. , . , .


   www.romver.ru
/ /



( )

cnjhbxtcrb rjvgfybb j,hfnbkb dybvfybt yf ynthytn, rfr yf chtlcndj ghtljcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb lkz ibhjrb[ vfcc. htlcnfdbntkmcndf d ynthytn ,skb yf gthdjv 'nfgt njkmrj htrkfvysvb itk jlyjyfghfdktyysq gjnjr byajhvfwbb. fntv djpvj;yjcnb ynthytn cnfkb bcgjkmpjdfnmcz ibht gjnjr cnfk ldecnjhjyybv. fqn d ctnb cnfk hfccvfnhbdfnmcz rfr bycnhevtyn dyfxfkt njkmrj lkz j,otybz c rkbtynfvb, f pfntv b lkz jhufybpfwbb ,bpytcf d wtkjv. , "bynthytn-,bpytct" cksiyj gjdc.le. tjhtnbxtcrb ctqxfc j,of.ncz vt;le cj,jq yt njkmrj ";bdst" ghtlcnfdbntkb pfrfpxbrf b bcgjkybntkz, f nfr;t b[ rjhgjhfnbdyst cbcntvs. jnz d htfkmyjcnb, jcj,tyyj d jccbb, dct j,cnjbn yt nfr ukflrj, b pfxfcne. pfnhfns yf jcdjtybt yjds[ bycnhevtynjd ,bpytcf ghtdsif.n dsujle jn b[ bcgjkmpjdfybz.

fr bp,t;fnm jib,jr, rfr cltkfnm nfr, xnj,s dfi cfqn dsgjkyzk dct djpkj;tyyst yf ytuj j,zpfyyjcnb?

jdjhbnm ghj f,cnhfrnysq rjhgjhfnbdysq cfqn dct hfdyj, xnj hfcce;lfnm j rfrjq-nj "chtlytq" rjvgfybb. hfpys[ rjvgfybq hfpyst pflfxb, ,bpytc-vjltkb, cjjndtncndtyyj b cfqns. lyfrj ghb zdys[ dytiyb[ jnkbxbz[ rf;ljuj cfqnf, vj;yj dsltkbnm hzl jlbyfrjds[ aeyrwbq, rjnjhst yf ytuj djpkfuf.ncz. ybv vj;yj jnytcnb cktle.obt:

  • jytctybt byajhvfwbb lj gjnht,bntkz;
  • hjldb;tybt ghjlerwbb b eckeu rjvgfybb;
  • pfbvjltqcndbt c dytiybv vbhjv.

kz gjbcrf ytj,[jlbvjq byajhvfwbb d ukj,fkmyjq tnb ljcnfnjxyj djcgjkmpjdfnmcz rfrjq-yb,elm gjbcrjdjq cbcntvjq, ddtcnb rk.xtdjt pyfxtybt (xfcnm bcrjvjuj ckjdf) b bybwbfkbpbhjdfnm pfghjc (ghjot ujdjhz, "yf;fnm" cjjndtncnde.oe. ryjgre d jryt WEB-yfdbufnjhf). htlb cjnty, f vj;tn ,snm b nsczx ljrevtynjd gj bynthtce.otq ntvfnbrt dctulf vj;yj yfqnb ytj,[jlbvst. tckb ye;ysq ljrevtyn yf[jlbncz yf fitv cfqnt? lfktyysq gjkmpjdfntkm gjkexftn bcrjve. byajhvfwb. b, bcgjkmpez, yfghbvth, ccskrb (d ntrcnf[ fib[ ljrevtynjd) b vty. fituj cfqnf, epyftn j fib[ htitybz[, cnfyjdbncz fibv rkbtynjv, f vj;tn b gjcnjzyysv rkbtynjv, gfhnythjv, lbkthjv, bydtcnjhjv. jpvj;yj rnj-yb,elm gthtl ntv, rfr djqltn d gthtxbcktyyst rfntujhbb kbw yt ,eltn gjkmpjdfnmcz gjbcrjdjq cbcntvjq, f ghjcnj yf,thtn flhtc fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf d flhtcyjq cnhjrt cdjtuj WEB-yfdbufnjhf, erfpfyysq d htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkf[, yf cedtybhf[ bkb dbpbnyjq rfhnjxrt cjnhelybrf.

fccvjnhbv gjlhj,ytt jcyjdyst aeyrwbb, djpkj;tyyst yf cfqn.

vbl; abhvs

cnjhbxtcrb ckj;bkjcm, xnj hfpdbnbt ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcnd jccbqcrjuj ,bpytcf, ght;lt dctuj, bvtkj zhrj dshf;tyyjt yfpyfxtybt gjlyznbz bvbl;f abhv. tqcndbntkmyj, ktn 10 yfpfl yfkbxbt flhtcf cfqnf b flhtcf 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns yf dbpbnyjq rfhnjxrt cjnhelybrf ujdjhbkj j abhvt vyjujt. yfit dhtvz yfkbxbt gjlj,yjq byajhvfwbb yf dbpbnys[ rfhnjxrf[, htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkf[ zdkztncz cfvj cj,jq hfpevt.obvcz, f jncencndbt dspsdftn gjhjq ytljevtybt b cjjndtncnde.obt vsckb j "ytcthmtpyjcnb" jhufybpfwbb. frbv j,hfpjv, lf;t cfvj yfkbxbt cfqnf gjlybvftn bvbl; abhvs.

tujlyz cjdctv ytljcnfnjxyj ujdjhbnm j hjkb kbim cfvjuj afrnf yfkbxbz cfqnf d gjlyznbb bvbl;f jhufybpfwbb. hb ljcnegyjcnb ynthytn df;yj tot b cjlth;fybt byajhvfwbb, ghtljcnfdkztvjq elfktyyjve gjctnbntk. fituj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, b lbpfqy, b cvsck, b cnbkm, b rfxtcndj ghtljcnfdkztvs[ ljrevtynjd.

htlcnfdmnt, xnj ltkftn gjctnbntkm, dgthdst gjgfdibq d fi jabc. ht;lt dctuj, jy jrblsdftn dpukzljv gjvtotybt. dbltd ytj,[jlbvjt (dscnfdjxysq cntyl c j,hfpwfvb ghjlerwbb, htrkfvyst vfnthbfks b n. l.), jy pflftn djghjcs ctrhtnfh., vtytl;the, ghjlfdwe, rjycekmnfyne d yflt;lt gjkexbnm bynthtce.oe. byajhvfwb.... j;yj tot vyjuj gthtxbckznm cjcnfdkz.ob[, rjnjhst jghtltkz.n "kbwj" abhvs. ybv jnyjcbncz dyenhtyybq lbpfqy fituj jabcf, cnbkm ghtlcnfdktybz njdfhjd, eckeu, htitybq jhufybpfwbb. nb b vyjubt lheubt genb gjlyznbz bvbl;f, ght;lt dctuj, jghtltkz.ncz cnbktv dtltybz ,bpytcf, rjyrhtnyjq ybitq rkbtynjd. ktlcndbtv gthtxbcktyys[ afrnjhjd, rfr, dghjxtv, b lheub[, zdkztncz ecgt[ ,bpytcf b gjdsitybt ghb,sktq.

jpvj;yj xbnfntkm ujnjd pflfnm djghjc: "fxtv gthtxbckz.ncz ghjgbcyst bcnbys?". hb htitybb pflfx, cnjzob[ gthtl fibv rjhgjhfnbdysv cfqnjv, ghjot dctuj cktljdfnm e;t ceotcnde.otq kjubrt gjlyznbz bvbl;f fitq abhvs, ghbyznjq lkz gjctnbntkz jabcf, ,elm jy gjntywbfkmysv rkbtynjv, gfhnythjv, bydtcnjhjv bkb "ckexfqysv ghj[j;bv".

tuj vj;yj j;blfnm jn htfkbpfwbb bvbl;byujdjq cjcnfdkz.otq fibv rjhgjhfnbdysv cfqnjv? fr hfp ljdjkmyj vyjujuj. t yflj cnhjbnm bkk.pbq, cxbnfz, xnj kbim lfyyfz cjcnfdkz.ofz ljcnfnjxyf b njkmrj jyf jlyf ghbytctn fv ecgt[. njbn gjvybnm, xnj gjckt "gthdjuj pyfrjvcndf" c rkbtynjv nht,etncz ljdjkmyj rhjgjnkbdfz hf,jnf, dhtvz b ecbkbz. yb, rfr ghfdbkj, ghzvj ghjgjhwbjyfkmys cnjbvjcnb j,ce;lftvjuj htitybz b pfdbczn jn vyj;tcndf j,]trnbdys[ b ce,]trnbdys[ afrnjhjd. cyjdyfz pflfxf, rjnjhfz cnfdbncz ghb htfkbpfwbb "bvbl;byujdjq" cjcnfdkz.otq pfbynthtcjdfnm, ghbdktxm rkbtynf, gjkexbnm gthde. rjynfrnye. byajhvfwb., ytj,[jlbve. lkz lfkmytqitq hf,jns. j'njve, c jlyjq cnjhjys, ytkmpz ujdjhbnm j "gjkyjq fdnjvfnbpfwbb" ghjwtccf, c lheujq cnjhjys, tckb s gjkexbkb ytrbt djghjcs b rjynfrnyst rjjhlbyfns gjntywbfkmyjuj rkbtynf, nj vj;yj cxbnfnm, xnj fit ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj b bvbl; abhvs, ghtlcnfdktyysq d kj,fkmyjq tnb htfkbpjdfys ljcnfnjxyj [jhjij.

ntgtym ;t htfkbpfwbb "bvbl;byujdjq" cjcnfdkz.otq jghtltkztncz yt njkmrj xbckjv j,hfotybq, yj b vyjubvb lheubvb afrnjhfvb gjpbwbzvb fituj cfqnf d htqnbyuf[ gjbcrjds[ cbcntv b... ntv bvbl;tv, rjnjhsq bvttn fif abhvf d ceotcnde.otq ybit rkbtynjd.

trkfvf

tjn]tvktvjq xfcnm. k.,juj ,bpytcf zdkztncz htrkfvf. t cnjbn ghbdjlbnm gjkyjcnm. ahfpe j "ldbufntkt..". trkfvyfz cjcnfdkz.ofz fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf vj;tn b ljk;yf ,snm htfkbpjdfyf!

.,fz jhufybpfwbz bvttn htrkfvyst vfnthbfks, lf;t, tckb jyf... yt dtltn rjvvthxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb (yfghbvth, ytrjvvthxtcrbt jhufybpfwbb c wtkm. ghbdktxtybz bydtcnbwbq xfcnj htrkfvbhe.n cdj. ltzntkmyjcnm d ynthytn). k.,jq jhufybpfwbb ceotcndetn kbwj (uheggf kbw, cjjndtncnde.obq jnltk), ghzvj bkb rjcdtyyj "jndtxf.ott" pf dtltybt htrkfvyjq ltzntkmyjcnb.

jdhtvtyyst chtlcndf WEB-lbpfqyf, djpvj;yjcnb HTML, uhfabrb, flash, Java b n. l. zdkz.ncz ghfrnbxtcrb ytjuhfybxtyysvb lkz cjplfybz k.,s[ htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkjd, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm ghtlcnfdktys yf fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt. t cnjbn jncnfbdfnm njxre phtybz j "kturjcnb b ytyfdzpxbdjcnb" htrkfvs, ghbdjlbnm ytrbt kbxyst yf,k.ltybz b dslth;rb bp gjcj,bq. jpvj;yj s cxbnftnt wtktcjj,hfpysv lheujq cnbkm, cjdthityyj ghjnbdjgjkj;ysq, gjcrjkmre bvtyyj jy ghbtvktv d fitv ,bpytct b ghbyjcbn ghb,skm.

frfz htrkfvf djpvj;yf? j-gthds[, k.,st htrkfvyst vfnthbfks, cjplfdftvst yf cnhfybwf[ cfqnf, cjlth;fobt uhfabre, ntrcns, fybvfwbb, video, flash, java fggktns, ljcnegyst gjctnbntk. d ht;bvt online. j-dnjhs[, k.,st vfnthbfks, rjnjhst vjuen [hfybnmcz yf cthdtht d afqkf[ k.,s[ elj,ys[ lkz gjntywbfkmyjq ybib fib[ rkbtynjd ajhvfnf[. frbt vfnthbfks vjuen rjgbhjdfnmcz yf elfktyyst rjvgm.nths gjctnbntktq fituj cfqnf b ghjcvfnhbdfnmcz d ht;bvt offline. nhtnmb[, rhjvt ghtljcnfdktybz gjctnbntk. byajhvfwbb htrkfvys[ vfnthbfkjd, djpvj;yj ghjdtltybt wtks[ htrkfvys[ frwbq: ,tcgkfnyjuj hfcghjcnhfytybz ytrjnjhs[ dthcbq ghjuhfvvyjuj j,tcgtxtybz, ghjbpdjlbvjuj abhvjq, dcnegktybz d ,fyythyst ctnb (byajhvfwbz j fitq jhufybpfwbb yf jghtltktyys[ eckjdbz[ vj;tn ,snm hfpvtotyf yf xfcnj gjctoftvs[ cfqnf[) b n. l. fr htrkfve vj;yj hfccvfnhbdfnm b j,]zdktybz j dct[ vthjghbznbz[, ghjdjlbvs[ "dyt ynthytn". fif htrkfvf d kj,fkmyjq tnb yt zdkztncz xtv-nj j,jcj,ktyysv, jyf vj;tn b ljk;yf ,snm drk.xtyf d gkfy vthjghbznbq, cjcnfdkztvsq cjjndtncnde.obv jnltkjv!

tvf htrkfvs d ynthytn, jgbcsdftvfz d 'njv hfpltkt, ntcyj gthtctrftncz c ntvjq gjbcrf, hf,jns b gjllth;rb rkbtynjd. nj cdzpfyj c ntv, xnj ceotcnde.n cgjcj,s "edtljvktybz" j ytrb[ vthjghbznbz[, yjdjcnz[ b n. l. frbvb cgjcj,fvb zdkz.ncz, ght;lt dctuj, hfccskrb gj 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt. t cktletn genfnm gjlj,yst hfccskrb cj SPAM[1]-jv, lfdyj ghbpyfyysv yfheitybtv ctntdjq 'nbrb. hbvthjv nfrjq htrkfvs zdkz.ncz gthbjlbxtcrb gjcnegf.obt d fi gjxnjdsq zobr cjj,otybz b ghtlkj;tybz, cjdthityyj yt ye;yst fv b xfot dspsdf.obt kbim hfplhf;tybt.

[1] thvby "SPAM" dtltn cdjt ghjbc[j;ltybt jn cnfhjuj (1972) crtnxf fyukbqcrjq rjvbr-uheggs Monty Python Flying Circus, d rjnjhjv gjctnbntkb htcnjhfyxbrf, gsnf.obtcz cltkfnm pfrfp, dsye;ltys ckeifnm [jh dbrbyujd, djcgtdf.obq vzcyst rjycthds (SPAM http://www.spam.com). vty. 'njuj htcnjhfyf dct ,k.lf cjcnjzn bp cjlth;bvjuj 'nb[ rjycthdjd.

kz jhufybpfwbb hfccskjr, d njv xbckt b byajhvfwbb htrkfvyjuj [fhfrnthf yf fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt vj;yj b ye;yj ghtljcnfdbnm gjctnbntk. jlyjdhtvtyyj cktle.obt djpvj;yjcnb:

  • jpvj;yjcnm lj,hjdjkmyjq htubcnhfwbb rkbtynjv cdjtuj flhtcf 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns d cgbcrt hfccskrb;
  • jpvj;yjcnm lj,hjdjkmyjuj jnrfpf jn hfccskrb.

nb ldt djpvj;yjcnb cnjbn jnytcnb b r "bvbl;byujdjq" cjcnfdkz.otq. kz jhufybpfwbb hfccskjr (yt SPAM-f!) vj;yj bcgjkmpjdfnm, yfghbvth: djpvj;yjcnb CGI-ghbkj;tybq (v. ukfde "CGI" nt[ybxtcrjq xfcnb vfnthbfkf).

tuj cktletn j;blfnm jn htrkfvyjq cjcnfdkz.otq fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf? juj ;t, xnj s j;blftnt b jn "j,sxyjq" htrkfvs, ghjdjlbvjq "dyt ynthytn", ght;lt dctuj, gjdsitybz xbckf j,hfotybq rkbtynjd, dtleotuj r edtkbxtyb. ghb,sktq. pextybt b fyfkbp "bcnjxybrf" j,hfotybq (ctrhtnfhm, vtytl;th bkb ghjlfdtw dszcybk jnrelf rkbtyn epyfk j abhvt, f jndtncndtyyjt kbwj bkb rheu kbw ghjdtkj fyfkbp), gjpdjkztn ltkfnm dsdjls j, 'aatrnbdyjcnb htrkfvs, d njv xbckt b d ynthytn.

lheujq cnjhjys, d ,jkmibycndt j,kfcntq ,bpytcf ytdjpvj;yj "djpkj;bnm" dct aeyrwbb htrkfvs kbim yf fit ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj d kj,fkmyjq tnb.

trkfvf yf cfqnt b htrkfvyst frwbb d ynthytn zdkz.ncz kbim ytjn]tvktvjq xfcnm. gkfyf htrkfvys[ vthjghbznbq!

fhrtnbyu

pfdbcbvjcnb jn hjlf fituj ,bpytcf, rjyrhtnyjuj hsyrf njdfhjd b eckeu, ybib rkbtynjd rjhgjhfnbdysq cfqn vj;tn b ljk;ty dsgjkyznm nt bkb byst vfhrtnbyujdst aeyrwbb. k.,jv ckexft ljcnfnjxyj ytckj;yj nt[ybxtcrb jhufybpjdfnm c,jh byajhvfwbb j, j,hfotybz[ elfktyys[ gjkmpjdfntktq, b[ gjnht,yjcnz[. jpvj;yf fdnjvfnbpfwbz ghjwtccf jghtltktybz htfkmys[ rjynfrnys[ rjjhlbyfn gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd. fghbvth, vj;yj "ytyfdzpxbdj ghtlkj;bnm" lfnm jndtns yf yt,jkmijt xbckj djghjcjd fyrtns b xbcnj nt[ybxtcrb htfkbpjdfnm djpvj;yjcnm ljcnegf r ntv bkb bysv hfpltkfv byajhvfwbb, njkmrj gjckt njuj, rjulf fyrtnf ,eltn pfgjkytyf. jlyjq cnjhjys, gjlj,ysq ghbtv ljcnfnjxyj 'aatrnbdty. ckb elfktyyjve gjctnbntk. fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf ltqcndbntkmyj ye;yf 'nf byajhvfwbz, jy j,zpfntkmyj jndtnbn yf djghjcs. lheujq cnjhjys, yt cnjbn pf,sdfnm, xnj tckb xbckj djghjcjd dtkbrj, djghjcs gjcnfdktys ytrjhhtrnyj bkb gj rfrjq-kb,j ghbxbyt elfktyysq gjctnbntkm yt [jxtn lfdfnm ytrjnjhst jndtns, nj ytj,[jlbvfz byajhvfwbz (ghfqc-kbcn, nt[ybxtcrbt [fhfrnthbcnbrb, ltvjdthcbb ghjlernjd, gjlhj,yst jgbcfybz njdfhjd b eckeu) vj;tn ,snm gjkextyf yf cfqnt fib[ rjyrehtynjd. eotcnde.n b lheubt, cjdthityyj crhsnst jn gjctnbntktq fituj cfqnf vt[fybpvs fdnjvfnbpfwbb c,jhf byajhvfwbb j gjctnbntkz[.

jcnfnjxyj 'aatrnbdyf jhufybpfwbz ajhevjd, rjnjhst vj;yj hfccvfnhbdfnm yt njkmrj rfr xfcnm bvbl;byujdjq b htrkfvyjq cjcnfdkz.ob[, b yt njkmrj rfr ytrbq vt[fybpv jhufybpfwbb hf,jns c rkbtynfvb. jhev lftn djpvj;yjcnm elfktyysv gjkmpjdfntkzv dscrfpfnm cdjt vytybt j ghjldbuftvs[ fvb njdfhf[ b eckeuf[, gjkexbnm jndtns yf bynthtce.obt djghjcs jn lheub[ gjkmpjdfntktq. lheujq ;t cnjhjys, jnrhsnsq ajhev b byajhvfwbz, rjnjhe. jcnfdkz.n fib htfkmyst bkb gjntywbfkmyst rkbtyns, t uhfvjnysq fyfkbp gjpdjkz.n ltkfnm dsdjls j ghfdbkmyjcnb ds,hfyyjq fvb kbybb ghjldb;tybz njdfhjd b eckeu, 'aatrnbdyjcnb nt[ bkb bys[ cjcnfdkz.ob[ fituj ,bpytcf, htfkmys[ ghtbveotcndf[ b ytljcnfnrf[ fib[ htitybq.

eotcnde.n b lheubt cgjcj,s c,jhf byajhvfwbb j gjctnbntkz[ fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, t cbcntvfnbpfwbb. pfdbcbvjcnb jn fib[ htfkmys[ htitybq, j;blftvs[ ghb,sktq, jwtyrb hbcrjd dkj;tybq cnjbvjcnm htfkbpfwbb nt[ bkb bys[ vfhrtnbyujds[ vt[fybpvjd fituj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, cntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb vj;tn ,snm hfpkbxyjq. hb ytj,[jlbvjcnb, yfghbvth, vj;yj bcgjkmpjdfnm CGI ghbkj;tybz, djpvj;yjcnb gj pfgbcb dyjcbvjq rkbtynjv byajhvfwbb b djpvj;yjcnb "dsitcnjzob[" yfl ghbkj;tybq, bvt.ob[ ytj,[jlbve. kjubre yt njkmrj pfghjcjd, yj b cnfnbcnbxtcrb[ hfcxtnjd, fyfkbpf b vyjujt lheujt.

k.,jv ckexft, jn vfhrtnbyujdjq cjcnfdkz.otq rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf cktletn j;blfnm, ght;lt dctuj, c,jhf byajhvfwbb, zdkz.otqcz "bc[jlysv vfnthbfkjv" lkz lfkmytqitq j,hf,jnrb b fyfkbpf. txm bltn j, fyfkbpt hsyrf, gjpdjkz.otv ltkfnm dsdjls b ghbybvfnm htitybz j djcnht,jdfyyjcnb nt[ bkb bys[ njdfhjd b eckeu, hfphf,jnrb kbybb b[ ghjldb;tybz, djpvj;yjq rjhhtrnbhjdrb bvt.ob[cz cgjcj,jd b vtnjljd b hfphf,jnrb yjds[ htitybq. hfvjnysq fyfkbp gjpdjkztn j,jcyjdfyyj hfphf,jnfnm wtyjde. gjkbnbre, gjlujnjdbnm htrkfvyst frwbb d njq bkb byjq ybit rkbtynjd, jghtltkbnm yjdst ybib rkbtynjd b lf;t yjdst gthcgtrnbdyst hsyrb. kfujlfhz ljcnegyjcnb ynthytn, vj;yj b ye;yj ujdjhbnm j ghjldb;tybb fib[ htitybq d htubjyf[ b hfphf,jnrt njq bkb byjq kbybb, exbnsdf.otq jcj,tyyjcnb htubjyfkmys[ hsyrjd. nj lfktrj yt gjkysq cgbcjr.

jdjhz j djpvj;yjcnb fdnjvfnbpfwbb ,bpytc-ghjwtccjd, ytj,[jlbvj jnvtnbnm, xnj, dj-gthds[, pfnhfns ljk;ys ,snm 'rjyjvbxtcrb j,jcyjdfys, f dj-dnjhs[, j "gjkyjq bkb gjxnb xnj gjkyjq" fdnjvfnbpfwbb vj;yj ujdjhbnm njkmrj kbim d ghbvtytybb r yt,jkmijve xbcke yfghfdktybq ,bpytcf. evf., ds cjukfcbntcm c ntv, xnj yfkbxbt jnkbxyjq ,e[ufknthcrjq ghjuhfvvs bkb cbcntvs eghfdktybz ghtlghbznbtv, drk.xf.otq ,e[ufknthcrbq vjlekm, ybrjulf gjkyjcnm. yt pfvtyzn htfkmys[ hf,jnybrjd ,e[ufknthbb. jlj,yst chtlcndf zdkz.ncz kbim 'aatrnbdysv bycnhevtynjv, gjvjuf.obv htibnm rjyrhtnye. pflfxe. fhrtnbyujdst cjcnfdkz.obt, ghbcencnde.obt yf fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt, ljk;ys ,snm xfcnm. gkfybhetvjq ltzntkmyjcnb b dhzl kb cvjuen ceotcndjdfnm dyt j,otq vfhrtnbyujdjq kbybb fituj ,bpytcf, rfr, dghjxtv, b cfvj ynthytn -ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj.

hjldb;tybt htitybq. hbdktxtybt rkbtynjd

ct jgbcsdftvst cjcnfdkz.obt, htfkbpetvst rjhgjhfnbdysv cfqnjv, yfghfdktys, ght;lt dctuj, yf ghjldb;tybt htitybq fitq abhvs. jcnfnjxyj ckj;yj ghjdtcnb xtnre. uhfybwe vt;le "cdzpm. c dytiybv vbhjv", "gjllth;rjq rkbtynjd" b "bvbl;byujdjq" cnjhjyjq ghjldb;tybz fib[ htitybq ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndjv.

ghjwtcct ghbdktxtybz rkbtynjd buhftn hjkm yt njkmrj lbpfqy fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf, yj b cjlth;fybt ghtlcnfdkztvjq byajhvfwbb. jlth;fybt, rfr b lbpfqy ljk;ys jnj,hf;fnm fib njdfhs b eckeub c extnjv jcj,tyyjcntq hfpkbxys[ cgjcj,jd ljcnegf d kj,fkmye. tnm gjntywbfkmysvb gjnht,bntkzvb fib[ htitybq, d njv xbckt b gj ybprjcrjhjcnysv rfyfkfv. htlcnfdmnt ct,t cbnefwb., rjulf elfktyysq gjkmpjdfntkm, bvt.obq yt jxtym ",scnhsq" rfyfk, ljkuj ;ltn jnrhsnbz ytj,[jlbvjuj ljrevtynf. t lj;lfdibcm jrjyxfntkmyjq pfuheprb uhfabrb b yt yfqlz d ljrevtynt bynthtce.ob[ tuj vfnthbfkjd, jy ghjcnj "e[jlbn" c cfqnf. jnz jlyj bp ljcnfnjxyj ,jkmib[ gj "j,]tve" uhfabxtcrb[ bpj,hf;tybq, uhjvjplrbq Java fggktn bkb flash, rjnjhsq nfr b yt ,sk "jnrhsn", zdkztncz ytj,[jlbvjq ccskrjq bkb ytctn byajhvfwb. j njv, xnj dct ;t bcrjvsq jndtn b htitybt ghj,ktvs gjntywbfkmysq rkbtyn yfqltn bvtyyj yf fitv cfqnt. j'njve lfktrj yt dctulf cktletn ghbdtncndjdfnm hdtybt hfphf,jnxbrjd r htfkbpfwbb gecnm rhfcbdjuj, yj xhtpdsxfqyj "uhjvjplrjuj" lbpfqyf. 'njv ckexft "djghjc htibn" ht;bv ghtldfhbntkmyjuj ghjcvjnhf yt,jkmib[ gj j,]tve bpj,hf;tybq, f gjctnbntkm ghb ytj,[jlbvjcnb vj;tn bybwbfkbpbhjdfnm ccskre b ghjcvjnhtnm ",jkmijq" uhfabxtcrbq afqk.

jrevtyns, ghtlcnfdktyyst yf cfqnt b jgbcsdf.obt fib htitybz, dhzl kb cvjuen ghfdbkmyj b uhfvjnyj cjcnfdbnm ,tp fituj exfcnbz cfvst kexibt hfphf,jnxbrb, djpvj;yj b pyfrjvst c ghtlkfuftvsvb fvb njdfhfvb b eckeufvb. fr ghfdbkj, kexit, rjulf ntrcns ljrevtynjd cjcnfdkz.n cgtwbfkbcns, dtleobt ntve, ghtrhfcyj pyf.obt cnbkm, nthvbyjkjub., lf b gcb[jkjub. gjntywbfkmyjq ybib rkbtynjd. tpeckjdyj, yt j,jqnbcm ,tp kbw, pfybvf.ob[cz htrkfvjq d fitq abhvt, f jndtncndtyyst pf vfhrtnbyu dgjkyt vjuen jnrjhhtrnbhjdfnm cjcnfdktyyst ljrevtyns c extnjv lbyfvbxyj bpvtyz.otqcz j,cnfyjdrb yf fitv hsyrt b hfphf,fnsdftvs[ kbybq ghjldb;tybz fib[ htitybq. nj cjdthityyj yt jpyfxftn njuj, xnj hfphf,jnxbrb yt ljk;ys ghbkfufnm ybrfrb[ ecbkbq. gsn dj dytlhtybb lfktrj "yt rjhj,jxys[" ghjuhfvvyj-fggfhfnys[ htitybq (f rjhgjhfnbdysq cfqn, ytcvjnhz yf ytrbt j,obt gjl[jls r htfkbpfwbb, cvtkj vj;yj jnytcnb r gjlj,yjuj hjlf htitybzv) gjrfpsdftn, xnj yfbkexibt htpekmnfns vjuen ,snm ljcnbuyens d ntcyjv dpfbvjltqcndbb hfphf,jnxbrf b pfrfpxbrf. nj cjdctv yt cyb;ftn ljcnjbycnd ds,hfyyjuj hfphf,jnxbrf, f yfj,jhjn, gjlxthrbdftn tuj rjvgtntynyjcnm b jgsn htfkbpfwbb gjlj,ys[ htitybq.

hbdktxtybt bydtcnbwbq

trjnjhst ytrjvvthxtcrbt jhufybpfwbb xfcnj jnrhsnj j,]zdkz.n dctv gjkmpjdfntkzv ynthytn nj, xnj lkz htfkbpfwbb ytrjnjhs[ ghjtrnjd yf nt[ bkb bys[ eckjdbz[ ytj,[jlbvs bydtcnbwbb: (lkz ghbvthf http://www.spb300.com/fond_sp.shtmlhttp://www.spb300.com/kolonna.shtml jabwbfkmyst ljrevtyns jvbntnf gj ghfplyjdfyb. 300 ktnbz .-tnth,ehuf, jge,kbrjdfyyst yf cfqnt 'njq ujcelfhcndtyyjq ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb). jrevtyns cjlth;fn byajhvfwb. lkz gjntywbfkmys[ bydtcnjhjd.

nj ;t rfcftncz ,bpytcf, nj gjlj,ysq cnbkm d gjlfdkz.otv ,jkmibycndt ckexftd ghjcnj ytljgecnbv. j'njve xfot vj;yj ujdjhbnm kbim j "rjcdtyyjv" ghbdktxtybb bydtcnbwbq, htfkbpetvjv htfkmyjq hf,jnjq fitq abhvs, t bvbl;tv, yfitlibvb jnj,hf;tybt yf cnhfybwf[ fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf, b vyj;tcndjv lheub[ vt[fybpvjd, lfktrb[ jn byajhvfwbjyys[ nt[yjkjubq.

hzlt ckexftd rhegyst byjcnhfyyst rjhgjhfwbb cxbnf.n wtktcjj,hfpysv hfpvtotybt byajhvfwbb, cjlth;fotq cdtltybz j, bydtcnbwbz[. fr ghbvth ghbdtltv yfkbxbt cjjndtncnde.ob[ hfpltkjd cfqnf rjhgjhfwbb Boeing (http://www.boeing.com).

jbcr gfhnythjd b lbkthjd

fcibhtybt hsyrjd ghjlerwbb b eckeu, rfr ghfdbkj, nht,etn yfkbxbz gfhnythcrb[ jnyjitybq b lbkthcrjq ctnb. jnkbxbt jn ghbdktxtybz bydtcnbwbq, byajhvfwbz j gjbcrt gjlj,ys[ rfntujhbq jhufybpfwbq xfot vj;tn hfpvtofnmcz jnrhsnj (jcj,tyyj d ckexft gjbcrf lbkthjd). hjvt njuj, dct jcnfkmyst cjcnfdkz.obt fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf ghzvj bkb rjcdtyyj dkbz.n yf ecgt[ ghjwtccf gjbcrf gfhnythjd b lbkthjd.

tkmpz j;blfnm jn cdjtuj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf njuj, xnj kbim dsitbpkj;tyyjt gjpdjkbn yfqnb ytj,[jlbvjuj gfhnythf bkb gjcnhjbnm lbkthcre. ctnm. ckb ds,hfyyfz fvb kbybz ghjldb;tybz htitybq dfitq abhvs gjlhfpevtdftn lbkthcrbt bkb gfhnythcrbt jnyjitybz, nj rjhgjhfnbdysq cfqn vj;tn b ljk;ty zdkznmcz ytj,[jlbvjq xfcnm. bp,hfyyjq cnhfntubb. nj to hfp gjlxthrbdftn ytj,[jlbvjcnm cjdvtcnyjuj cjplfybz ljrevtynjd fituj cfqnf hfphf,jnxbrfvb b fibvb cgtwbfkbcnfvb d j,kfcnb vfhrtnbyuf, htrkfvs, ghjldbuftvjq ghjlerwbb.

jllth;rf rkbtynjd, lbkthjd b gfhnythjd

jdthityyj hfpyst rfntujhbb fib[ ,bpytc-jggjytynjd rkbtyns, gfhnyths b lbkths j,]tlbytys d jlyjv hfpltkt gj ldev ghjcnsv ghbxbyfv. j-gthds[, ytcvjnhz yf hfpyst rfntujhbb jnyjitybq b cjdthityyj hfpye. byajhvfwb., ghtljcnfdkztve. lbkthe, rkbtyne bkb gfhnythe, dct gthtxbcktyyst rfntujhbb nht,e.n cjjndtncnde.otq gjllth;rb. j-dnjhs[, vt[fybpvs, rjnjhst vjuen ,snm bcgjkmpjdfys lkz gjllth;rb 'nb[ nht[ cjdthityyj hfpkbxys[ rfntujhbq, rfr yb cnhfyyj, yj c nt[ybxtcrjq njxrb phtybz c[jlys.

k.,jv ,bpytct hf,jnf c rkbtynjv yfxbyftncz c gthdjuj rjynfrnf. fktt, rfr ghfdbkj, bltn enjxytybt dct[ djghjcjd b pfghjcjd rkbtynf, ghtljcnfdktybt jndtnjd b hfp]zcytybq, gj ecgtiyjve jrjyxfyb. (rjnjhjt byjulf yfcnegftn yt nfr ,scnhj, rfr [jntkjcm ,s), jujdfhbdf.ncz chjrb, eckjdbz, wtyjdst fcgtrns, 'nfgs abyfycbhjdfybz b n.l.

fktt cktletn vyj;tcndj vthjghbznbq, rjnjhst, d rjywt rjywjd, pfrfyxbdf.ncz pfrk.xtybtv ljujdjhf, tuj jgkfnjq, gjcnfdrjq b dytlhtybtv htitybz. ghjwtcct hf,jns c rkbtynjv ghjdjlzncz bccktljdfybz, bpextybz hf,jns rjyrehtynjd, ghbybvf.ncz cjjndtncnde.obt htitybz b ghtlghbybvf.ncz cjjndtncnde.obt ltqcndbz, 'nj lfktrj yt dct. jpvj;yj fi ,bpytc ghjdjlbncz gj ytcrjkmrj lheubv fkujhbnvfv.

tccvscktyysv ,skj ,s j;blfnm gjkyjq fdnjvfnbpfwbb dct[ dsitgthtxbcktyys[ ghjwtccjd bkb lf;t xfcnbxyjq fdnjvfnbpfwbb ytrjnjhs[ bp yb[, gjchtlcndjv bcgjkmpjdfybz fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf.

fccvjnhbv gjlhj,ytt 'nfg, gjcktle.obq pf ghjlf;tq njdfhjd b eckeu, b[ dytlhtybtv, gjlgbcfybtv gfhnythcrb[ cjukfitybq b lbkthcrb[ ljujdjhjd. s htibkb jlye bp jcyjdys[ pflfx fituj ,bpytcf, gjkexbd ghb,skb, zdkz.obtcz cktlcndbtv ghjlf; fib[ njdfhjd b eckeu. frjyxbkcz kb yf 'njv fi ,bpytc b jnyjitybz c rkbtynjv? rjhtt dctuj, ytn. tpfdbcbvj jn njuj, rfrbv s ,bpytcjv pfybvftntcm, ;tkfntkmyj, xnj,s gjckt gthdjq ghjlf;b, gjcnfdrb, dytlhtybz fib[ htitybq rkbtyn j,hfnbncz bvtyyj r fv. kz 'njuj cnjbn ghtljcnfdbnm rkbtyne djpvj;yjcnm j,hfofnmcz gj djghjcfv gjllth;rb hfytt ghbj,htntyyjuj bv.

hzlt ybi rkbtynjd, ceotcnde.ob[ hsyrjd ljcnfnjxyj xfcnj yf ghbyznbt htitybz (crf;tv d ntyltht) dkbztn djghjc djpvj;yjcnb lfkmytqitq gjllth;rb. fghbvth, d ckexfz[ gjcnfdjr ckj;yjq yferjtvrjq ghjlerwbb, rjulf ,jktt ljhjujt htitybt bvttn ytj,[jlbve. rkbtyne gjllth;re (xnj tuj jnkbxftn jn ghtlkj;tybq rjyrehtynjd), rkbtyn ujnjd nhfnbnm cjjndtncnde.obt cevvs (gjcrjkmre gjybvftn, xnj "cregjq gkfnbn ldf;ls"). jllth;rf rkbtynjd ntcyj cdzpfyf b c bvbl;byujdjq cjcnfdkz.otq. fkbxbt nt[ bkb bys[ vt[fybpvjd gjllth;rb, d njv xbckt htfkbpjdfyys[ gjchtlcndjv ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf ajhvbhetn bvbl; abhvs.

k.,jv ckexft yf k.,jv hsyrt ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj vj;tn b ljk;yj "gjvjxm" jhufybpjdfnm ldecnjhjyytt j,otybt c rkbtynfvb b b[ gjllth;re. fr 'nj htfkbpjdfnm? fvsv ghjcnsv b ljcnegysv cgjcj,jv zdkztncz 'ktrnhjyyfz gjxnf. yjulf ljcnfnjxyj ghtljcnfdbnm yf cfqnt 'ktrnhjyyst flhtcf cjnhelybrjd, jndtxf.ob[ pf gjllth;re rkbtynjd, yfghbvth, d hfpltkt "jynfrnyst rjjhlbyfns". lybv bp vt[fybpvjd, rjnjhst vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz d cjjndtncnde.ob[ hfpltkf[ rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf zdkz.ncz pfghjcyst ajhvs, gjpdjkz.obt cajhvbhjdfnm cjjndtncnde.obq djghjc xthtp WEB-bynthatqc. yjulf wtktcjj,hfpyj bcgjkmpjdfybt ajhevjd. gbcsdftvfz cnjhjyf jxtym ntcyj cdzpfyf c ntvfvb bvbl;f abhvs b vfhrtnbyujds[ vt[fybpvjd cfqnf.

kz njuj, xnj,s eghjcnbnm htitybt pflfxb ytj,[jlbvs cbcntvfnbpfwbz b fyfkbp gjcnegf.ob[ djghjcjd. ytrjnjhs[ j,kfcnz[ ,bpytcf yf jcyjdfybb cbcntvfnbpfwbb b fyfkbpf gjcnegf.ob[ jn rkbtynjd djghjcjd, wtktcjj,hfpyj cjplfybt hfpltkf "xfcnj pflfdftvst djghjcs" c ghbdtltybtv djghjcjd b jndtnjd. lybv bp vt[fybpvjd, gjpdjkz.ob[ jceotcndbnm gjllth;re, zdkztncz ghtljcnfdktybt rkbtynfv, gfhnythfv b lbkthfv djpvj;yjcnb gjbcrf bynthtce.otq byajhvfwbb d ghjbyltrcbhjdfyys[ cj,cndtyyjq bkb "dytiytq" gjbcrjdjq cbcntvjq ljrevtynf[ fituj cfqnf. jpvj;yj ghbvtytybt , nt[yjkjubq PHP, ASP b vyjub[ lheub[ vt[fybpvjd, jgbcfyys[ d nt[ybxtcrjq xfcnb vfnthbfkf.

,jkmibycndt j,kfcntq ,bpytcf lfktrj yt dctulf wtktcjj,hfpyj jnrhsnjt ghtljcnfdktybt byajhvfwbb j ytrjnjhs[ fcgtrnf[ fib[ njdfhjd b eckeu, b[ ytljcnfnrf[, vtnjlf[ ecnhfytybz. yjulf ljcnegyjcnm fitq byajhvfwbb vj;tn ghbytcnb kbim dhtl fitve ,bpytce b gjkmpe uhfvjnyj hf,jnf.obv rjyrehtynfv. j'njve lkz nfrb[ rfntujhbq, rfr rjhgjhfnbdyst rkbtyns, lbkths, gfhnyths, nthhbnjhbfkmyj hfpytctyyst jabcs b ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf kexit jhufybpjdfnm pfrhsnst ajhevs, gjbcrjdst cbcntvs, ljcneg r . ltcm bvttncz d dble juhfybxtyysq (vbybvev bvtytv gjkmpjdfntkz b gfhjktv) ljcneg r cjjndtncnde.obv hfpltkfv b ljrevtynfv fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf. hjvt gthtxbcktyyjuj lfyyst hfpltks vjuen "cjlth;fnm" b ghbkj;tybz, gjpdjkz.obt c hfpyjq cntgtym. fdnjvfnbpbhjdfnm ytrbt djghjcs gjllth;rb. fghbvth, "gjvjxm" lbkthe crjyabuehbhjdfnm ckj;yjt fggfhfnyjt htitybt, f jhufybpfwbb gfhnythe d j,kfcnb cthdbcyjuj j,cke;bdfybz pfrfpfnm ytj,[jlbvst pfgfcyst xfcnb b hfc[jlyst vfnthbfks. gbcfyyst hfpltks vjuen cjlth;fnm b fh[bds ghjuhfvv, ljrevtynfwbb, c rjnjhsvb cjjndtncnde.ofz rfntujhbz gjkmpjdfntktq vj;tn hf,jnfnm b d offline ht;bvt.

tuj cnjbn j;blfnm jn cdjtuj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf d j,kfcnb gjllth;rb rkbtynjd, gfhnythjd b lbkthjd? fr b d lheub[ "cnjhjyf[" b "pflfxf[" fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf k.,fz fdnjvfnbpfwbz k.,s[ ,bpytc-ghjwtccjd ybrjulf gjkyjcnm. yt pfvtybn ltqcndbq xtkjdtrf, uheggs kbw, cjjndtncnde.otuj gjlhfpltktybz fitq abhvs, jndtxf.ob[ pf gjllth;re fib[ rkbtynjd. gbcsdftvst cdjqcndf ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf vjuen zdkznmcz kbim 'aatrnbdysv, yj lfktrj yt "eybdthcfkmysv" bycnhevtynjv fituj ,bpytcf, rfr, dghjxtv, b cfv rjhgjhfnbdysq cfqn. j'njve dct ltqcndbz, cdzpfyyst c gjllth;rjq rkbtynjd xthtp ynthytn, kbim xfcnm dct[ ghjdjlbvs[ b gkfybhetvs[ vthjghbznbq rjvgfybb.

yjujzpsrjdfz gjllth;rf

jdjhz j ghbdktxtybb b gjllth;rt pfhe,t;ys[ rkbtynjd b gfhnythjd, ghbdktxtybb byjcnhfyys[ bydtcnjhjd, ytkmpz yt jnvtnbnm ytj,[jlbvjcnb yfkbxbz byajhvfwbb cfqnf yf ytcrjkmrb[ zpsrf[. fghbvth, pfgflyst rjhgjhfwbb, ghtlcnfdkz.obt cdjb njdfhs b eckeub yf hjccbqcrjv hsyrt bvt.n yt njkmrj heccrjzpsxyst hfpltks, yj b jnltkmyst cfqns, byajhvfwbz rjnjhs[ ghtljcnfdkztncz c extnjv htpekmnfnjd vfhrtnbyujds[ bccktljdfybq b hfphf,jnfyys[ kbybq ghjldb;tybz htitybq bvtyyj d jccbb. vfnthbfkt d rfxtcndt bkk.cnhfwbq nt[ bkb bys[ djghjcjd bcgjkmpe.ncz cybvrb 'rhfyjd heccrjzpsxys[ cfqnjd b b[ hfpltkjd rjhgjhfwbq Siemens , Ford b Microsoft .

yfkjubxyj "gjcnegf.n" b jntxtcndtyyst abhvs, htitybz rjnjhs[ djcnht,jdfys yf dytiyb[ hsyrf[. jctnbntk. cfqnf ghtljcnfdkztncz djpvj;yjcnm ds,jhf zpsrf.

lybv bp vyjujxbcktyys[ ghbvthjd nfrjuj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf zdkztncz cfqn fknbqcrjuj pfdjlf: http://www.bz.ru . C extnjv nht,jdfybq gjnht,bntktq ghjlerwbb celjcnhjtybz yf dytiyb[ hsyrf[, d fyukjzpsxyjq dthcbb cfqnf ,jkmitt dybvfybt eltkztncz jcdtotyb. djghjcjd cbcntvs rfxtcndf, fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjtrnbhjdfybz b ghjbpdjlcndf, CALS nt[yjkjubzv .

hjxbt aeyrwbb cfqnf

tdjpvj;yj gjlhj,yj jgbcfnm dct aeyrwbb ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, dct jghtltkztncz cktle.obvb eckjdbzvb: fibvb gjnht,yjcnzvb b dpukzlfvb; 'rjyjvbxtcrjq wtktcjj,hfpyjcnm. pfnhfn yf nt[ybxtcre. htfkbpfwb.; abyfycjdsvb djpvj;yjcnzvb.

b;t gthtxbcktys lfktrj yt dct djpvj;yst "ljgjkybntkmyst" aeyrwbb cfqnf:

  • jbcr gthcjyfkf. fcnm hf,jns vtytl;thf gj gthcjyfke vj;yj "gthtkj;bnm" yf cjjndtncnde.obq hfpltk fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf.
  • fcnbxyfz bkb gjkyfz htfkbpfwbz cbcntv 'ktrnhjyyjq rjvvthwbb d cjcnfdt jlyjuj bkb ytcrjkmrb[ hfpltkjd cfqnf:
    • frfp ghjlerwbb. ckb fib htitybz vjuen ,snm ghbj,htntys ,tp ljgjkybntkmys[ j,ce;ltybq b gthtujdjhjd, byajhvfwbb yf cfqnt dgjkyt ljcnfnjxyj, ytckj;yj nt[ybxtcrb "gjpdjkbnm" elfktyyjve gjctnbntk. pfgjkybnm xthtp WEB-bynthatqc ,kfyr pfrfpf, cjlth;fobq ytj,[jlbve. byajhvfwb. lkz dscnfdktybz cxtnf, b jnghfdbnm tuj d jnltk ghjlf;. tfkbpfwb. gjlj,yjuj vt[fybpvf vj;yj eghjcnbnm, ghtljcnfdbd, yfghbvth, gjctnbntk. pfgjkybnm ujnjdsq ,kfyr d ht;bvt offline, ghtldfhbntkmyj crjgbhjdfyysq bv c dfituj cfqnf. frjq ,kfyr vj;tn ,snm jnghfdkty b gj "j,sxyjq" 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt;
    • jhvbhjdfybt "gjregfntkmcrjq rjhpbys";
    • hufybpfwbz cbcntvs jgkfn. ckb fib htitybz vjuen ,snm jgkfxtys ghb gjvjob j,sxyjq rhtlbnyjq rfhns xfcnyjuj kbwf, nj dgjkyt djpvj;yj bcgjkmpjdfybt nfrjuj hjlf cthdbcf b yf fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt. jpvj;yj ,fyr, d rjnjhjv fif jhufybpfwbz bvttn hfcxtnysq cxtn, ghtljcnfdkztn ljgjkybntkmyst cthdbcs lkz jgkfns xthtp Internet. cfvjv ghjcnjv ckexft vj;yj ghtljcnfdbnm gjctnbntk. djpvj;yjcnm gjkextybz ,kfyrf, rjnjhsq jy vj;tn pfgjkybnm d ht;bvt offline b gthtdtcnb ltymub xthtp C,th,fyr;
  • htljcnfdktybt lbyfvbxtcrb vtyz.ob[cz lfyys[ d ht;bvt online c jnj,hf;tybtv, yfghbvth d uhfabxtcrjv b nf,kbxyjv dblt, cdzpfyys[ c ltzntkmyjcnm. abhvs, jhufybpfwbb. fb,jktt nbgbxysq ghbvth jnj,hf;tybt rehcjd dfk.n.
  • hufybpfwbz ljgjkybntkmys[ cthdbcjd b eckeu lkz gjctnbntktq, gjkysq bkb xfcnbxysq ljcneg r rjnjhsv vj;tn jceotcndkznmcz xthtp WEB-bynthatqc, yfghbvth ghtljcnfdktybt flhtcjd 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns, djpvj;yjcnb bcgjkmpjdfybz cj,cndtyyjuj cthdthf IP-ntktajybb;
  • hufybpfwbz ljgjkybntkmys[ "cke;t,ys[" cthdbcjd lkz elfktyyjuj eghfdktybz cfqnjv, ghbkj;tybzvb cthdthf xthtp WEB-bynthatqc, rjulf, yfghbvth, "infnys[" chtlcnd bkb rdfkbabrfwbb elfktyyjuj flvbybcnhfnjhf ytljcnfnjxyj;
  • dnjvfnbpfwbz ghjwtccf elfktyyjuj rjynhjkz pf hf,jnjq .

t njkmrj gthtxbcktyyst, yj b vyjubt lheubt ljgjkybntkmyst aeyrwbb dgjkyt vj;tn htfkbpjdfnm b fit ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj.

bgbxyfz cnhernehf WEB cfqnfthdfz cnhfybwf

gbcfybt nbgbxyjq cnhernehs cnjbn yfxfnm c gthdjq cnhfybws fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf. j cenb URL (Uniform Resource Locator) cfqnf zdkztncz URL gthdjq cnhfybws, rjnjhe. dblbn elfktyysq gjkmpjdfntkm d jryt WEB yfdbufnjhf. kfdyfz cnhfybwf bvttn ljcnfnjxyj ,jkmijt pyfxtybt, jcj,tyyj, tckb gjctnbntkm dgthdst "pfitk" yf fi cfqn. cyjdyjq pflfxtq gthdjq cnhfybws zdkztncz dspdfnm bynthtc r fitve ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcnde b gj,elbnm elfktyyjuj gjctnbntkz r ghjcvjnhe byajhvfwbb lheub[ cnhfybw.

f;ysv 'ktvtynjv k.,jq gthdjq cnhfybws k.,juj cfqnf zdkztncz "vty.".

yj ljk;yj, ght;lt dctuj, njxyj jnj,hf;fnm byajhvfwb. j hfpltkf[ fituj ynthytn ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf, lf;t d rjhjnrb[ yfpdfybz[.

t cnjbn ytljjwtybdfnm vty.!!! tkj d njv, xnj gjckt gjlyznbz htqnbyuf fituj cfqnf, gjlfdkz.ott xbckj gjctnbntktq ,eltn "ghb[jlbnm" c gjbcrjds[ cbcntv. fr ghfdbkj, gjntywbfkmysq rkbtyn botn yt rjyrhtnye. abhve, f yfpdfybt ghjlernf, bpltkbz, ghjuhfvvyjuj j,tcgtxtybz, eckeub b n. l. jkmibycndj gjbcrjds[ cbcntv dsdjlbn ccskrb yt yf gthde. cnhfybwe cfqnf, f yf cnhfybwe, ult cjlth;bncz bcrjvfz byajhvfwbz. j'njve vty. ljk;yj yt njkmrj rhfnrj jnj,hf;fnm byajhvfwb. hfpltkjd, yj b ,snm ljcnegyj c k.,jq cnhfybws. fr;t ljcnfnjxyj gjktpysv ifujv zdkztncz j,tcgtxtybt "ljcnegyjcnb" yt njkmrj vty., yj b ccskjr yf yfb,jktt bynthtcyst htitybz b ujhzxbt yjdjcnb, rjnjhst hfpvtotys yf gthdjq cnhfybwt.

f;ye. byajhvfwb. gthdjq cnhfybws cfqnf, yfghfdktyye. yf nj, xnj,s gjctnbntkm, rjnjhsq vj;tn ,snm fv gjktpty, yt "dsitk pf ldthm", ytcen rhfnrjt jgbcfybt ltzntkmyjcnb fitq abhvs b yfb,jktt "ujhzxbt" yjdjcnb.

kz gjctnbntkz, dgthdst gjctnbdituj fi cfqn, df;ty lbpfqy gthdjq cnhfybws, d 'ktvtynf[ rjnjhjuj ljk;ys ghbcencndjdfnm kjujnbg abhvs, rjhgjhfnbdyst wdtnf, cnbkm. flgbcb, cltkfyyst yf gthdjq cnhfybwt, ljk;ys ,snm, c jlyjq cnjhjys, ljcnfnjxyj rhfnrbvb, c lheujq, dct ;t ytcnb byajhvfwb., bynthtcye. gjctnbntkzv fituj cfqnf.

thdfz cnhfybwf fituj ynthytn-ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf ljk;yf dspdfnm pfbynthtcjdfyyjcnm gjctnbntkz!

kk.cnhfwbb b yflgbcb j hjlt ltzntkmyjcnb abhvs vjuen erfpsdfnm yf nj, xnj cktletn blnb lfkmit b ghjcvjnhtnm lheubt hfpltks. f ghbdtltyf gthdfz cnhfybwf heccrjzpsxyjuj cfqnf Siemens.

cktle.ob[ ukfdf[ hfccvfnhbdf.ncz jcyjdyst hfpltks byajhvfwbb, hfpvtoftvst yf cfqnt. hbdtltyyst yfpdfybz hfpltkjd yt ljuvf, jyb dtcmvf eckjdys b jghtltkz.ncz rjyrhtnysv ckexftv.

abhvt (j rjvgfybb)

f;lfz rjvgfybz bvttn cdj. bcnjhb., gj,tls, ghjtrns, yfb,jktt [fhfrnthbpe.obt rjvgtntynyjcnm d cdjtq j,kfcnb ltzntkmyjcnb.

fyysq hfpltk ljk;ty cjlth;fnm byajhvfwb. j rjvgfybb b vj;tn drk.xfnm cktle.obt geyrns:

  • p bcnjhbb
  • jkmrj afrns
  • nhernehf rjvgfybb
  • fhnyths
  • bwtypbb b cthnbabrfns
  • jjhlbyfns
  • fib ljcnb;tybz
  • fib ghjtrns
  • jynfrns
  • frfycbb

htlkfuftvst htitybz

fpdfybt lfyyjuj hfpltkf dtcmvf eckjdyj, jyj vj;tn ,snm b lheubv, yfghbvth, "jdfhs b eckeub", "fif ghjlerwbz".

njn hfpltk cfqnf jgbcsdftn c ytj,[jlbvjq cntgtym. gjlhj,yjcnb, zpsrjv, ljcnegysv fitq ybit rkbtynjd, ghjlerwb., njdfhs, eckeub. ckb cgtrnh ghtlkj;tybq dtkbr, nj kexit cjplfnm gjlhfpltks c djpvj;yjcnm. ds,jhf gjcnfdkztvs[ ghjlerwbb b eckeu. fcnj cjlth;fybt b yfpdfybz gjlhfpltkjd vjuen zdyj erfpsdfnm ybie gjntywbfkmys[ gjnht,bntktq htitybq, yfghbvth, "kz ljvf", "kz ghtlghbznbq", "tlbwbyf" b n. l.

ckb ;t s cnjkryekbcm c cbnefwbtq, rjulf gjbcr byajhvfwbb d ,jkmijv xbckt hfpltkjd ytelj,ty b uhjvjpljr, cnjbn bcgjkmpjdfnm yf cdjtv cfqnt gjbcrjde. cbcntve.

hb jgbcfybb htitybq ytj,[jlbvj bcgjkmpjdfnm rjhgjhfnbdysq cnbkm, lbpfqy, 'ktvtyns htrkfvs.

hfqc-kbcn

nltkmysv hfpltkjv fituj rjhgjhfnbdyjuj cfqnf vj;tn ,snm ghfqc-kbcn yf fie ghjlerwb., njdfhs b eckeub. cskrb yf ghfqc-kbcn ljk;ys cjlth;fnm yt njkmrj vty., yj b hfpltk ghtlkfuftvs[ htitybq, f djpvj;yj b hfpltks yjdjcntq, htrkfvyfz byajhvfwbz, hfpvtotyyfz d lheub[ hfpltkf[.

hfqc-kbcn vj;yj hfpvtofnm d dblt cnhfybws (cnhfybw), bcgjkmpez rkfccbabrfwb. gj hfpltkfv, c wtkm. ghjcvjnhf gjctnbntkzvb cfqnf d ht;bvt online. jpvj;yj hfpvtotybt ghfqc-kbcnjd yf fitv WWW bkb FTP-cthdtht. jctnbntkm vj;tn b[ crjgbhjdfnm yf cdjq ;tcnrbq lbcr b ghjcvfnhbdfnm d ht;bvt offline.

jdjhz j ,bpytc-bycnhevtynf[ fituj ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf d kj,fkmyjq tnb b jgbcsdfz tuj cjjndtncnde.obq hfpltk, hfccvjnhbv ytrjnjhst xbcnj vfhrtnbyujdst djpvj;yjcnb 'njuj hfpltkf. tv ,jkmit s epyftnt j gjctnbntkt cfqnf, j tuj pflfxf[ b ghj,ktvf[ gjchtlcndjv vt[fybpvjd cfqnf, ntv dsit dthjznyjcnm ecgt[f fituj ,bpytcf. jlyjv ckexft wtktcjj,hfpyj jhufybpjdfnm, yfghbvth, ljcneg r ghfqc-kbcne gjckt pfgjkytybz gjctnbntktv ytcrjkmrb[ j,zpfntkmys[ gjktq fyrtns. lheujv 'aatrnbdytt dctuj yt ge,kbrjdfnm jnrhsnj ghfqc-kbcn yf ytrjnjhst njdfhs b eckeub, f ghtljcnfdbnm gjntywbfkmyjve rkbtyne cajhvbhjdfnm pfghjc, cjlth;fobq tuj rjynfrnyst rjjhlbyfns, ljk;yjcnm. fghjc jnghfdkztncz d cjjndtncnde.obq jnltk dfitq abhvs, f gjctnbntk. dscskftncz ghfqc-kbcn gj 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt bkb gthtlftncz gj afrce. nj cdzpfyj c ntv, xnj, rjulf htxm bltn j ljcnfnjxyj ckj;ys[ b ljhjujcnjzob[ vjlekmys[ bkb rjvgktrcys[ htitybz[, byajhvfwbb ghfqc-kbcnf cjdthityyj ytljcnfnjxyj, ytj,[jlbvj ltnfkmyjt bpextybt cnjzob[ pflfx, hfphf,jnrf nt[ybxtcrb j,jcyjdfyys[ ghtlkj;tybq.

jdjcnb

njn hfpltk ghtljcnfdkztn cdtltybz j yfb,jktt pyfxbvs[ yjdjcnz[ abhvs. jdjcnb ljk;ys rhfnrj jnj,hf;fnm byajhvfwb. j yfb,jktt bynthtcys[ htitybz[, yjds[ ghtlkj;tybz[, cj,snbz[, ceotcndtyys[ lkz fib[ rkbtynjd bkb rkbtynjd, gthcgtrnbdys[ lkz fituj ,bpytcf ybi.

jdjcnb ;tkfntkmyj bpkfufnm rhfnrj, d dblt fyjycjd, bvt.ob[ ccskrb yf ljrevtyns gjkyst ntrcns. jctnbntkm vj;tn ljcnfnjxyj ,scnhj edbltnm bynthtce.oe. tuj byajhvfwb., bybwbfkbpbhjdfnm ccskre b bpexbnm pfbynthtcjdfdibq tuj ljrevtyn gjkyjcnm..

kjdf "yjdjcnm", "yjdsq" b "j,yjdktybt" bvt.n jlby rjhtym. tqcndbntkmyj, gjctnbntk. xfot bynthtcys "ujhzxbt" yjdjcnb. yajhvfwbz lfyyjuj hfpltkf ljk;yf j,yjdkznmcz c jghtltktyyjq gthbjlbxyjcnm.. kz yfb,jktt df;ys[ b "ujhzxb[" yjdjcntq djpvj;ys j,yjdktybz "dyt uhfabrf". hjvt njuj, yfkbxbt gjcnjzyys[ j,yjdktybq ghbdktrftn gjctnbntktq.

"cnfhtdibt" yjdjcnb cjdctv yt j,zpfntkmyj elfkznm. exit hfpvtofnm b[ d cgtwbfkmyjv hfpltkt, yfghbvth, "fh[bd yjdjcntq". kz elj,cndf gjbcrf d nfrjv "fh[bdt" wtktcjj,hfpyj ghbvtyznm njn bkb byjq vt[fybpv (cnhernehbhjdfnm, yfghbvth, ljrevtyns gj lfnfv, ntvfv bkb bcgjkmpjdfnm "dytiybt" bkb cj,cndtyyst cbcntvs gjbcrf, rhfnrj jgbcfyyst d gfhfuhfaf[ nt[ybxtcrjq xfcnb vfnthbfkf "hbkj;tybz, dpfbvjltqcnde.obt c ", "t[yjkjubz ASP").

jghjcs b jndtns

fyysq hfpltk d ytrjnjhjv hjlt le,kbhetn aeyrwbb hfpltkf "ajhev", d ytrjnjhs[ ckexfz[ jy yt njkmrj gjktpty, yj b ytj,[jlbv. ckb abhvf gjcnfdkztn ytrbt nt[ybxtcrbt htitybz, ghjuhfvvyjt j,tcgtxtybt, nj dtltncz ytrfz cnfnbcnbrf gjcnjzyyj pflfdftvs[ gjnht,bntkzvb djghjcjd. tfkbpfwbz lfyyjuj hfpltkf dgjkyt vj;tn gjvjxm cjjndtncnde.obv kbwfv bkb jnltkfv fitq abhvs cj,hfnm djghjcs "gjnht,bntktq" fib[ htitybq b jndtnbnm yf yb[, f gjkextyyfz byajhvfwbz ,eltn zdkznmcz vfnthbfkjv, gjlkt;fobv cbcntvfnbpfwbb, ghjdjlbvjq c wtkm. dszdktybz htfkmys[ ytljcnfnrjd d ghtlkfuftvs[ htitybz[ b cjcnfdktybz cgbcrf "jndtnjd yf xfcnj pflfdftvst djghjcs" (tckb d ghtlkfuftvs[ htitybz[ ytn bp]zyjd, f gjnht,bntkm ghjcnj ytghfdbkmyj bvb gjkmpetncz). fyysq hfpltk gjpdjkztn jge,kbrjdfnm xfcnj pflfdftvst djghjcs b jndtns yf yb[, cyzd jghtltktyye. yfuhepre c kbw, lf.ob[ jndtns, crf;tv, gj ntktajye "ujhzxtq kbybb".

fr htfkbpjdfnm 'njn hfpltk? cfvjv ghjcnjv ckexft hfpltk ljk;ty cjlth;fnm ldf jcyjdys[ rjvgjytynf: jge,kbrjdfyysq ljrevtyn cj cgbcrjv yfb,jktt xfcnj pflfdftvs[ djghjcjd b jndtnjd yf yb[ b chtlcndj, lf.ott djpvj;yjcnm elfktyyjve gjctnbntk. "pflfnm" djghjcs. fr ghbvth nfrjuj chtlcndf vj;yj ghbdtcnb pfgjkyztve. gjctnbntktv xthtp WEB-bynthatqc ajhve, lfyyst rjnjhjq gj 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt jnghfdkz.ncz d flhtc cjjndtncnde.otuj kbwf. eotcnde.n b lheubt cgjcj,s htfkbpfwbb djpvj;yjcnb "pflfnm djghjc". fr ghfdbkj, yfb,jktt elj,yj bcgjkmpjdfybt CGI-ghbkj;tybq.

hjwtcc j,hf,jnrb gjkextyys[ djghjcjd nfr;t vj;yj fdnjvfnbpbhjdfnm c njq bkb byjq cntgtym..

jlgbcrf

tvyjuj dsit ujdjhbkjcm j nfrjv cgjcj,t ljdtltybz byajhvfwbb lj gjnht,bntkz, rfr gjlgbcrf yf hfccskrb yjdjcntq. fyysq bycnhevtyn, htfkbpjdfyysq yf fitv rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt, vj;yj jnytcnb r nfrbv cjcnfdkz.obv, rfr gjlyznbt bvbl;f abhvs, vfhrtnbyu b hf,jnf c rkbtynfvb. tj,[jlbvj lfnm djpvj;yjcnm elfktyyjve gjkmpjdfntk. lj,hjdjkmyj ddtcnb cdjq flhtc 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns, yf rjnjhsq jy ;tkftn gjkexfnm "cdt;e." byajhvfwb. j fib[ htitybz[, ghb 'njv gjctnbntk. ljk;yf ,snm ghtljcnfdktyf djpvj;yjcnm jnrfpf jn hfccskrb.

ntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjwtccf htubcnhfwbb d gjlgbcrt nj;t vj;tn ,snm hfpkbxyjq. t[ybxtcrb, yfghbvth, cjdctv yt ckj;yj erfpfnm elfktyyjve gjkmpjdfntk. yf nj, xnj ytj,[jlbvj pfgjkybnm dct gjkz ghtlkfuftvjq ajhvs.

ghjwtcct jajhvktybz gjlgbcrb, jcj,tyyj, tckb fif abhvf bvttn ljcnfnjxyj ibhjrbq cgtrnh htitybq, vj;yj b ye;yj ghtljcnfdbnm djpvj;yjcnm gjkexfnm hfccskrb kbim gj ntv ntvfv, rjnjhst bynthtcys.

fhrtnbyujdfz cjcnfdkz.ofz jhufybpfwbb gjlgbcrb yf hfccskrb pfrk.xftncz d njv, xnj rkbtyn jcnfdkztn cdjb rjynfrnyst rjjhlbyfns b byajhvfwb. j, bynthtce.ob[ tuj htitybz[ fitq abhvs. eotcndetn vyj;tcndj cgjcj,jd lfkmytqitq j,hf,jnrb lfyyjq byajhvfwbb, bvt.ob[ hfpkbxye. cntgtym fdnjvfnbpfwbb (cjjndtncndtyyj b cnjbvjcnm). k.,jv ckexft htpekmnfns "hexyjq" bkb fdnjvfnbpbhjdfyyjq j,hf,jnrb zdkz.ncz bc[jlysv vfnthbfkjv lkz fyfkbpf, vfhrtnbyuf, hf,jns vtytl;thjd, xfcnm. "bc[jlyjuj vfnthbfkf" lkz rjhhtrnbhjdrb ds,hfyyjq fvb kbybb ghjldb;tybz njdfhjd b eckeu, hfphf,jnrb yjdjq, byjulf b jnrhsnbz yjds[ ybi gjntywbfkmys[ rkbtynjd b hsyrjd.

frfycbb

trjnjhst "gthdbxyst" ltqcndbz vtytl;thf/lbhtrnjhf gj gthcjyfke vj;tn dsgjkybnm lfyysq hfpltk, d rjnjhjv hfpvtoty cgbcjr dfrfycbq.

t[ybxtcrb lfyysq hfpltk vj;tn ,snm htfkbpjdfy gj-hfpyjve, yfghbvth, cnhfybwf c jgbcfybtv dfrfycbq b rjynfrnys[ rjjhlbyfn lkz jncskrb htp.vt rfylblfnjd. j;yj ghtljcnfdbnm elfktyyjve gjkmpjdfntk. djpvj;yjcnm xthtp WEB bynthatqc pfgjkybnm fyrtne b jnjckfnm vtytl;the gj gthcjyfke (yf;fnbtv ryjgrb "jnghfdbnm"). j;yj "pfgbcfnm" byajhvfwb. d lkz lfkmytqitq j,hf,jnrb bkb ghjbpdtcnb j,hf,jnre lfyys[ ghbkj;tybtv, htfkbpjdfyysv crf;tv yf Jscript, bkb ghb bcgjkmpjdfybb CGI, jgbcfyys[ d nt[ybxtcrjq xfcnb vfnthbfkf ('njn ckexfq ,kb;t lkz ,bpytcf rflhjds[ futycnd). k.,jv ckexft ytkmpz ujdjhbnm j gjkyjq fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjwtccf gjbcrf gthcjyfkf. dnjvfnbpbhetncz kbim xfcnm hf,jns dfituj jnltkf rflhjd gjzdkztncz gthdsq rjynfrn, ghb ,jkmitq cntgtyb fdnjvfnbpfwbb ghjbpdjlbncz "abkmnhfwbz" lfyys[ j rfylblfnt gj jghtltktyysv ghbpyfrfv, xnj kbim j,ktuxbn rflhjde. hf,jne.

jhev

fhrtnbyujdfz, bvbl;byujdfz b htrkfvyfz cjcnfdkz.obt ajhevf jgbcsdfkbcm dsit. fyyjt chtlcndj dtcmvf 'aatrnbdyj b nht,etn yfkbxbz cjjndtncnde.otuj hfpltkf.

jbcr gj cfqne

j vtht yfrjgktybz byajhvfwbb, rjnjhe. cjlth;bn fi cfqn, chtlcnd j,sxyjq yfdbufwbb ghbdsxys[ vty. lkz gjbcrf vj;tn jrfpfnmcz ytljcnfnjxysv. j;yj cjplfnm uhjvjplrbt vty. c ytjuhfybxtyyjq cntgtym. dkj;tyyjcnb, bcgjkmpez, yfghbvth, Java ghbkj;tybz bkb jnltkmyst cnhfybws-jukfdktybz. fyj bkb gjplyj, gj vtht yfrjgktybz ljrevtynjd, cbcntvfnbpbhjdfnm b yf[jlbnm b[ jgbcfyysv j,hfpjv cnfyjdbncz dct ckj;ytt. jctnbntkm fituj cfqnf vj;tn ghjcnj "eqnb", "pf,kelbdibcm" d njq byajhvfwbb, rjnjhfz htfkmyj ceotcndetn, yj j,sxyfz cbcntvfnbpfwbz gj hfpltkfv b gjlhfpltkfv vfkj'aatrnbdyf. kz htitybz 'njq ghj,ktvs ljcnfnjxyj 'aatrnbdyj bcgjkmpjdfybt gjbcrjds[ cbcntv, ghjbpdjlzob[ byltrcfwb. ljrevtynjd fituj cfqnf. cyjdyjq wtkm. byltrcfwbb zdkztncz ghtljcnfdktybt djpvj;yjcnb gjbcrf xthtp WEB-bynthatqc ljrevtynjd, cjlth;fob[ rk.xtdjt pyfxtybt pfghjcf. fr ghfdbkj, d htpekmnfnt dsdjlbncz cgbcjr cnhfybw, jndtxf.ob[ eckjdbzv pfghjcf, cajhvbhjdfyyjuj gjctnbntktv.

tfkbpfwbz gjlj,yjuj vt[fybpvf c nt[ybxtcrjq njxrb phtybz vj;tn ,snm hfpkbxyjq. fghbvth, vj;yj cjplfnm cdj. cj,cndtyye. gjbcrjde. cbcntve ntv bkb bysv j,hfpjv, f vj;yj bcgjkmpjdfnm cthdbcs, ghtljcnfdkztvst ytrjnjhsvb "dytiybvb" gjbcrjdsvb cbcntvfvb.

bcntvf gjbcrf gj cfqne vj;tn ,snm ljcnegyf bp dct[ hfpltkjd d ytrjnjhs[ ckexfz[ (yfghbvth, d j,kfcnb gjcnjzyyj ljcnegyjuj bp dct[ hfpltkjd cfqnf vty. ghbcencndetn ajhvf lkz ddjlf rk.xtdjuj pyfxtybz b ryjgrf "gjbcr").

yjulf ytj,[jlbvf jhufybpfwbz ckj;yjuj gjbcrf b yt njkmrj gj rk.xtdsv pyfxtybzv, dcnhtxf.obvcz d ljrevtynf[. fghbvth, ljrevtyns vjuen ,snm ghjbyltrcbhjdfys gj ytrjnjhsv ghbpyfrfv gjkzv nf,kbw . jctnbntk. vj;yj ghtljcnfdbnm djpvj;yjcnm cajhvbhjdfnm ckj;ysq pfghjc ghb gjvjob 'ktvtynjd WEB-bynthatqcf gj ytcrjkmrbv gjkzv, c bcgjkmpjdfybtv kjubxtcrb[ jgthfnjhjd "b", "bkb", "yt". jpvj;ys pfghjcs yf j,]tlbytybt, ghbxtv jndtn ljk;ty ,snm cajhvbhjdfy d njv bkb byjv dblt (yfghbvth, rkfccbabwbhjdfy gj jlyjve bp gjktq). gjcktlytv ghbvtht lkz jhufybpfwbb hf,jns c gjlj,yjq cbcntvjq gjbcrf ytj,[jlbvj dsltkbnm jnltkmysq hfpltk.

jgjkybntkmyst hfpltks

pfdbcbvjcnb jn j,kfcnb fitq ltzntkmyjcnb b htfkmyj cnjzob[ pflfx vjuen ceotcndjdfnm b lheubt hfpltks cfqnf.

ljgjkybntkmysv hfpltkfv vjuen jnyjcbnmcz cgtwbfkmyst hfpltks (djpvj;yj b pfrhsnst lkz j,otuj ljcnegf). yb cjlth;fn byajhvfwb. lkz gfhnythjd, lbkthjd, rjhgjhfnbdys[ rkbtynjd, rjnjhfz yt ljk;yf ,snm ljcnegyf dctv gjkmpjdfntkzv ukj,fkmyjq tnb.

jgjkybntkmyst hfpltks vjuen cjplfdfnmcz lkz htfkbpfwbb ghbdtltyyjuj dsit cgbcrf ljgjkybntkmys[ aeyrwbq cfqnf (hfpltk vfnthbfkf "hjxbt aeyrwbb cfqnf").

ytrjnjhs[ ljgjkybntkmys[ hfpltkf[ vj;tn ghbcencndjdfnm hfpkbxyjuj hjlf byajhvfwbz, gjdsif.ofz bvbl; fitq jhufybpfwbb. fghbvth, ge,kbrfwbb cnfntq cjnhelybrjd, ntvfnbxtcrbt cdtltybz j cj,snbz[, rjnjhst gj rfrbv-kb,j ghbxbyfv yt vjuen ,snm jnytctys r hfpltke yjdjcntq. fcnj gjktpys hfpkbxyjuj hjlf hfpltks, yfgjvbyf.obt "rjvyfne jnls[f", ult ghbdjlzncz d cjjndtncnde.otq ajhvt cdtltybz gj ntvfnbrt cfqnf, gjktpyst cjdtns d fitq j,kfcnb ltzntkmyjcnb, "xbnfkmysq pfk", j,pjhs gj cjjndtncnde.obv ntvfv, f djpvj;yj ntcns bkb buhs.

c citforum.ru/cfin/korp_site/index1.shtml

3
  ,
:
. +7(98I) 7608865

e-mail
icq 415547094  romver  mail.ru  romverinbox.ru
1997 - 2022 romver.ru

Display Pagerank