, usability, AM+A , Aaron Marcus and Associates


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s ghtlcnfdkztv dfitve dybvfyb. bynthdm. fhjyf fhrecf, ghtpbltynf rjvgfybb Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc. AM+A dctvbhyj bpdtcnyfz jhufybpfwbz, rjnjhfz yf ghjnz;tybb 25 ktn pfybvftncz bccktljdfybzvb b fyfkbpjv d j,kfcnb ghjtrnbhjdfybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd, dpfbvjltqcndbz xtkjdtrf c byajhvfwbjyysvb cbcntvfvb, dbpefkbpfwbtq byajhvfwbb, f nfr;t ghj,ktvfvb vt;rekmnehyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz d Web, yf hf,jxb[ vtcnf[, f nfr;t d j,kfcnz[, cdzpfyys[ c hfphf,jnrjq yfcnjkmys[ ghbkj;tybq, vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd, fdnjvj,bktq b njdfhjd ibhjrjuj gjnht,ktybz. xbckt b[ rkbtynjd zgjycrbt rjvgfybb Epson, Fujitsu, Justsystem, Ricoh b NTT Data. AM+A hf,jnftn rfr c bpdtcnysvb, nfr b c yfxbyf.obvb rjvgfybzvb dj vyjub[ cnhfyf[. -y fhrec xbnftn ktrwbb d hfpys[ cnhfyf[ b eybdthcbntnf[ gj dctve vbhe. 2007 u. fhjy fhrec djitk d cjcnfd xktyjd yfexyjuj cjj,otcndf vthbrfycrjuj ycnbnenf pj,hfpbntkmys[ creccnd.

jghjcs bynthdm.:

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fr ds ghtlcnfdkzkb ct,t ,eleott lbpfqyf d 1960-t ujls? frbt bp dfib[ ghtlcrfpfybq jnyjcbntkmyj ,eleotuj c,skbcm?

frjds gthcgtrnbds rf;ljq bp j,kfcntq usability, d rjnjhs[ ds cgtwbfkbpbhetntcm b rfr vs vj;tv lj,bnmcz ceotcndtyys[ ekexitybq d rf;ljq bp yb[?

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frbt ghjtrns d j,kfcnb vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd, yf dfi dpukzl, zdkz.ncz yfb,jktt ecgtiysvb? t vjukb ,s s ghbdtcnb ytcrjkmrj ghbvthjd? nj zdkztncz yfb,jktt df;ysv? bpfqy? Web 2.0? Usability?

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1. 1967 u. ds cnfkb gthdsv uhfabxtcrbv lbpfqythjv, gjkyjcnm. gjcdznbdibv ct,z pfyznbzv rjvgm.nthyjq uhfabrjq. frbv ,sk dfi gthdsq ghjtrn, rfr jy ,sk cdzpfy c lbpfqyjv? frjds ghtlgjcskrb lkz cjplfybz rfxtcndtyyjuj bynthatqcf?

jz gthdfz hf,jnf d j,kfcnb rjvgm.nthyjq uhfabrb yfxfkfcm cj cnf;bhjdrb d bccktljdfntkmcrjv jnltkt frecnbrb AT+T Bell Laboratories, hfcgjkj;tyyjq d .hhtq bkk d (infn m. ;thcb), ult z hf,jnfk cnf;thjv-bccktljdfntktv b dsgjkyzk j,zpfyyjcnb ghjuhfvvbcnf. f cj,tctljdfybb z crfpfk 'nbv ht,znfv jlye ahfpe, rjnjhe. ybrnj lheujq d ;bpyb ,s yt ghjbpytc: "; yt pyf., gjxtve ds [jnbnt dpznm vtyz yf hf,jne, yj e vtyz e;t tcnm extyfz cntgtym gj abpbrt, f ctqxfc z bpexf. uhfabxtcrbq lbpfqy. djn z gjlevfk, xnj z ljk;ty cltkfnm ytxnj nfrjt, xnj cjxtnfkj ,s d ct,t j,t 'nb j,kfcnb. cnm kb e dfc xnj-yb,elm gjl[jlzott lkz vtyz?" tcnyj ujdjhz, z yt gjybvfk, rfr b rjve vj;tn ghbqnb d ujkjde nfrfz vsckm dpznm vtyz yf hf,jne. j ldjt cgtwbfkbcnjd, ghjdjlbdib[ cj,tctljdfybt cj vyjq, tnth tytc (Peter Denes) b . fqrk jkk, (A. Michael Noll), extyst c vyjujktnybv jgsnjv bccktljdfntkmcrjq hf,jns, gthtukzyekbcm c eks,rjq b pfzdbkb, xnj jyb bcrfkb bvtyyj nfrjuj cgtwbfkbcnf! ,sk cbkmyj elbdkty, b d nj ;t dhtvz j,hfljdfy djpvj;yjcnm. cltkfnm cdjq gthdsq ifu d yjdsq vbh rjvgm.nthyjq uhfabrb, rjnjhsq "gjzdbkcz" dctuj kbim ytcrjkmrj ktn njve yfpfl ghb,kbpbntkmyj d 1964 u. yt ghtljcnfdkzkfcm djpvj;yjcnm pfyznmcz ghjuhfvvbhjdfybtv lkz rjvgm.nthjd, cxbnfdib[cz jlybvb bp cfvs[ vjoys[ d vbht, f nfr;t lkz gthds[ bynthfrnbdys[ rjvgm.nthjd, bcgjkmpjdfdib[ lbcgktb c hfcnhjdsv crfybhjdfybtv yjdtqitq, njkmrj xnj bpj,htntyyjq nt[yjkjubtq.

thdsv bp vjb[ cthmtpys[ dsgjkytyys[ ghjtrnjd cnfk ghjnjnbg bynthfrnbdyjq cbcntvs dthcnrb cnhfybw, dsgjkytyysq d 1969-71 uu., lkz byyjdfwbjyyjuj ghjlernf AT+T Picturephone, fyjycbhjdfyyjuj d 1964 u. j;yj crfpfnm, xnj z ghjuhfvvbhjdfk jlye bp gthds[ yfcnjkmyj-bplfntkmcrb[ cbcntv. 'njv ghjtrnt z cvju bcgjkmpjdfnm yjdst pyfybz, yfrjgktyyst d ghjwtcct hf,jns, f nfr;t cdjq jgsn bp j,kfcnb nbgjuhfabb, bcgjkmpjdfybz wdtnf, cbcntv cbvdjkjd, dthcnrb b bplfntkmcrjuj ltkf. fpevttncz, 'nj ceotcndtyyj gjdkbzkj yf gjl[jl, rjnjhsq z bcgjkmpjdfk d lfyyjv ghjtrnt. ot yt bvtz gjl[jlzotuj yfpdfybz lkz 'njuj dblf ltzntkmyjcnb, z e;t pfybvfkcz ghjtrnbhjdfybtv, cajrecbhjdfyysv yf ghj,ktvf[ gjkmpjdfntkz, bcgjkmpez bvtdibtcz e vtyz yf ne gjhe pyfybz j hf,jnt [elj;ybrf-gjkbuhfabcnf (gjkmpezcm ctujlyziytq nthvbyjkjubtq, cjplfdfz ghjabkm gjkmpjdfntkz bkb ltqcnde.ott kbwj), rjnjhsq d rjytxyjv cxtnt zdkzkcz gjkmpjdfntktv cbcntvs. tkm. ghjtrnbhjdfybz zdkzkjcm gjdsitybt 'aatrnbdyjcnb b rfxtcndf vfrtnf cnhfybws ntktajyyjuj cghfdjxybrf Yellow Pages. j,levsdfk, rfr kexit dctuj jnj,hfpbnm yf 'rhfyt dytiybq dbl ntrcnf, gjke;bhyjt yfxthnfybt ihbanf b bkk.cnhfwbb. levfk j njv, rfrbt cbvdjks bcgjkmpjdfnm lkz ghtlcnfdktybz dsgjkyztvs[ gjkmpjdfntktv rjvfyl yf 'rhfyt, cjplfdfz ghjj,hfp "uhfabxtcrjuj" gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, [jnz dct dpfbvjltqcndbt gjkmpjdfntkz c cbcntvjq d jcyjdyjv dsgjkyzkjcm ghb gjvjob rkfdbfnehs. eylfvtynfkmyjt j,hfpjdfybt, pyfybz d j,kfcnb vfntvfnbrb b kjubrb gjvjukb vyt ,scnhj jcdjbnm zpsr ghjuhfvvbhjdfybz, rjnjhsq bcgjkmpjdfkcz lkz cjplfybz 'njq cbcntvs ('nj ,skf cgtwbabxtcrfz, ljcnfnjxyj ckj;yfz lkz jcdjtybz gkfnajhvf). yfybz d j,kfcnb uhfabxtcrjuj lbpfqyf b bplfntkmcrjuj ltkf ceotcndtyyj j,ktuxbkb lkz vtyz pflfxe lbpfqyf ghjuhfvvys[ 'rhfyjd, d rjnjhs[ bcgjkmpjdfkfcm rjywtgwbz dbpefkbpfwbb lkz ddjlf lfyys[ b jnj,hf;tybz htpekmnfnjd ltqcndbq gjkmpjdfntktq hfphf,fnsdftvjq cbcntvs. yt gjdtpkj: z e;t ,sk pyfrjv c ghtlvtnyjq j,kfcnm., rjywtgwbtq b cjlth;fybtv, f nfr;t c hf,jxtq chtljq hfphf,fnsdftvjuj ghbkj;tybz. jge,kbrjdfk ltnfkmyjt jgbcfybt dsgjkytyyjuj vyjq ghjtrnf d yfexyjv ;ehyfkt, gjcdzotyyjv bccktljdfybzv d j,kfcnb gtxfnb b bcgjkmpjdfyb. uhfabxtcrb[ chtlcnd lkz j,otybz vt;le k.lmvb (Marcus, Aaron (1971). "A Prototypical Computerized Page Design System," Visible Language, Vol. 5, No. 3, Summer 1971, pp. 196-220).

njn gthdsq ghjtrn gjcke;bk jnghfdyjq njxrjq b bcgjkmpjdfkcz d rfxtcndt herjdjlcndf d cktle.ob[ ghjtrnf[, d xbckt rjnjhs[ ,skb bccktljdfybz, gjcdzotyyst gjbcre jgnbvfkmyjuj cgjcj,f ghtlcnfdktybz nt[ybxtcrjq ljrevtynfwbb, gjcdzotyyjq ghjuhfvvbhjdfyb. yf zpsrt C 'njn ghjtrn dsgjkyzkcz d utyncndt gj gthcgtrnbdysv bccktljdfntkmcrbv ghjtrnfv bybcnthcndf j,jhjys d ntxtybt nht[ ktn (1982-1985), b z ghbybvfk d ytv exfcnbt d rfxtcndt dnjhjuj bccktljdfntkz cjdvtcnyj c jyjv 'rthjv, d yfcnjzott dhtvz pfybvf.obv ljk;yjcnm ghjatccjhf d j,kfcnb dsxbckbntkmyjq nt[ybrb d ybdthcbntnt jhjynj (Ron Baecker, Prof. of Computer Science, University of Toronto). j htpekmnfnfv 'njuj ghjtrnf vs jge,kbrjdfkb rybue (Baecker, Ron, and Aaron Marcus (1990). Human Factors and Typography for More Readable Programs, ACM Press and Addison-Wesley Publishers, Reading, MA, 348 pp).

f jcyjdt 'nb[ gthds[ ghjtrnjd b gjcktle.otuj jgsnf, gjkextyyjuj dj dhtvz hf,jns bccktljdfntktv d jnltkt dsxbckbntkmyjq nt[ybrb vfntvfnbrb d f,jhfnjhbb jhtyc thrkb (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), ult z yfgbcfk jlyj bp gthds[ herjdjlcnd gj ghjtrnbhjdfyb. gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd d 1980-1982 uu. cajhvekbhjdfk ghbywbgs cjplfybz 'aatrnbdys[ gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd, rjnjhst, gjckt ytrjnjhs[ bpvtytybq nthvbyjkjubb b rjywtgwbq, jcnf.ncz frnefkmysvb b cke;fn vyt lj cb[ gjh.

cxbnf., xnj jcyjde gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd cjcnfdkz.n cktle.obt 'ktvtyns: vtnfajhs, vtynfkmyst vjltkb, c[tvs yfdbufwbb, [fhfrnthbcnbrb dpfbvjltqcndbz, f nfr;t jghtltktyyst ghtptynfwbjyyst [fhfrnthbcnbrb (r ybv jnyjczncz zpsr, ntv,h htxb, pderjdjt jajhvktybt, b lf;t [fhfrnthbcnbrb nfrnbkmys[ joeotybq b pfgf[jd). hjwtcc ghjtrnbhjdfybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd yfxbyftncz c gkfybhjdfybz, b drk.xftn d ct,z cktle.obt jcyjdyst dbls ltzntkmyjcnb, byjulf dsgjkyztvst gfhfkktkmyj bkb d dblt wbrkf: gkfybhjdfybt, bccktljdfybt, fyfkbp, hfphf,jnrf, dytlhtybt, jwtyrf, cjcnfdktybt ljrevtynfwbb, j,extybt b gjllth;rf. tkm 'njuj ghjwtccf cltkfnm ghjwtcc dpfbvjltqcndbz gjkmpjdfntkz c bynthatqcjv ghjuhfvvs (f nfr;t c ghjlernjv, cthdbcyjq cke;,jq, rjvgfybtq b lheubvb gjntywbfkmysvb rfyfkfvb rjynfrnf) ghfrnbxysv b elj,ysv (n. t. 'aatrnbdysv, ltqcndtyysv b rjvajhnysv) b jlyjdhtvtyyj gjktpysv b ghbdktrfntkmysv. jcktlyzz bp gthtxbcktyys[ pltcm [fhfrnthbcnbr ghbdyjcbn 'vjwbjyfkmye. cjcnfdkz.oe., gjdsiftn ljdthbt, ecnfyfdkbdftn cjwbfkmyst cdzpb, jghtltkztn rjyntrcn, f nfr;t pfnhfubdftn vyj;tcndj lheub[ fcgtrnjd, rjnjhst yt fccjwbbhjdfkbcm c gjkmpjdfntkmcrbv bynthatqcjv d gthdst ytcrjkmrj ltcznbktnbq tuj hfpdbnbz rfr cfvjcnjzntkmyjq lbcwbgkbys. xfcnyjcnb, vs cxbnftv, xnj rekmnehf buhftn df;ye. hjkm d ajhvbhjdfybb gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj jgsnf.

fr ds ghtlcnfdkzkb ct,t ,eleott lbpfqyf d 1960-t ujls? frbt bp dfib[ ghtlcrfpfybq jnyjcbntkmyj ,eleotuj c,skbcm?

cyjdsdfzcm yf cdjtv gthdjv jgsnt hf,jns c rjvgm.nthfvb d rjywt 1960-[ yfxfkt 1970-[ uu., z gjybvfk, xnj gjkextyysq vyjq ghjatccbjyfkmysq jgsn b vjb pyfybz d j,kfcnb uhfabxtcrjuj lbpfqyf b bcgjkmpjdfybb dbpefkmys[ chtlcnd d j,otybb buhfkb xhtpdsxfqyj df;ye. hjkm lkz ghjtrnbhjdfybz 'rhfyys[ ajhv. rjywt rjywjd, rjvgm.nths gjvjuf.n k.lzv j,ofnmcz, f yt njkmrj hf,jnfnm c wbahfvb. pyfk j hfyyb[ bccktljdfybz[, dsgjkytyys[ d bccktljdfntkmcrjv wtynht rjhgjhfwbb Xerox d fkj-kmnj d 1972 u. b lf;t jnghfdbk jlyjuj bp vjb[ cneltynjd d hbycnjycrbq eybdthcbntn yf ktny.. cnf;bhjdre ghbvthyj d 'nj dhtvz d gjlhfpltktybt, ult hf,jnfk kfy 'q (Alan Kay) b lheubt bpdtcnyst bccktljdfntkb. bynebnbdyj xedcndjdfk, xnj dbpefkbpfwbz ,eltn dct ibht bcgjkmpjdfnmcz d rjvgm.nthyjq bylecnhbb. vjb j;blfybz jghfdlfkbcm. ot z levfk, xnj d ,eleotv gjzdzncz ghtdjc[jlyst uhfabxtcrbt chtlcndf ghtlcnfdktybz b hf,jns c yfrjgktyyjq byajhvfwbtq, ckj;yjcnm rjnjhs[ ,eltn ghtdjc[jlbnm dct, xnj bvtkjcm d yfitv hfcgjhz;tybb lj cb[ gjh. 'nj nfr;t c,skjcm, [jnz d yfcnjzott dhtvz vs njkmrj yfxbyftv bccktljdfnm djpvj;yjcnb b gthcgtrnbds d 'njq j,kfcnb.

2. gjcktlytt ltcznbktnbt ds cjchtljnjxbkb cdjt dybvfybt yf web-ghbkj;tybz[, vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcndf[, lbpfqy chtlcnd eghfdktybz fdnjvj,bkzvb, ghjtrnbhjdfybb cbcntv, bcgjkmpe.ob[ dbpefkbpfwb. byajhvfwbb, gjlujnjdrt rflhjd lkz wtynhjd, pfybvf.ob[cz ghj,ktvfvb ekexitybz rfxtcndf dsgecrftvs[ ghjlernjd, hfphf,jnrt herjdjlcnd gj ukj,fkbpfwbb b kjrfkbpfwbb, f nfr;t vyjuj dybvfybz eltkbkb ghj,ktvt "baby face" (ecnhjqcnd c vfktymrbvb lbcgktzvb). frjds gthcgtrnbds rf;ljq bp 'nb[ j,kfcntq b rfr vs vj;tv lj,bnmcz ceotcndtyys[ ekexitybq d rf;ljq bp yb[?

rjhjcnm, c rjnjhjq ghjbc[jlbkb bpvtytybz d rf;ljq bp 'nb[ j,kfcntq, gjcnjzyyj edtkbxbdfkfcm. hbvthyj rf;lst 7 ktn (gk.c-vbyec ldf ujlf) vtyz.ncz gfhflbuvs d k.,jq bp dsxbckbntkmys[ gkfnajhv, f nfr;t ghjbc[jlzn pyfxbntkmyst bpvtytybz d hfpkbxys[ fcgtrnf[ xtkjdtrj-vfibyyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz. xtym xfcnj k.lb notnyj gsnf.ncz ecdjbnm ghbywbgs bcgjkmpjdfybz yjds[ ajhv ghtlcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb bkb jcdjbnmcz c yjdsvb cbcntvfvb gjyznbq. s gjcnjzyyj yf[jlbvcz d ghjwtcct ajhvbhjdfybz yjdjq abkjcjabb, ghbywbgjd, vtnjljd b ghbtvjd, rjnjhst j,ktuxf.n yfv ljcnb;tybt yfib[ wtktq. cfvjv yfxfkt k.lb xfcnj blen yfghjkjv, ltqcnde.n vtnjljv ghj, b jib,jr, ythtlrj ghbkfufz ,jkmit ecbkbq, xtv nht,etncz. fntv, rjulf jyb ghbj,htnf.n jgsn b ghbdsrf.n r yjdjve, jyb yfxbyf.n bcgjkmpjdfnm ,jktt ghjcnst b bpzoyst vtnjls, cjdthifz vtymit jib,jr. lyfrj lkz ghbj,htntybz jgsnf ghb[jlbncz vyjuj 'rcgthbvtynbhjdfnm b xfcnj bcgjkmpjdfnm yjdst djpvj;yjcnb.

f pfht dbltjntrcnf b ntktntrcnf d ntktrjvveybrfwbz[ bcgjkmpjdfkbcm cnfhst, gjxnb pf,snst uhfabxtcrbt b ntrcnjdst chtlcndf; b [jnz d nj dhtvz uhfabxtcrbt djpvj;yjcnb juhfybxbdfkbcm ytcrjkmrbvb hfpysvb ihbanfvb b djctvm. wdtnfvb, gthdjt gjrjktybt "lbpfqythjd" (bkb gj rhfqytq vtht k.ltq, jghtltkzdib[, rfr ,eltn dsukzltnm rf;lsq 'rhfy) cnhtvbkjcm bcgjkmpjdfnm rfr vj;yj ,jkmit hfpkbxys[ ihbanjd b hfpys[ wdtnjd yf jlyjv 'rhfyt. jlj,ysq gjl[jl pfnhelyzk djcghbznbt byajhvfwbb lkz ,jkmibycndf gjkmpjdfntktq. rjywt rjywjd, dct ghbikj d yjhve; jlyfrj lkz 'njuj gjnht,jdfkjcm ytcrjkmrj ktn. j ;t cfvjt vs yf,k.lftv d yfib lyb, rjulf htxm pf[jlbn j web-lbpfqyt.

snfzcm pfukzyenm d ,eleott, ckj;yj cajhvekbhjdfnm jcyjdyst ntyltywbb d ytcrjkmrb[ ahfpf[. cxbnf., xnj vj;tn cajhvbhjdfnmcz vjlf yf vj,bkmyst b rfhvfyyst ufl;tns, cgjcj,cnde.ofz hfcghjcnhfytyb. vj,bkmys[ gkfnajhv, rjnjhe. ghtlcrfpsdfkb vyjubt cgtwbfkbcns. ,eleotv "rjvgm.nths" d cjdhtvtyyjv gjybvfybb 'njuj ckjdf bcxtpyen, f b[ vtcnj pfqven hfpkbxyst vbybfn.hyst byntkktrnefkmyst ecnhjqcndf. ghjwtcct rjvveybrfwbb ,elen exfcndjdfnm hfpkbxyst cgjcj,s dpfbvjltqcndbz, drk.xfz htfrwb. yf ghbrjcyjdtybt, pderjdst rjvveybrfwbb, bcgjkmpetvst yfhfdyt c dbpefkmysv ghtlcnfdktybtv byajhvfwbb. ct ,jktt df;yjt vtcnj d hfpdbnbb rjvveybrfwbq ,elen pfybvfnm cjwbfkmyst, ghjatccbjyfkmyst, hjlcndtyyst b lheubt cdzpb, rjnjhst ,elen buhfnm jghtltkz.oe. hjkm d njv, rfrbv j,hfpjv ,eltn cj,bhfnmcz b bcgjkmpjdfnmcz byajhvfwbz, rfr ,elen htfkbpjdfys aeyrwbjyfkmyst djpvj;yjcnb, rfr ,eltn ajhvbhjdfnmcz byajhvfwbjyyjt yfgjkytybt, rfrbt ajhvs ghtlcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb ,elen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz. phsdyjq hjcn xbckf k.ltq, j,]tlbytyys[ tlbyjq byajhvfwbjyyjq chtljq gj dctve ptvyjve ifhe (dnjhjq vbkkbfhl gjkmpjdfntktq), j,]tvf byajhvfwbb b gthtlfdftvjuj nhfabrf, j,zpfntkmyj ghbdtltn r djpybryjdtyb. yjds[ gfhflbuv ghtlcnfdktybz byajhvfwbb b dpfbvjltqcndbz gjkmpjdfntkz c byajhvfwbjyyjq chtljq, rjnjhst gjnht,e.n ,jktt 'aatrnbdyj bcgjkmpjdfnm cjlth;bvjt 'njuj byajhvfwbjyyjuj ghjcnhfycndf, cltkf.n tuj ,jktt elj,ysv b ghbujlysv lkz bcgjkmpjdfybz d k.,s[ eckjdbz[ b ghb k.,s[ j,cnjzntkmcndf[, ntv cfvsv j,ktuxfz j,otybt vt;le k.lmvb.

3. s zdkztntcm fdnjhjv ,jktt 250 cnfntq, 5 rybu, cjfdnjhjv 7 rybu, gjcdzotyys[ ghjtrnbhjdfyb. gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd, ecnhjqcnd lkz hf,jns c byajhvfwbtq, f nfr;t rekmnehysv fcgtrnfv d vjltkbhjdfybb dpfbvjltqcndbz gjkmpjdfntktq c bynthfrnbdysvb ecnhjqcndfvb. t vjukb ,s ds gjltkbnmcz c yfvb cdjbvb gkfyfvb j dfib[ ,eleob[ ghjtrnf[ b rybuf[, rjnjhst ds cj,bhftntcm jge,kbrjdfnm?

gfcb,j pf bynthtcysq djghjc. [jntk ,s jcj,j jnvtnbnm cktle.ott.

yfcnjzott dhtvz z hf,jnf. c rbj nf (Yukio Ota), ghtpbltynjv jrbqcrjq ccjwbfwbb bpfqyf rbj nf (Ota Yukio Design Association) yfl gthtdjljv yf fyukbqcrbq zpsr tuj rybub j LoCoS eybdthcfkmyjv zpsrt cbvdjkjd, dgthdst dsitlitq d 1973 u. nf rybuf dsqltn yf fyukbqcrjv d tkbrj,hbnfybb d 2008 u. jvgfybz AM+A jhufybpjdfkf 'rcnhfctnm, gjcdzotyye. LoCoS (vz gjkmpjdfntkz: fhjkm: yuki00ta. ,hfnbnt dybvfybt: cbvdjks "00" 'nj yekb, f yt ,erds "".

hjatccjh nf b tuj extybrb cjplfkb web-cfqn yf zgjycrjv zpsrt, gjcdzotyysq LoCoS; yf 'njv cfqnt, LoCoSworld, jge,kbrjdfyj herjdjlcndj gj LoCoS yf zgjycrjv zpsrt. fqn LoCoSworld 'nj vtcnj, ult cj,hfyf dcz ytj,[jlbvfz byajhvfwbz lkz cnjhjyybrjd LoCoS, drk.xfz cbcntve Palette, j,ktuxf.oe. dpfbvjltqcndbt vt;le k.lmvb, b gjllth;bdf.oe. djpvj;yjcnm lj,fdktybz cbvdjkjd LoCoS, chtlcnd lkz gthtdjlf c[tv d cbvdjks, f nfr;t lheubt ghbkj;tybz.

nfr;t gjvjuf. vbcnthe nf, rjnjhsq xbnftn rehcs d rfltvbb creccnd fvf (Tama Art University) d jrbj, d tuj ghjtrnt hfphf,jnrb ecjdthitycndjdfyys[ yfwbjyfkmys[ zgjycrb[ cnfylfhnjd lkz gbrnjuhfvv, bcgjkmpetvs[ d vtlbwbyt b cdzpfyys[ c ytq j,kfcnz[.

AM+A ghjljk;ftn hf,jnfnm yfl vyjubvb bynthtcysvb, ckj;ysvb ghjtrnfvb. lybv bp nfrb[ ghjtrnjd zdkztncz hfphf,jnrf yjds[ cnfylfhnjd ghjtrnbhjdfybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd lkz hfpkbxys[ ghbkj;tybq cthdthyjq xfcnb eBay, gjllth;bdf.ob[ hf,jne vyj;tcndf cthdthjd 'njq juhjvyjq cbcntvs. heujq vfcinf,ysq ghjtrn 'nj gjvjom d jwtyrt b gththf,jnrt bynthfrnbdyjq vtlbwbycrjq byajhvfwbjyyjq ,b,kbjntrb, rjnjhjq gjkmpe.ncz vtlbwbycrbt ctcnhs b dhfxb d fqpthcrjv vtlbwbycrjv wtynht, jlyjv bp dtleob[ vtlbwbycrb[ wtynhjd d .

nfr;t cj,bhf.cm jge,kbrjdfnm hfcibhtyye. dthcb. ,b,kbjuhfabb j ghjtrnbhjdfybb byajhvfwbjyyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz b dbpefkbpfwbb byajhvfwbb, rjnjhe. z jge,kbrjdfk d gthbjlbxtcrjv bplfybb, gjcdzotyyjv 'njq ghj,ktvt (Marcus, Aaron (2007). "Information Graphics: A Celebration and Recollection." Visual Business Intelligence Newsletter, jge,kbrjdfyj: newsletter@perceptualedge.com d vfhnt 2007 u).

hjvt njuj, z gbie htlfrwbjyyst cnfnmb lkz rf;ljuj yjvthf ;ehyfkf User Experience, bplfdftvjuj fccjwbfwbtq ghjatccbjyfkjd d j,kfcnb usability (Usability Professionals Association).

fr;t z yfgbcfk d yjdjq, gjrf tot yt jge,kbrjdfyyjq rybut wtke. ukfde j vjtq rfhmtht, j njv, rfr, yfxfd c abpbrb, z dcrjht pfbynthtcjdfkcz b yfxfk pfybvfnmcz ghjtrnbhjdfybtv gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd (Marcus, Aaron (2008). "My Journey: From Physics to Graphic Design, to User-Interface / Information-Visualization Design," d rybut Alexenberg, Mel, Ed., Educating Artists for the Future. London: Intellect Press. jnjdbncz r bplfyb.).

gsn, yfrjgktyysq d ntxtybt gjcktlyb[ xtnsht[ ktn eghfdktybz dbhnefkmysv jabcjv hfphf,jnrb, z j,j,obk d lheujq rybut, rjnjhfz nfr;t dsqltn d 2008 u.: Marcus, Aaron (2008). "Light and Lively: Running a Virtual Design Office." d rybut Poggenpohl, Sharon, et al, Eds., Design Integrations: Research, Methods, Collaboration. Cambridge: MIT Press. jnjdbncz r bplfyb..

jge,kbrjdfk yjde. dthcb. ukfds j vt;rekmnehys[ fcgtrnf[ d ghjtrnbhjdfybb gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd d jlyjv bp yfb,jktt bpdtcnys[ cghfdjxybrjd, gjcdzotyys[ 'njq ghj,ktvt (Marcus, Aaron. (2007) "Global/Intercultural User-Interface Design," in Jacko, J. and A. Spears, Eds., Chapter 18, Handbook of Human-Computrer Interaction, Third Edition. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2007, pp. 355-380).

fr;t cjdvtcnyj c ghjatccjhjv fnhbrjv fe (Patrick Rau) bp eybdthcbntnf bymuef (Tsinghua University) d tql;byut (Beijing), z jge,kbrjdfk j,yjdktyye. dthcb. ukfds, gjcdzotyyjq 'nbv ;t ghj,ktvfv, d dtleotv bplfybb, gjcdzotyyjv ghj,ktvfv eybdthcfkmyjuj ghjtrnbhjdfybz: Marcus, Aaron, and Rau, Patrick (2007). "International and Intercultural User Interfaces," d User Interfaces for All, ed. Dr. Constantine Stephanidis, Chapter, 2nd rev. edition, Mawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, (ujnjdbncz r bplfyb.).

lyf bp gjcktlyb[ ge,kbrfwbq gththf,jnfyyfz dthcbz gjgekzhyjq cnfnmb, jge,kbrjdfyyjq yf cfqnt AM+A, gjcdzotyyjq ghj,ktvt djpdhfnf bydtcnbwbq d usability, ds[jlbn d [jhjitq, gjgekzhyjq rybut fdnjhjd Bias b Mayhew (Marcus, Aaron (2005). "User Interface Design's Return on Investment: Examples and Statistics." Chapter 2 in Bias, R. G., and Mayhew, D.J.., (Eds.), Cost-Justifying Usability, 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Elsevier, pp. 17-39).

4. s ,jktt 30 ktn pfybvfkbcm rjycekmnbhjdfybtv rkbtynjd bp hfpys[ cnhfy cj dct[ rjywjd cdtnf b ,skb dtleobv ljrkflxbrjv yf vyjub[ vt;leyfhjlys[ rjyathtywbz[. djn ntgthm ds ghbt[fkb d jccb.. frjds dfib j;blfybz jn ctvbyfhf b felbnjhbb d yfitq cnhfyt? fr ds jwtybdftnt ehjdtym jccbb d j,kfcnb hfphf,jnrb vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd, ghjtrnbhjdfybz b usability? nj ,s ds vjukb gjcjdtnjdfnm hjccbqcrbv cgtwbfkbcnfv d 'nb[ j,kfcnz[?

gjcktlybq hfp z ,sk d jccbb d vft 1990 u. nt[ gjh d cnhfyt vyjujt bpvtybkjcm, b z d gthde. jxthtlm [jntk ,s cjcnfdbnm cj,cndtyyjt vytybt b edbltnm cdjbvb ukfpfvb dct nj, j xtv z njkmrj xbnfk yf ghjnz;tybb gjxnb 20 ktn. levf., xnj dcnhtxe vyjuj zhrb[, nfkfynkbds[ k.ltq, b ,ele hfl dsckeifnm b[ vytybt j ntreotv gjkj;tybb ltk b j gthcgtrnbdf[ hfpdbnbz d lfyyjq j,kfcnb. gjkfuf., xnj lkz vyjub[ ghjatccbjyfkjd d jccbb rjywtgwbb usability b lbpfqyf, jcyjdfyyjuj yf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjv jgsnt, vjuen jrfpfnmcz yjdsvb. levf., bv ,eltn bynthtcyj jnrhsnm lkz ct,z yjdst bcnjxybrb byajhvfwbb, b jyb ,scnhj jcdjzncz c yjdsv rjywtgwbzvb gjl[jlf r ghjtrnbhjdfyb. gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, jhbtynbhjdfyyjuj yf ye;ls gjkmpjdfntkz. f vt;leyfhjlys[ rjyathtywbz[, d rjnjhs[ z ghbybvfk exfcnbt, z pfvtnbk ytcrjkmrb[ cgtwbfkbcnjd bp jccbb. gjkfuf., xnj e yb[ tcnm dct djpvj;yjcnb lkz ,jktt frnbdyjuj exfcnbz d 'njv ghjwtcct, lkz hfcrhsnbz cj,cndtyyjuj gjntywbfkf, b d ,eleotv jyb jrf;en ,jkmijt dkbzybt yf ghjwtcc hfphf,jnrb ghjlernjd b eckeu dj dctv vbht. tqxfc 'rjyjvbrf jccbb yf[jlbncz yf gjl]tvt, j,hfpjdfybt d jccbb bvttn [jhjibt nhflbwbb, b rhjvt njuj, d jccbb dshjckj yjdjt gjrjktybt k.ltq, ujnjds[ dytcnb cdjq drkfl d j,otvbhjdjq ghjwtcc hfpdbnbz. nj gjrjktybt, rjnjhjt ecgtiyj ghjrkflsdftn ct,t ljhjue d ,bpytct, b dyjcbn pyfxbntkmysq drkfl d gjzdktybt yjds[ ghjlernjd b eckeu. nj gjnhzcf.ofz 'gj[f, dhtvz ,jkmib[ gthtvty. hfl, xnj vyt dsgfkf elfxf gjctnbnm dfie cnhfye bvtyyj d 'nj dhtvz.

5. 2000 u. s ,skb ghbpyfys "fcnthjv uhfabxtcrjuj lbpfqyf 20-uj cnjktnbz" fccjwbfwbtq ICOGRADA, b d 2007 u. cnfkb xktyjv yfexyjuj j,otcndf vthbrfycrjuj ycnbnenf pj,hfpbntkmys[ creccnd. s yt vjukb ,s lfnm ytcrjkmrj cjdtnjd cgtwbfkbcnfv, njkmrj yfxbyf.obv cdj. rfhmthe d lfyyjq j,kfcnb?

kfdf d rybut, j rjnjhjq z e;t egjvbyfk, hfccrfpsdftn j,j dct[ fcgtrnf[ vjtq rfhmths, b d tt rjywt xbnfntkb yfqlen ytcrjkmrj cjdtnjd vjkjlsv lbpfqythfv, [elj;ybrfv b bccktljdfntkzv, pfbynthtcjdfyysv d hfpdbnbb yjds[ vtlbf-chtl, yjds[ nt[yjkjubq, cjplfybb yjds[ cbcntv (Marcus, Aaron (2008). "My Journey: From Physics to Graphic Design, to User-Interface / Information-Visualization Design," d rybut Alexenberg, Mel, Ed., Educating Artists for the Future. London: Intellect Press. jnjdbncz r bplfyb.).

j djpvj;yjcnb, cgtwbfkbcnfv bp jccbb ye;yj exfcndjdfnm d ghjatccbjyfkmys[ cjj,otcndf[, cktlbnm pf ltzntkmyjcnm. b ge,kbrfwbzvb ghjatccbjyfkmys[ jhufybpfwbq b pyfrjvbnmcz c vfnthbfkfvb rjyathtywbq, gjcdzotyys[ ghj,ktvfv ghjtrnbhjdfybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd, usability, lbpfqyf, jcyjdfyyjuj yf gjkmpjdfntkmcrjv jgsnt, b gjlxthrbdf.ob[ hjkm 'nb[ df;ys[ lbcwbgkby d bccktljdfybz[ b yf ghfrnbrt. nj j,zpfntkmyj ye;yj ltkfnm, lf;t tckb jyb yt vjuen cnfnm xktyfvb dct[ cjj,otcnd bkb gjctnbnm dct rjyathtywbb, gjcdzotyyst lfyyjq ntvt. jn ytrjnjhst bp yb[ yf vjq dpukzl, 'nj kexibt htcehcs.

AIGA 2009 d . vthbrfycrbq ycnbnen pj,hfpbntkmys[ creccnd dtleofz jhufybpfwbz d j,kfcnb uhfabxtcrjuj lbpfqyf. f b[ cfqnt ghtlcnfdktyf byajhvfwbz j tynht vt;rekmnehys[ dpfbvjltqcndbq d ghjtrnbhjdfybb.

CHI 2008, kjhtywbz, nfkbz. heggf gj ghj,ktvfv dpfbvjltqcndbz xtkjdtrf c rjvgm.nthfvb d cjcnfdt ccjwbfwbb gj dsxbckbntkmyjq nt[ybrt rhegyfz b [jhjij bpdtcnyfz vt;leyfhjlyfz jhufybpfwbz, pfybvf.ofzcz ghjtrnbhjdfybtv gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd, dkfltktw byajhvfwbjyyjuj htcehcf Interactions.

HCII 2009 d fy- btuj, (infn fkbajhybz). t;leyfhjlyfz rjyathtywbz, gjcdzotyyfz hfpkbxysv fcgtrnfv hf,jns xtkjdtrf c bynthatqcjv rjvgm.nthf (Human-Computer Interface International conference) 'nj rjyathtywbz, yf rjnjhjq ghtlcnfdktyf yfb,jktt ibhjrfz vt;leyfhjlyfz felbnjhbz d j,kfcnb ghjtrnbhjdfybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd.

IWIPS 2008 d fyufkjht. t;leyfhjlysq cbvgjpbev, gjcdzotyysq ghj,ktvfv bynthyfwbjyfkbpfwbb ghjlernjd b eckeu tlbycndtyyfz rjyathtywbz, gjcdzotyyfz ukj,fkbpfwbb b kjrfkbpfwbb.

UPA 2008 d fknbvjht, (infn thbktyl). ccjwbfwbz cgtwbfkbcnjd d j,kfcnb usability (Usability Professionals Association) vt;leyfhjlyfz jhufybpfwbz, bvt.ofz cdjb abkbfks dj vyjub[ cnhfyf[, d njv xbckt b d jccbb. jccbqcrbv cgtwbfkbcnfv ye;yj ghbcjtlbybnmcz rfr r kjrfkmyjq, nfr b r ukj,fkmyjq uheggfv, xnj,s ,snm d rehct gjcktlyb[ hfphf,jnjr d lfyyjq j,kfcnb. ccjwbfwbz cgtwbfkbcnjd d j,kfcnb usability dsgecrftn ;ehyfk User Experience b zdkztncz cgjycjhjv t;leyfhjlyjuj yz Usability (World Usability Day); cktle.ofz lfnf 'njuj cj,snbz 13 yjz,hz 2008 u., b d jccbb d 'nj dhtvz nfr;t gkfybhetncz ghjdtltybt vthjghbznbq, gjcdzotyys[ ntvt usability.

Vision+13, lfnf ,kb;fqituj cj,snbz ktnj 2008, tuj gkfybhetncz ghjdtcnb d dcnhbb, 'nj rjyathtywbz, gjcdzotyyfz byajhvfwbjyyjve lbpfqye. t;leyfhjlysq ycnbnen yajhvfwbjyyjuj bpfqyf zdkztncz cgjycjhjv 'njq rjyathtywbb b hzlf lheub[ ghjtrnjd.

hfrnbrb, extyst, ghtgjlfdfntkb b bccktljdfntkb vjuen jge,kbrjdfnm cnfnmb, gjcdzotyyst ntvt usability b hfccrfpfnm j cdjb[ gjcktlyb[ hfphf,jnrf[ b ghjtrnf[ d cktle.ob[ gthbjlbxtcrb[ bplfybz[: User Experience (UX, bplfybt UPA), Interactions, Information Design Journal (bplfybt CHI), ;ehyfkt International Journal for Human-Computer Interaction (bplfybt IJHCI), f nfr;t d ;ehyfkf[ Universal Access in the Information Society (bplfybt UIAIS) b Visible Language. zdkz.cm kfdysv htlfrnjhjv UX, htlfrnjhjv Information Design, xktyjv rjycekmnfnbdyjuj cjdtnf Interactions, f nfr;t xktyjv htlfrwbjyys[ cjdtnjd IJHCI, UAIS b Visible Language. z ghbpsdf. dct[, rnj pfybvftncz lfyyjq ghj,ktvjq, ge,kbrjdfnm cdjb cnfnmb d 'nb[ bplfybz[. ht,jdfybz r ge,kbrfwbzv ds vj;tnt yfqnb yf web-cfqnf[ cjjndtncnde.ob[ bplfybq.

jllth;bdfz cdzpb c ghjatccbjyfkfvb, cktlz pf hfphf,jnrfvb b cj,snbzvb d j,kfcnb usability, j,vtybdfzcm bltzvb b vytybzvb, cjj,ofz j htpekmnfnf[ cdjb[ bccktljdfybq b hfphf,jnjr, vjkjlst ghjatccbjyfks d jccbb vjuen dytcnb cdjq drkfl d hfpdbnbt yfghfdktybz usability d vbhjdjv vfcinf,t, jhufybpjdfnm yjdst bynthtcyst lbcreccbb yf 'ne ntve, cltkfnm byajhvfwbjyyst nt[yjkjubb ,jktt elj,ysvb lkz gjkmpjdfntktq.

6. frbt ghjtrns d j,kfcnb vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd, yf dfi dpukzl, zdkz.ncz yfb,jktt ecgtiysvb? t vjukb ,s s ghbdtcnb ytcrjkmrj ghbvthjd? nj zdkztncz yfb,jktt df;ysv? bpfqy? Web 2.0? Usability?

j,kfcnb ghjtrnbhjdfybz b hfpdbnbz vj,bkmys[ ecnhjqcnd yfb,jktt bynthtcysv ghjtrnjv ,skf hfphf,jnrf ,jktt 100 hfpkbxys[ rjywtgwbq ekexityys[ gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd lkz cvfhnajyjd d ; hf,jns ghjdjlbkbcm pf 2-3 ujlf lj gjzdktybz cvfhnajyjd yf hsyrt. ot d 2000 u. vs hfphf,fnsdfkb rjywtgwb. dbpefkbpfwbb nfrb[ ghjlernjd, rfr Apple i-Phone, ghjlernf, gjzdbditujcz d 2007 u., b jge,kbrjdfkb jgbcfybt 'njuj ghjtrnf d jnltkmyjq cnfnmt: Marcus, Aaron, and Chen, Eugene (2002)."Designing the PDA of the Future." Interactions, ACM Publisher, www.acm.org, 9:1, zydfhm/atdhfkm 2002, 32-44.

f ghjnz;tybb cktle.ob[ ytcrjkmrb[ ktn, dj vyjujv ,kfujlfhz yfibv ecbkbzv b ytcrjkmrbv dsgjkytyysv yfvb ghjtrnfv, Samsung, ,elexb vfkjbpdtcnysv d ,htyljv, cevtk gjlyznmcz yf dnjhe. gjpbwb. gjckt Motorola d j,kfcnb vj,bkmys[ ntktajyjd b yf dnjhe. gjpbwb. gjckt Sony d j,kfcnb ghjlernjd vfccjdjuj gjnht,ktybz.

nj rfcftncz Web 2.0, nj pltcm vs hf,jnfkb c dtleobv jgthfnjhjv vj,bkmyjq cdzpb yfl cjplfybtv ,jktt elj,yjuj b yfcnhfbdftvjuj Web-jhbtynbhjdfyyjuj gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf. kz yfc 'nj ,sk bynthtcysq, ckj;ysq, gthtljdjq b cjdhtvtyysq ghjlern.

j,kfcnb usability htpekmnfns, gjkextyyst d yfitv bccktljdfntkmcrjv ghjtrnt DARPA d 1982-85 uu., ,skb ghjntcnbhjdfys uheggjq ytpfdbcbvs[ 'rcgthnjd, cgtwbfkbpbhe.ob[cz yf 'hujyjvbxtcrb[ [fhfrnthbcnbrf[. tpekmnfns gjrfpfkb, xnj yfxbyf.obt ghjuhfvvbcns, gjkmpe.obtcz yfibvb hfphf,jnrfvb, ekexibkb cdjb gjrfpfntkb d gkfyt djcghbznbz byajhvfwbb yf 20%, b 'nj gjbcnbyt dslf.obtcz htpekmnfns.

xbckt lheub[ bynthtcys[ ghjtrnjd z vjue yfpdfnm yfie cjdvtcnye. hf,jne c Sabre. fv gjcxfcnkbdbkjcm hf,jnfnm c nhtvz ,bpytc-gjlhfpltktybzvb b hfphf,fnsdfnm yjdsq gjkmpjdfntkmcrbq bynthatqc lkz gthdjq dthcbb cfqnf Travelocity. s hfphf,jnfkb ,jktt 20 uhfabxtcrb[ dthcbq ghbkj;tybq, ghtlyfpyfxfdib[cz lkz jlyjuj bp dtleob[ vbhjds[ ,.hj gentitcndbq b gjpdjkzdib[ ,hjybhjdfnm ,bktns. fif dthcbz gjkyjcnm. bpvtybkf cnfhst byajhvfwbjyyst cbcntvs, 'rcgkefnbhjdfdibtcz d 'njq rjvgfybb ,jktt 20 ktn b yt bvtdibt uhfabxtcrjuj bynthatqcf. j htpekmnfnfv 'njuj ghjtrnf vs jge,kbrjdfkb cnfnm. d Design Journal: Marcus, Aaron, (2001). "User-interface design for air-travel booking: A case study of Sabre." Information Design Journal, 10:2, 186-206.

7. eltn kb e yfc Web 3.0?

.lb e;t gjkmpe.ncz ctvfynbxtcrbvb djpvj;yjcnzvb, ghtljcnfdkztvsvb d web, hfcibhtybzvb WWW, d rjnjhs[ byajhvfwbz vj;tn ,snm gthtlfdfnmcz yt njkmrj gjchtlcndjv xtkjdtxtcrjuj zpsrf, yj b d ajhvfnt, ghtlyfpyfxtyyjv lkz dpfbvjltqcndbz c ghjuhfvvysvb futynfvb. nj j,ktuxftn gjbcr, j,vty b rjycjkblfwb. byajhvfwbb. nj yjdfz abkjcjabz, hzl ghbywbgjd, gjkj;tyys[ d jcyjde hfphf,jnrb, gjpdjkz.ob[ cnhjbnm dpfbvjltqcndbt d uheggf[ k.ltq b zdkz.ob[cz jcyjdjq yjds[ nt[yjkjubq. nb ghbywbgs jghtltkz.n ,eleott Web, ult ghjuhfvvyjt j,tcgtxtybt ,eltn j,kflfnm elbdbntkmysvb djpvj;yjcnzvb cj,bhfnm, cbcntvfnbpbhjdfnm, fyfkbpbhjdfnm b ghtlcnfdkznm byajhvfwb. k.lzv d nfrb[ ajhvfnf[, j rjnjhs[ dxthf k.lb yt vjukb b vtxnfnm. cjxtnfybb c juhjvysv, ljctkt ytljcnegysv xbckjv dpfbvjltqcndbq vt;le k.lmvb b hfpkbxysvb j,]trnfvb ghtlcnfdktyysvb d tnb, 'nf rjywtgwbz ghtljcnfdkztn djpvj;yjcnm yt ghjcnj cjplfdfnm dnjhe. htfkmyjcnm, yj b blnb ujhfplj lfkmit, nelf, ult k.lb ,elen cjj,of hf,jnfnm, hfpdktrfnmcz, levfnm, ndjhbnm b cjplfdfnm yjdjt.

kfnajhvs, ghjuhfvvs b rjvgm.nths vtyz.ncz, b kbim jlyf dtom d ghjtrnbhjdfybb gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd jcnftncz ytbpvtyyjq c ntxtybtv dhtvtyb: vfyths gjdtltybz, vfythf j,otybz. hjtrnbhjdobrb gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ bynthatqcjd d ,eleotv ,elen vfcnthfvb gjlj,ys[ "wthtvjybq", 'rcgthnfvb d j,kfcnb xtkjdtxtcrjuj j,otybz.
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