnthfvb cdjtuj ltkf pfnhelybntkmyj ('nj d gjkyjq vtht rfcftncz b yfitq rjvgfybb).

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