a . 12 . 15


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A.Marcus gtwbfkbcns d j,kfcnb ghjuhfvvyjuj j,tcgtxtybz cjukfczncz c ntv, xnj [jhjibq gjkmpjdfntkmcrbq bynthatqc ekexiftn ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm b ghbdktrfntkmyjcnm hfpyjj,hfpys[ vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd - ntktajyjd, jhufyfqpthjd, cbcntv [hfytybz b djcghjbpdtltybz vepsrb b bpj,hf;tybq, yfdbufwbjyys[ ecnhjqcnd b ghjlernjd cgtwbfkmyjuj yfpyfxtybz lkz dthnbrfkmys[ hsyrjd: plhfdjj[hfytybz, abyfycjd, ghjbpdjlcndf, nehbpvf b gthtdjpjr.

fphf,jnxbrb gjybvf.n, xnj vs ;bdtv dj dhtvtyf ukj,fkmys[ bpvtytybq, [jnz fcnhjabpbrb ghjljk;f.n e,t;lfnm yfc d njv, xnj c vjvtynf dtkbrjuj dphsdf dct rheujv ghbikj d ,jktt cnf,bkmyjt cjcnjzybt, rjnjhjt ghbdtkj r gjzdktyb. ndthls[ 'ktvtynjd, bp rjnjhs[ cajhvbhjdfkcz yfi vbh. f,k.lfz pf gjcktlcndbzvb ukj,fkmyjq web-'rcgfycbb, vs j,yfhe;bdftv gj[j;e. rfhnbye d j,kfcnb ntktrjvveybrfwbq ,scnhjt bpvtytybt ajhv gjckt cnhtvbntkmyjuj ghjhsdf d j,kfcnb hfphf,jnrb cbcntv gthtlfxb lfyys[, b dsdjl yf hsyjr ghjlernjd, rjnjhst ,skb kbim ckturf cshsvb.

tvyjubt gjcnfdzn gjl cjvytybt nj, xnj yf cvtye yfcnjkmysv ghb[jlzn yjdst djpvj;yjcnb, ghtljcnfdkztvst gjhnfnbdysvb ecnhjqcndfvb. tv yt vtytt, cthmtpysv ghtgzncndbtv yf genb r cdtnkjve ,eleotve zdkztncz wtksq hzl vbajd bp j,kfcnb hfphf,jnrb ghbkj;tybq lkz vj,bkmys[ cbcntv. fdfqnt hfp,thtv cfvst jgfcyst bp 'nb[ vbajd.

ba: 3G e;t pltcm!
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ba: eyrwbb 'nj dct.
tn, yt dct. hjdtltyyst bccktljdfybz d j,kfcnb vj,bkmys[ ntktajyjd b ghjbpdjlcndf Samsung b Nokia gjrfpfkb, xnj gjkmpjdfntkzv ytj,[jlbvs crjhjcnm b ghjcnjnf d j,hfotybb. ytiybq dbl nfr;t bvttn pyfxtybt.

ghjlf;f[ vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd vfhrtnbyu d jcyjdyjv cjchtljnjxty yf rhfnrjchjxys[ pflfxf[, b yt ghbybvftn dj dybvfybt ljkujchjxyst gthcgtrnbds. fghbvth, d gjybb ctqxfc gjgekzhys kbypjdblyst 'rhfys vj,bkmys[ ntktajyjd, jlyfrj dhzl kb 'nf vjlf ghjlth;bncz ljkuj.

julf ghbltn dhtvz dpznmcz pf hfphf,jnre yjdjuj bynthatqcf, djcgjkmpeqntcm vtnjljv - y frcbvfkmyj hjcn yj ghb 'njv gjcnfhfqntcm yt lth;fnm gjnht,bntktq pf lehfrjd.

ba: tnjl idtqwfhcrjuj yj;f kexibq.
pukzybnt yf gjkre c [kjgmzvb lkz pfdnhfrf d cdjtv k.,bvjv ghjlernjdjv vfufpbyt juhjvysq ds,jh, yf k.,jq drec. jve-nj 'nj gjrf;tncz hjujv bpj,bkbz, lheubt ,elen ;fkjdfnmcz yf [fjc, ult nhelyj ,scnhj yfqnb bvtyyj nj, xnj ye;yj. vbht gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ b ghjbpdjlcndtyys[ vj,bkmys[ cbcntv vs yf,k.lftv j,]tlbytybt ecnhjqcnd, cjxtnf.ob[ ntktajys, jhufyfqpths, vepsre, dbltj, rfvths, buhs, gjlrk.xtybt r ynthytn b yfcnjkmyst ghbkj;tybz, c lheubvb ecnhjqcndfvb, d htpekmnfnt xtuj j,hfpe.ncz cjdthityyj ytvsckbvst rjv,byfwbb, c rjnjhsvb tldf kb gjl cbke ,eltn cghfdbnmcz rfr ghjbpdjlbntkzv, nfr b gjkmpjdfntkzv.

: jrecyst uheggs b bycnhevtyns fyfkbpf hsyrf kexibt chtlcndf jghtltktybz ye;l gjkmpjdfntkz.  
hjie ghjotybz. nb vtnjls ,jkmit gjl[jlzn lkz edtkbxtybz j,]tvjd ghjlf;, f yt lkz cjplfybz elj,yjuj lbpfqyf. fr;t ytj,[jlbvj dybvfntkmyj gjyf,k.lfnm pf gjkmpjdfntkzvb d ghjwtcct hf,jns c ecnhjqcndjv b ghjbuhfnm dct djpvj;yst cwtyfhbb. nf vtnjlbrf ghjltvjycnhbhetn dfv nj, j xtv cfvb gjnht,bntkb dhzl kb cvjuen cfvjcnjzntkmyj hfccrfpfnm. hjvt njuj, jgsnyst cgtwbfkbcns d j,kfcnb gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf cgjcj,ys hfpukzltnm vyj;tcndj ytpfvtnys[ ltnfktq, crhsns[ jn bccktljdfntktq hsyrjd b gjnht,bntktq: aeyrwbjyfkmyst bthfh[bb, djpvj;ye. gjnth. lfyys[, gthtrk.xtybt ecnhjqcnd ddjlf/dsdjlf, gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt vtnjls yfdbufwbb b pfghjcf gjvjob, f nfr;t vtnfajhs, bcgjkmpetvst gjnht,bntkzvb. ct 'nj gjvjuftn d jghtltktybb gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ hjktq, wtktq b pflfx. .lb pfxfcne. gkj[j ghtlcnfdkz.n ct,t djpvj;yjcnb, ghtljcnfdkztvst nt[yjkjubxtcrbvb yjdbyrfvb. ghbvthe, cke;,f rjhjnrb[ cjj,otybq (SMS) ybrjulf yt ,skf j,]trnjv gjdsityyjuj gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthtcf, jlyfrj c vjvtynf cdjtuj gjzdktybz jyf ,ehyj hfpdbdfkfcm.

hjvt njuj, d ,bpytc-cjj,otcndf[ gjkmpjdfntkb, rfr ghfdbkj, gkj[j ghtlcnfdkz.n ct,t nt nhelyjcnb, c rjnjhsvb ghbltncz cnjkryenmcz, tckb cbcntvf bkb ecnhjqcndj jrf;encz ljcnfnjxyj ecgtiysvb b djcnht,jdfyysvb. gfv-rjynhjkm, djkjrbnf c abkmnhfwbtq 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns b cyb;tybt ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb cnfkb ytghtldbltyysvb gjcktlcndbzvb gjzdktybz nt[yjkjubb j,vtyf cjj,otybzvb xthtp ynthytn.

ba: ckb 'nj hf,jnftn d bkbrjyjdjq ljkbyt, 'nj ,eltn hf,jnfnm dtplt.
v. gznm ytdthyj. ccktljdfntkm bp blthkfyljd fhbrt lt jjqb endth;lftn, xnj, j,kflfz ljcnfnjxysv ehjdytv lj[jljd, gjnht,bntkb nzyencz r jlybv b ntv ;t nt[yjkjubxysv dtofv, jlyfrj bcgjkmpe.n b[ gj-hfpyjve, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, d rfrjq cnhfyt jyb ;bden b r rfrjq rekmneht ghbyflkt;fn (cv. Internet and Culture d Symposium Proceedings b Internet, Economic Growth and Globalization Institute for International and Regional Economic Relations, Gerhard-Mercator-University, Duisburg, Germany duecn 2001). ccktljdfybt nfr;t gjrfpfkj, xnj rekmnehyst nhflbwbb jrfpsdf.n dkbzybt yf Web b ghjxbt gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt bynthatqcs (cv. cnfnm. fhrecf b ekmlf d ,jrjdjv vty.  jgjkybntkmyfz kbnthfnehf). WuKong, ghjnjnbg /ntktajyf, hfphf,jnfyysq rjvgfybtq Sony Ericsson (cv. http://www.pointforward.com/), ,elexb gjkyjcnm. rbnfqcrjq dthcbtq, cjplfyyjq lkz rbnfqcrb[ gjkmpjdfntktq, yt njkmrj bcgjkmpetn rbnfqcrbt bthjukbas, yj b jgthbhetn jnkbxbntkmysvb aeylfvtynfkmysvb vtnfajhfvb yt ljrevtynfvb, ghbkj;tybzvb b gfgrfvb, f k.lmvb, jnyjitybzvb b pyfybzvb, ghbxtv gjl pyfybzvb gjybvftncz kexibq jgsn (cwtyfhbb ltqcndbq) dregt c nhflbwbjyyjq velhjcnm.. jrfkbpfwbz, drk.xf.ofz gthtdjl yf vtcnysq zpsr, ytj,[jlbvf, yj jlyjuj kbim gthtdjlf jrfpsdftncz ytljcnfnjxyj.

ekmnehyst b yfwbjyfkmyst jcj,tyyjcnb nfr;t dkbz.n yf cgjcj, ajhvbhjdfybz eckeu. rf;tv, d gjybb cthdbc-ghjdfqlths dscnfdkz.n cxtn pf gfrtn eckeu, f d pf tlbybwe dhtvtyb.

ba: ,jqyjq dtom. cnfytn fdnjvfnbpfwbz bujhyjuj ''' njhujdjuj ctuvtynf. kb ytn, d cvsckt 

f;lfz j,kfcnm ghbvtytybz bvttn cjjndtncnde.obt tq ctuvtyns hfpkbxys[ hsyrjd b hfpkbxyst dfhbfyns lbpfqyf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf.

z;tkj ghtlcrfpsdfnm ,eleott. fccf djpvj;yjcntq d hfpkbxys[ j,kfcnz[ ghbvtytybz vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd tot yt hfcrhsnf gjkyjcnm. (cv. s pltcm). nb j,kfcnb vjuen zdbnmcz gjntywbfkmysvb bcnjxybrfvb byajhvfwbb j kbxys[ lfyys[ gjkmpjdfntkz, tuj hfpdktxtybz[, rjynfrnf[ c lheubvb k.lmvb, pf,jnt j cj,cndtyyjv pljhjdmt b gjdsitybb ehjdyz j,hfpjdfybz, ljcnegt r byajhvfwbjyysv htcehcfv b rjvvthxtcrjq byajhvfwbb. dkzzcm gjkyjwtyysvb byajhvfwbjyysvb, cbcntvysvb b hfpdktrfntkmysvb chtlfvb, vj,bkmyst ecnhjqcndf dct tot yt hfcrhsdf.n gjkyjcnm. dct[ cdjb[ ghtbveotcnd lkz gjkmpjdfntktq hfpkbxys[ djphfcnjd, cnhfy b yfhjljd. f;ljt bp nfrb[ gjntywbfkmys[ ghtbveotcnd vj;tn jrfpfnmcz rk.xtdsv lkz rfrjq-kb,j bp ltvjuhfabxtcrb[, gjnht,bntkmcrb[, ltkjds[ b rekmnehys[ gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ rfntujhbq. .,fz j,kfcnm ghbvtytybz ghtljcnfdkztn hfphf,jnxbrfv gjntywbfkmye. djpvj;yjcnm cthmtpyj gjdkbznm yf ghjbpdjlcndtyyst bkb gjnht,bntkmcrbt cnhfntubb. fghbvth, hfccvjnhbv j,kfcnm, jnyjczoe.cz r vtlbwbyt: pf,jnf j cj,cndtyyjv pljhjdmt vj;tn ghbdtcnb r ytj,[jlbvjcnb htuekzhyjuj j,vtyf byajhvfwbtq vt;le gfwbtynfvb b ljrnjhfvb. kb djpmvtv gjcnhjtybt b gjllth;re jnyjitybq d ltkjdjq chtlt: yfkbxbt cke;,, gjpdjkz.ob[ cdjtdhtvtyyj jgjdtofnm j dcnhtxf[, ghtljcnfdkznm dc. ytj,[jlbve. lkz ghjdtltybz rfrjuj-kb,j vthjghbznbz byajhvfwb., jgthfnbdyj byajhvbhjdfnm j, bpvtytybz[ flhtcjd b ntktajyjd cjnhelybrjd b rkbtynjd, gjpdjkbn jnrhsnsv b ghfuvfnbxysv rjvgfybzv lj,bnmcz dslf.ob[cz ecgt[jd.

ba: fvsv gjgekzhysv ecnhjqcndjv cnfytn rjv,byfwbz ntktajyf, jhufyfqpthf, vepsrfkmyjuj b dbltjgktthf.

fr ujdjhbk fvktn, cnm vyjujt yf cdtnt, lheu jhfwbj, xnj b yt cybkjcm yfibv velhtwfv. cfvjv ltkt, djpvj;yjcnb d 'njq j,kfcnb gjbcnbyt ,tpuhfybxys. fghbvth, gjlevfqnt, rfrbt cgtwbabxtcrbt jcj,tyyjcnb vj,bkmys[ ghbkj;tybq b rjyntynf vjukb ,s gjrfpfnmcz ghbdktrfntkmysvb cnfht.otve yfctktyb. 'gj[b ,',b-,evf (fyfkbnbrb gj .pf,bkbnb jnvtxf.n, xnj 'nj gjrjktybt bcgsnsdftn ghj,ktvs cj cke[jv, gkj[j hfcgjpyftn vtkrbq ntrcn b cnhflftn jn fhnhbnf). d gjybb yfctktybt cnfhttn ,scnhtt dctuj d vbht. yfxbn, vj,bkmyst ghbkj;tybz, jhbtynbhjdfyyst yf 'ne djphfcnye. rfntujhb., vjukb ,s cjlth;fnm htrjvtylfwbb gj ds,jhe lbtns, j,pjh djpvj;yjcntq vtlbwbycrjuj j,cktljdfybz b ktxtybz, f nfr;t aeyrwbb cdjtdhtvtyyjuj byajhvbhjdfybz b yfgjvbyfybz j df;ys[ ltkf[. kb djpmvtv nhfycgjhn. fphf,jnrf fdnjvj,bkmyjuj gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf ghjbpdtkf htdjk.wb. d vbht vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd. hfycgjhnyst chtlcndf ghjljk;f.n frnbdyj bcgjkmpjdfnm gthtljdst nt[yjkjubb d j,kfcnb ctntq, rjvveybrfwbq b lfnxbrjd; vtyztncz nfr;t djcghbznbt byajhvfwbb djlbntkzvb b gfccf;bhfvb. jpvj;yj, dcrjht fdnjvj,bkb ,elen ghtljcnfdkznm yfv gjkmpjdfntkmcrbq bynthatqc c hfcibhtyysvb aeyrwbzvb b dcz ytj,[jlbvfz byajhvfwbz ,eltn dsdtltyf yf bynthfrnbdyst 'rhfys, gjpdjkz.obt dbhnefkmyj gthtvtcnbnmcz d lheujt vtcnj. fccf;bhs cvjuen exfcndjdfnm d bynthfrnbdys[ buhf[ c gfccf;bhfvb lheub[ fdnjvj,bktq. s edblbv yf 'nb[ 'rhfyf[ bycnherwbb gj dj;ltyb. b gfhrjdrt fdnjvj,bkz, byajhvfwb. j htvjynt, cvj;tv pfrfpfnm pfgfcyst xfcnb, ghjcvjnhtnm htrkfve ghjuhfvv gjnht,bntkmcrjq kjzkmyjcnb. yntkktrnefkmyst gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt bynthatqcs gjpdjkzn dfhmbhjdfnm cgjcj,s ddjlf b jnj,hf;tybz byajhvfwbb jn dbpefkmys[ b ctycjhys[ gfytktq lj ujkjcjdjuj eghfdktybz. jkmpjdfntkb cvjuen ds,bhfnm cgjcj, rjvveybrfwbb d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, ldb;tncz bkb cnjbn fdnjvj,bkm, b nfrbv j,hfpjv cybpbnm byajhvfwbjyye. yfuhepre b gjpdjkbnm djlbntk. crjywtynhbhjdfnmcz yf ljhjut. jdjhz j, "e,jqys[" ghbkj;tybz[, yt ye;yj pf,sdfnm j njv, xnj fdnjvj,bkb, gj cenb, cfvb zdkz.ncz lde[njyysvb vj,bkmysvb ecnhjqcndfvb, ldb;eobvbcz cj crjhjcnm. 60 vbkm d xfc, b jyb ltqcndbntkmyj cgjcj,ys e,bnm yfc. tpjgfcyjcnm d lbpfqyt vj,bkmyjuj bynthatqcf gjkmpjdfntkz lkz nhfycgjhnys[ chtlcnd cnfytn xhtpdsxfqyj ckj;yjq pflfxtq, df;yjcnm rjnjhjq ,jkmibycndj hfphf,jnxbrjd gjrf tot yt jcjpyftn.

ba: hjvsiktyyjcnm cnhtvbncz r tlbyjve cnfylfhne gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf.

ekmnehysq ijr
hfdybdfz gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt bynthatqcs vj,bkmys[ ntktajyjd, vs gjybvftv, xnj tlbycndtyyfz df;yfz b j,]tlbyz.ofz b[ ltnfkm bvz ghjbpdjlbntkz yfl 'rhfyjv.  

njxrb phtybz gjkmpjdfntkz ,skj ,s pljhjdj. ds, rfgbnfkbpv dhzl kb ljgecnbn 'nj, gjrf rfrjq-yb,elm vjycnh yt pf[dfnbn hsyjr, rfr 'nj cltkfk Microsoft c yfcnjkmysvb . Nokia nfr;t gjl[jlzobq rfylblfn yf 'ne hjkm, yj njkmrj tckb htxm bltn njkmrj j vj,bkmys[ ntktajyf[. jrf tot yt zcyj, rnj ,eltn ljvbybhjdfnm yf j,]tlbyz.ob[cz hsyrf[ ,eleotuj. pukzybnt yf fdnjvj,bkmye. ghjvsiktyyjcnm bpyfxfkmyj d ytq wfhbk byyjdfwbjyysq [fjc, pfntv, rjulf hzl ghjbpdjlcnd ghbitk d egfljr, jcyjdyst ghjbpdjlbntkb gjikb gj jlyjve genb: hfcgjkj;tybt hektdjuj rjktcf, gtlfktq b jcyjdys[ 'ktvtynjd gfytkb eghfdktybz cnfkb ghfrnbxtcrb eybdthcfkmysvb ([jnz d ytrjnjhs[ cnhfyf[ lj cb[ gjh "dct ltkf.n yfj,jhjn"). ct ;t dnjhjcntgtyyst 'ktvtyns eghfdktybz b aeyrwbjyfkmyst ecnhjqcndf hfpvtof.ncz ljcnfnjxyj ghjbpdjkmyj yfghbvth, gfccf;bhs vjuen ljkuj bcrfnm ldthye. hexre. ckb dpznm ysytiytt ghjbpdjlcndj ntktajyjd, cyf,;tyys[ jhufyfqpthfvb, nj lf;t c 'nbv ghjcnsv yf,jhjv ghbkj;tybq b[ lbpfqy b 'ktvtyns eghfdktybz ceotcndtyyj jnkbxf.ncz lheu jn lheuf (cv. ekmnehysq ijr b hbywbgs jhufybpfwbb). hbybvfz dj dybvfybt ctujlyziytt ,ehyjt hfpdbnbt b byyjdfwbb, dhzl kb cnjbn hfccxbnsdfnm yf cnf,bkmyjcnm b njh;tcndj tlbyjq rjywtgwbb d ,kb;fqibt ujls. cdzpb c 'nbv hfphf,jnxbrfv jcnftncz yfltznmcz yf herjdjlcndj, rjnjhjt gjvj;tn bv gthtrk.xfnmcz vt;le hfpysvb cbcntvfvb ytxnj d njv ;t le[t, xnj b herjdjlcndj lkz gjkmpjdfntktq yfcnjkmys[ cbcntv (cv. rybue fhrecf, vbkjybxf b jvgcjyf d hfpltkt jgjkybntkmyfz kbnthfnehf).

hbywbgs jhufybpfwbb

fr b e vj,bkmys[ ntktajyjd, e yf,k.lftncz ,jkmijt hfpyjj,hfpbt d hfcgjkj;tybb 'rhfyjd b ryjgjr eghfdktybz.

ba: scjrjghjbpdjlbntkmyst cbcntvs e;t yt pf ujhfvb.

, tckb ,s 'nj ,skj nfr, gjyflj,bkjcm ,s dctuj ytcrjkmrj ekexitybq. lyfrj vfhrtnjkjub, pfxfcne. cjchtljnfxbdfzcm yf ytj,sxyjv b eybrfkmyjv gjkmpjdfntkmcrjv jgsnt b jcyjdsdfzcm yf cj,cndtyys[ bynthghtnfwbz[ gjnht,bntkmcrb[ lfyys[, ujnjds dspdfnm cghjc yf 'rpjnbxtcrbt cbcntvs j,kflf.obt vyj;tcndjv pfxfcne. ,tcgjktpys[ aeyrwbq b bvt.obt vbybvev c[j;b[ c bysvb ecnhjqcndfvb [fhfrnthbcnbr. jpmvtv rhbnbxtcrbq j,pjh ghjlerwbb Nokia b Siemens jknthf . jcc,thuf d The Wall Street Journal (Fashion-Forward Phones Put Form over Function, atdhfkm 12, 2003), d rjnjhjv jy jgbcsdftn ytaeyrwbjyfkmysq b xthtcxeh buhbdsq lbpfqy rkfdbfneh. fvtnmnt, xnj jhbtynbhezcm yf vjkjlt;ye. felbnjhb., ds vj;tnt dsujlyj ghjlfnm nfrbt "inexrb", rfr, yfghbvth, rhjitxyfz rkfdbfnehf MP3-ecnhjqcndf Cybiko. jlj,yst htitybz vjuen ghjljk;fnm gjkmpjdfnmcz cghjcjv e vjkjljq felbnjhbb, ghtlgjxbnf.otq cnbkm cjlth;fyb.; d ghbywbgt, pltcm htxm bltn j rjynhrekmneht.

ghjvsiktyyjv ctrnjht d dthnbrfkmys[ jnhfckz[ (yfghbvth, d ecnhjqcndf[ vjybnjhbyuf cjcnjzybz pljhjdmz gfwbtynf), .pf,bkbnb ,eltn eltkznmcz ,jkmijt dybvfybt. lyfrj b pltcm lbpfqyths dct ,jkmit ajrecbhe.n cdjt dybvfybt yf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjv jgsnt, xnj byjulf dktxtn pf cj,jq dytiybt erhfitybz b 'vjwbjyfkmyst bpub,s. f;t ehfdyjdtityysq Nokia Communicator pfgjkexbk xedcndtyyst gznyf yf cdjtv rjulf-nj fcrtnbxtcrjv j,kbrt. rjhj jnltkmyst ghjlerns, bvt.obt dtkbrjktgysq dbl, yj yt jcj,j gjktpyst d ljkujchjxyjv gkfyt, vj;yj ,eltn dcnhtnbnm d vt;leyfhjlys[ veptz[ lbpfqyf.

ba: lbycndtyyfz cnfytn ljvbybhe.otq.
gjhbv, Microsoft nfr b levftn? [jljv dhtvtyb, jlyfrj, vj,bkmyst ecnhjqcndf dj dctv vbht gjllth;bdf.n dct ,jkmitt xbckj ghjuhfvvys[ ghbkj;tybq, jn xtuj vjpu hfphf,jnxbrjd ghjcnj dcrbgftn. lby bp cgjcj,jd ,snm d rehct dctq 'njq vfccs ghjlernjd b nt[yjkjubq (Microsoft, Nokia, Palm, Symbian, WCDMA, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GSM, GPS, MSMS, MPEG b lheubt) - djcgjkmpjdfnmcz [jhjibvb jykfqyjdsvb ckjdfhzvb gj hfpyjj,hfpysv nt[yjkjubzv lkz vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd fghbvth:http://in.mobile.yahoo.com/glossary.html, www.phoneinfo.net/portal/glossary.html bkb www.mobilecomms-technology.com/contractors/handset/mobileglossary.html. (cv. kjdfhm gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf)

ba: j,bkmyst ecnhjqcndf cnfyen ,tcgkfnysvb bkb gjxnb ,tcgkfnysvb.
trjnjhst ghjvsiktyyst ghjlerns, jlyjhfpjdst rfhns ghtljgkfns bkb rjvgjytyns r ecnhjqcndfv ,elen hfplfdfnmcz ,tcgkfnyj d wtkz[ ghbdktxtybz gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd lkz gjregrb ljkujchjxys[ cthdbcys[ rjynhfrnjd. tv yt vtytt, yf ghbvtht hjcrjiys[ pjkjns[ ntktajyjd jn Nokia vs dblbv, xnj ,jufnst gjkmpjdfntkb dctulf ,elen bvtnm gjl herjq vj,bkmyst ecnhjqcndf, dsltkz.obt b[ bp njkgs b cnjzobt cnjkmrj, crjkmrj ytrjnjhst ;bntkb yfitq gkfytns pfhf,fnsdf.n pf ujl, f d jnltkmys[ cnhfyf[ b pf ltcnm ktn.

ba: jn-djn gjzdzncz yjdst cke;,s gthtlfxb lfyys[
jpvj;yj, d gjybb jyb dcrjht b gjzdzncz, yj d ujkjcjdst 3G-cthdbcs gthtlfxb lfyys[ gjkexfn ibhjrjt hfcghjcnhfytybt jny.lm yt pfdnhf. kbirjv vyjubt rjvgfybb gjghj,jdfkb yfxfnm cj dctuj b chfpe. hjldbyenfz nt[yjkjubz yt j,zpfntkmyj ljk;yf htifnm ghj,ktvs crjhjcnb gthtlfxb lfyys[ b lbpfqyf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf. ghjljk;tybt ntvs, dfv cnjbn jpyfrjvbnmcz c ghfdbkmysv gjl[jljv r hfphf,jnrfv, rjnjhsq jgbcsdftn ghjatccjh ;taahb . fyr bp ybdthcbntnf j,t, gjybz (cv. tuj rybue d hfpltkt jgjkybntkmyfz kbnthfnehf).

j vytyb. fyrf, df;yj yfxfnm c ghjcnjuj, crjywtynhbhjdfnmcz yf gjnht,bntkz[ ,fpjds[ htitybq b yt edktrfnmcz ,jufnsvb yf,jhfvb djpvj;yjcntq. y rhbnbretn pfgflye. jhbtynfwb. yf ,bpytc-gjkmpjdfntktq b dscjrjghb,skmyst njdfhs b, dvtcnt c ntv, [dfkbn zgjycre. ghbdth;tyyjcnm vjkjlt;yjve hsyre c tuj ytljhjubvb, yj jxtym gjgekzhysvb ghjlernfvb b eckeufvb. fyr gjlxthrbdftn ytj,[jlbvjcnm bcgjkmpjdfybz ceotcnde.otq nt[yjkjubb yf ghbvtht rheukjcenjxys[ ghjlernjds[ cegthvfhrtnjd Lawsons, ytrjnjhjt dhtvz ghjlfdfdib[ ,bktns njkmrj yf jlby dbl gjgekzhys[ vepsrfkmys[ ghtlcnfdktybq lj njuj, rfr yfxfnm ghtlkfufnm ,jktt hfpyjj,hfpyst eckeub. njn ;t gjl[jl dpzn yf djjhe;tybt bcgfycrbv BankInter, rjnjhsq ghtlkj;bk ghjcne. vj,bkmye. eckeue SMS-,fyrbyuf yf jcyjdt ceotcnde.ob[ nt[yjkjubxtcrb[ gkfnajhv. kz j,tcgtxtybz ,tpjgfcyjcnb d 'njv cthdbct bcgjkmpjdfkbcm ,evf;yst rfhns c rjljv (yt cvfhn-rfhns). f ytrjnjhs[ dthnbrfkmys[ hsyrf[, nfrb[ rfr abyfycs b plhfdjj[hfytybt, vj,bkmyst eckeub gthtlfxb lfyys[ vjuen ghjxyj pfyznm cdj. ybie. nfrbt htitybz e;t ceotcnde.n r ghbvthe, ghbkj;tybz lkz vj,bkmyjuj ,hjrthf, rjnjhjve ytj,[jlbvj d htfkmyjv dhtvtyb gjkexfnm byajhvfwb. j hsyrf[ yf cdjq . nb eckeub j;blftn ,jkmijt ,eleott, tckb jyb ,elen ghfdbkmyj hfphf,jnfys b jhbtynbhjdfys yf ye;ls gjkmpjdfntktq, jcjpyf.ob[ cdj. dsujle jn ghbvtytybz gjlj,ys[ nt[yjkjubq.

hfcghjcnhfytybtv vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd hfphf,jnxbrb b gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd ljk;ys j,]tlbybnm cdjb ecbkbz, cjplfdfz gjktpyst, elj,yst d bcgjkmpjdfybb b ghbdktrfntkmyst ghjlerns b cbcntvs. yfybz j gjldjlys[ rfvyz[, pfrk.xtyys[ d 'nb[ 12 vbaf[, gjvjuen hfphf,fnsdfnm ghfdbkmyj aeyrwbjybhe.obt bynthatqcs c ghbtvktvsv dhtvtytv jnrkbrf, jhbtynbhjdfyyst yf jghtltktyye. gjkmpjdfntkmcre. felbnjhb.. 60-t ujls bljk gjg-rekmnehs fhifk fr.'y dscrfpfk blt. j njv, xnj vfnthbz 'nj cjj,otybt. ktle.obt cjhjr ktn, yf ghjnz;tybb rjnjhs[ vs buhftv c nt[yjkjubzvb, rjnjhst yt vju ghtldbltnm lf;t nfrjq bpdtcnysq aenehbcn, vs dsye;ltys eltkznm dybvfybt cnbk., dshf;f.otve yfie dyenhtyy.. ceoyjcnm.

kjdfhm gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf

julf gjxnb ytn jgjhs, nhflbwbjyyjt xtkjdtxtcrjt dpfbvjltqcndbt ,tpuhfybxyj.

fphf,jnrf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf drk.xftn d ct,z cjplfybt ghbkj;tybz, wtkm rjnjhjuj bynebnbdyj cdzpfnm djtlbyj lbcgktq rjvgm.nthf b ukfpf, herb b vsckb gjkmpjdfntkz. jywtynhbhezcm yf lhe;tcndtyyjv gjkmpjdfntk. lbpfqyt, gjkmpjdfntkmcrjv vjltkbhjdfybb, fyfkbpt pflfx gjkmpjdfntkz, ltvjuhfabxtcrb[ gjrfpfntkz[, ye;lf[ b wtkz[ dpfbvjjnyjitybq b dpfbvjltqcndbz vt;le k.lmvb, f nfr;t vt;le xtkjdtrjv b rjvgm.nthjv, hfphf,jnrf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf drk.xftn d ct,z nhflbwbjyyst afps: gkfybhjdfybt, bccktljdfybt, fyfkbp, lbpfqy, dytlhtybt, jwtyre, htubcnhfwb. b j,extybt. dexbn pyfrjvj? hjot ujdjhz, UI-ghjtrnbhjdobrb hfphf,fnsdf.n vtnfajhs, vtynfkmyst vjltkb, yfdbufwb., dpfbvjltqcndbt b dytiybq lbpfqy.

jn rhfnrbq ckjdfhm nthvbyjd:
tnfajhs ghtlcnfdkz.n cj,jq aeylfvtynfkmyst gjyznbz, cjj,oftvst gjchtlcndjv ckjd, bpj,hf;tybq, pderjd, drecjd, pfgf[jd b nfrnbkmys[ joeotybq. rjvgm.nthys[ jgthfwbjyys[ cbcntvf[ vtnfajhs cke;fn pfvtyjq vyj;tcndf jnltkmys[ 'ktvtynjd b gjvjuf.n gjkmpjdfntkzv gjybvfnm, pfgjvbyfnm b bcgjkmpjdfnm j,]trns b jnyjitybz dyenhb 'nb[ cbcntv. tnfajhs vjuen ,snm dctj,]tvk.obvb, kb,j dshf;fnm kbim ytrjnjhst fcgtrns gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf.

hbvthjv dctj,]tvk.otq vtnfajhs vj;tn gjcke;bnm gjyznbt yfcnjkmyfz cbcntvf, rjnjhjt j,jpyfxftn rjvgm.nthye. jgthfwbjyye. cbcntve, aeyrwbb b lfyyst. rjyrhtnysv fcgtrnfv vj;yj jnytcnb rjhpbye, jryf b b[ 'ktvtyns eghfdktybz, cnhfybws, xfns b ,kjub (web-,kjub, bkb web-lytdybrb). rjhjcnm bpj,htntybz vtnfajh, drk.xfz ytjkjubpvs (bpj,htntybt dth,fkmys[ vtnfajh) ,eltn djphfcnfnm ,kfujlfhz cnhtvbntkmyjq hfphf,jnrt b hfcghjcnhfytyb. hfpdbdf.ob[cz ghjlernjd b eckeu xthtp vj,bkmyst ecnhjqcndf b web. trjnjhst bccktljdfntkb ghtlcrfpsdf.n rjytw vtnfajhbxtcrjq 'hs yfcnjkmys[ cbcntv b dytlhtybt aeylfvtynfkmyj yjds[ vtnfajh lkz vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd.

tynfkmyst vjltkb ghtlcnfdkz.n cj,jq cnhernehs bkb jhufybpfwb. lfyys[, aeyrwbq, pflfx, hjktq b k.ltq d uheggs yf hf,jxtv vtcnt, yf jnls[t bkb d ljhjut. hbvthjv hjlcndtyys[, yj yt bltynbxys[ nbgjd vtynfkmys[ vjltktq zdkz.ncz gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt vjltkb (drk.xfz gjyznbz gthcjy, wtktq, ye;l, ;tkfybq, hjktq b n. l.), gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt rjuybnbdyst vjltkb, gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt wtktdst vjltkb b lbpfqythcrbt vjltkb. tynfkmyst vjltkb ltvjycnhbhe.n bthfh[bb cjlth;fybz, bycnhevtynjd, cgtwbabxtcrb[ aeyrwbq, vtlbf-chtlcnd, hjktq, wtktq, pflfx b n.g. trjnjhst cgtwbfkbcns jgthbhe.n gjyznbzvb wtktdjuj lbpfqyf, gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj lbpfqyf, ghjuhfvvyjuj lbpfqyf b n. l. nb ecnfyjdrb gjlxthrbdf.n df;yjcnm ltnfkmyjuj fyfkbpf hfpyjj,hfpbz vtynfkmys[ vjltktq.

fdbufwbz gjlhfpevtdftn gthtvtotybt vt;le vtynfkmysvb vjltkzvb, bysvb ckjdfvb, dyenhb cjlth;fybz b bycnhevtynjd. ktvtynfvb gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, j,tcgtxbdf.obvb 'nj gthtvtotybt, zdkz.ncz vty., jryf, gfytkb eghfdktybz, gbrnjuhfvvs, lbfkjujdst jryf b gfytkb bycnhevtynjd (gfkbnhs). vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcndf[ lkz yfdbufwbb dyenhb vfktymrjuj 'rhfyf dctulf ytj,[jlbvj dsgjkyznm vyj;tcndj ltqcndbq (otkxrjd) lkz gtht[jlf r ye;ysv cnhfybwfv, f nfr;t xfcnj nht,etncz rhtfnbdysq gjl[jl r j,jpyfxtyb. 'ktvtynjd lkz xtnrjuj b[ gjybvfybz.

pfbvjltqcndbt drk.xftn d ct,z vtnjls ddjlf/dsdjlf, bylbrfnjhs cjcnjzybz b byst cgjcj,s j,hfnyjq cdzpb. kz cjdhtvtyys[ rjvgm.nthys[ gkfnajhv ghbvthjv vj;tn gjcke;bnm hf,jnf c hfpkbxysvb ecnhjqcndfvb rkfdbfnehjq, vsim., hexrjq b vbrhjajyjv lkz ddjlf lfyys[, b 'rhfyfvb, lbyfvbrfvb bkb yfeiybrfvb lkz b[ dsdjlf. kj,fkmysvb ghbvthfvb vjuen cnfnm rjyntrcnyst gjyznbz, cwtyfhbb bcgjkmpjdfybz b wtktgjkfuf.obt ltqcndbz ,jktt ibhjrjuj vfcinf,f. vj,bkmys[ ntktajyf[ ceotcndetn hzl gfhflbuv lkz cnfylfhnys[ ryjgjr c gjcnjzyysvb aeyrwbzvb lkz ghbyznbz b jrjyxfybz dspjdf, f nfr;t lkz yfpyfxftvs[ ryjgjr, bcgjkmpetvs[ lkz jcnfkmys[ aeyrwbq. vyjub[ ecnhjqcnd tcnm vbybfn.hyfz rkfdbfnehf lkz ddjlf ntrcnf bkb cnbkec lkz ds,jhf vtkrb[ cbvdjkjd.

ytiybt gfhfvtnhs ghtlecvfnhbdf.n dct df;yst gthwtgwbjyyst fnhb,ens dbpefkmyst, felbfkmyst b nfrnbkmyst. ybv jnyjczncz ds,jh wdtnf, ihbanf, nbgf fybvfwbb, dth,fkmyjuj cnbkz (yfghbvth, vyjujckjdysq bkb rhfnrbq, ajhvfkmysq bkb ytajhvfkmysq), pderjds[ cbuyfkjd b ht;bvjd db,hfwbb.

bpefkbpfwbz byajhvfwbb, jnltkmysq fcgtrn gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, zdkztncz chtlcndjv dshf;tybz cnherneh b ghjwtccjd, rjnjhst vjuen jnj,hf;fnmcz d f,cnhfrnyjq bkb htghtptynfnbdyjq ajhvt. fghbvth, r nt[yjkjubzv dbpefkbpfwbb byajhvfwbb jnyjczncz nf,kbws, ajhvs, uhfabrb, rfhns b lbfuhfvvs. fv nthvby erfpsdftn d gthde. jxthtlm yf bpj,hf;tybt, jlyfrj jy hfcghjcnhfyztncz b yf lheubt ctycjhyst cgjcj,s dshf;tybz byajhvfwbb. vbht vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd hfphf,jnxbrb pfxfcne. dsye;ltys yf vfkjv dbpefkmyjv ghjcnhfycndt hfpvtofnm dct, xnj njkmrj vj;yj. nj j,cnjzntkmcndj vj;tn ghbdtcnb r gjzdktyb. gthtljds[ rhtfnbdys[ gjl[jljd, nfrb[ rfr byyjdfwbjyyst njgjkjubxtcrbt lbfuhfvvs, bkb bcgjkmpjdfybt ujkjcjds[ b dbpefkmys[ cgjcj,jd ddjlf b ghtlcnfdktybz lfyys[ lkz bccktljdfybz rjvgktrcys[ byajhvfwbjyys[ ghjcnhfycnd. bpefkbpfwbz byajhvfwbb d ecnhjqcndf[-yfkfljyybrf[, gj;fkeq, zdkztncz yfb,jktt ckj;yjq b bynhbue.otq bp dct[ 'nb[ j,kfcntq pyfybq.

 ahjy fhrec

jgjkybntkmyfz kbnthfnehf

The Mobile Internet: How Japan Dialed Up and the West Disconnected, Jeffrey Lee Funk (ISI Publications, 2001).
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Geert Hofstede (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

xthrb b rybub fhjyf fhrecf:

International and Intercultural UIs, bp UIs for All (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2000).
UI Design and Culture, ukfdf 25, bp Handbook of Human-Computer Interface Design (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002).
Mapping UIs to Culture, ukfdf 2, bp International UI Design (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
Crosscurrents: Cultural Dimensions and Global Web UI Design, cjdvtcnyj c vbkb . ekl, bp Interactions (ACM Publisher, 2000).
The Cross-GUI Handbook, cjdvtcnyj c byy jvgcjy (Addison-Wesley, 1994).

ahjy fhrec ghtpbltyn Aaron Marcus and Associates Inc., rjvgfybb, pfybvf.otqcz fyfkbnbrjq b rjycfknbyujv d j,kfcnb vj,bkmyjuj UI-lbpfqyf b .pf,bkbnb, jabcs rjnjhjq hfcgjkj;tys d fkbajhybb b m.-jhrt. upa.org.ru

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