XHTML. , W3C HTML: XHTML


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ne cnfnm. d 2000 ujle yfgbcfk yt,tpspdtcnysq dt,-hfphf,jnxbr tnth-fekm j[ (Peter-Paul Koch), rjnjhsq gjllth;bdftn jlby bp kexib[ htcehcjd gj JavaScript http://www.xs4all.nl/. uj dpukzls yf XHTML dj vyjujv cjdgflf.n c vjbvb kbxysvb dpukzlfvb yf 'njn zpsr hfpvtnrb. j ghjitcndbb lde[ ktn vj;yj crfpfnm, xnj PPK ,sk cjdthityyj ghfd, ntv bynthtcytt ,eltn xbnfnm...

snm dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjv ytkturj. fkj njuj, xnj dfv yflj rf;lsq ltym j,[jlbnm kjdeirb b pfgflyb gjgekzhys[ ,hfepthjd, nfr tot yflj [jnz ,s dgjkukfpf cktlbnm pf nt[yjkjubzvb, rjnjhst vjuen gjdkbznm (bkb yt gjdkbznm), yf dfie hf,jne. jrf ds cjdthitycndetnt cdjt vfcnthcndj d hf,jnt c nf,kbwfvb cnbktq b DHTML, yf yjdst nt[yjkjubb yt jcnftncz dhtvtyb. frbt bp yb[ df;ys d yfcnjzobq vjvtyn? frbt vj;yj gjrf ghjbuyjhbhjdfnm?

'njq cnfnmt z dshf;f. cdjq dpukzl yf zpsr, rjnjhsq W3C hfphf,jnfkj gjl dbljv ekexitybz HTML: XHTML. jukfcbntcm ds cj vyjq bkb ytn, d k.,jv ckexft cnfnmz pfcnfdbn dfc pflevfnmcz b gjvj;tn ghbyznm htitybt.

yfxfkt z j,]zcy., xnj nfrjt XHTML, pfntv lfv xtnsht ghfdbkf lkz yfgbcfybt rjhhtrnyjuj XHTML, b d pfrk.xtybb crf;e ytcrjkmrj ckjd j njv, pfxtv dfv vj;tn gjyflj,bncz XHTML.

nj ;t nfrjt XHTML?

XHTML - 'nj HTML, pfgbcfyysq d cjjndtncndbb c cbynfrcbxtcrbvb ghfdbkfvb XML. frbv j,hfpjv, lkz gjybvfybz XHTML vs ljk;ys gjyznm XML. ytv e;t yfgbcfyj vyjuj cnfntq, nfr xnj juhfybxbvcz rhfnrbv jgbcfybtv:

XML - 'nj j,j,otyysq zpsr hfpvtnrb. jnkbxbt jn HTML, XML gjpdjkztn cjplfdfnm cj,cndtyyst ntub b nfrbv j,hfpjv ajhvbhjdfnm cj,cndtyye. cnhernehe ljrevtynf. fv ye;ty ntu ? j,fdmnt tuj d dfi ljrevtyn, e,tlbntcm xnj ghjuhfvvf pyftn, xnj j,jpyfxftn 'njn ntu, b dct ujnjdj.

eotcndetn ytcrjkmrj ghjcns[ ghfdbk lkz XML ljrevtynf (jyb ,elen gthtxbcktys yb;t). j nt[ gjh, gjrf dct ntub yfgbcfys cjukfcyj 'nbv ghfdbkfv, XML ,tp hfpybws, xnj 'nb ntub j,jpyfxf.n. XML j,j,otyysq zpsr hfpvtnrb, nfr xnj ds vj;tnt tuj bcgjkmpjdfnm rfr dfv eujlyj.

ghjnbdjgjkj;yjcnm XML, HTML ujhfplj ,jktt cnhjuj jghtltktyysq zpsr hfpvtnrb c juhfybxtyysv yf,jhjv ntujd. k.,jv ckexft, j,obq [fhfrnth XML gjpdjkztn hfccvfnhbdfnm HTML-ljrevtyns rfr XML-ljrevtyns c yf,jhjv ntujd lkz jnj,hf;tybz d dt,-,hfepthf[. lyfrj, cnfhst cnfylfhns HTML yt lj rjywf cjdvtcnbvs c XML. fghbvth, d HTML ytj,zpfntkmyj pfrhsdfnm ntu, nj tcnm ntu vj;yj jgecrfnm. t,-,hfepthe yf 'nj gktdfnm, nfr rfr jy pfghjuhfvvbhjdfy, yj XML-gfhcth dslfcn jib,re j njv, xnj dfi HTML-ljrevtyn yt zdkztncz "ghfdbkmyj cajhvbhjdfyysv" (well-formed).

nj,s ecnhfybnm hfphsd vt;le 'nbvb ldevz zpsrfvb hfpvtnrb b ,sk hfphf,jnfy XHTML. j ceotcnde 'nj j,sxysq HTML, d rjnjhsq lj,fdbkb cbynfrcbxtcrbt ghfdbkf XML lkz cjplfybz well-formed ljrevtynjd. fr xnj dt,-cnhfybws cnfyen XML-cjdvtcnbvsvb, f dt,-hfphf,jnxbrb gjpyfrjvzncz c cbynfrcbcjv XML.

hfdbkf buhs

f ghfrnbrt, d HTML yflj lj,fdbnm xtnsht ghfdbkf, xnj,s gjkexbkcz XHTML:

  • ct ntub ljk;ys ,snm pfgbcfys d yb;ytv htubcnht, nj tcnm ytkmpz gbcfnm <BODY>, f yflj gbcfnm <body>
  • ct ntub ljk;ys ,snm pfrhsns 2a. ckexft, tckb 'ktvtyn yt bvttn pfrhsdf.otuj ntuf (yfghbvth, <IMG> bkb <BR>), yflj lj,fdkznm ck'i d rjywt ntuf <img /> b <br />
  • kj;tyyjcnm ntujd ljk;yf ,snm rjhhtrnyjq. fghbvth, ytkmpz gbcfnm <B><P>ntrcn</B></P>, f yflj gbcfnm <p><b>ntrcn</b></p>
  • ct fnhb,ens ljk;ys ,snm pfrk.xtys d rfdsxrb. fghbvth, ytkmpz gbcfnm <P ALIGN=center>, f yflj gbcfnm <p align="center">.

jhjifz yjdjcnm d njv, xnj e ,hfepthjd ghfrnbxtcrb ytn ghj,ktv c XHTML. jj,ot ujdjhz, ghfdbkf 1, 2 b 4 e;t tcnm d HTML, yj yt zdkz.ncz j,zpfntkmysvb, njulf rfr ghfdbkj 3 zdkztncz j,zpfntkmysv, [jnz ,hfepths d ,jkmibycndt ckexftd buyjhbhe.n jib,rb dkj;tyyjcnb. lbycndtyyjt ltqcndbntkmyj yjdjt ghfdbkj - 'nj ghfdbkj 2f. lyfrj, 'nj ghfdbkj ghbdjlbn r ghj,ktvfv cj cnfhsvb ,hfepthfvb njkmrj d njv ckexft, rjulf ds pfgbcsdftnt ck'i ,tp ghj,tkjd, djn nfr
. hfepth levftn, xnj 'nj ntu br/, f nfrjuj jy pyfnm yt pyftn, nfr xnj ybrfr yf ytuj yt jnhtfubhetn. ckb dcnfdkznm ghj,tk, nj ghj,ktvf ,eltn htityf. ckb ds yfgbibnt
, nj ,hfepth edblbn ntu br c ytbpdtcnysv fnhb,enjv /. tu br ,eltn jnhf,jnfy rjhhtrnyj, f ytbpdtcnysq fnhb,en / nb[j ghjbuyjhbhjdfy.

kj[fz yjdjcnm d njv, xnj vyjubv ghbltncz bpvtybnm cdjb ghbdsxrb rjlbhjdfybz. bxyj vyt yt yhfdbncz ghfdbkj 1. j-gthds[, z yt vjue gjyznm, gjxtve XML ntub vjuen ,snm njkmrj d yb;ytv htubcnht, dj dnjhs[, z dctulf gbie ntub d dth[ytv htubcnht, gjnjve xnj njulf jyb kexit dsltkz.ncz d ntrcnt. jxtve z ljk;ty jnrfpfnmcz jn 'njuj, tckb 'nj elj,yj? k.,jv ckexft, z yt bpvty. cdjb[ ghbdsxtr ,tp dtcrjq yf nj ghbxbys.

fxtv bcgjkmpjdfnm XHTML?

nfr, pfxtv bcgjkmpjdfnm XHTML dvtcnj cnfhjuj lj,hjuj HTML? jycjhwbev W3C dsltkztn cktle.obt ghbxbys:

"fphf,jnxbrb ljrevtynjd b hfphf,jnxbrb ,hfepthjd jnrhj.n yjdst genb dshf;tybz cdjb[ bltq xthtp yjde. hfpvtnre. XML jnyjcbntkmyj kturj ddjlbnm yjdst 'ktvtyns bkb yjdst fnhb,ens. psr XHTML hfphf,jnfy lkz cjukfcjdfybz 'njuj hfcibhtybz gjchtlcndjv cgtwbfkmys[ XHTML-vjlektq, rjnjhst vj;yj hfphf,fnsdfnm cjdthityyj cfvjcnjzntkmyj. nb vjlekb gjpdjkzn rjv,bybhjdfnm ceotcnde.obt b yjdst djpvj;yjcnb ghb hfphf,jnrt yjds[ ljrevtynjd b yjds[ ,hfepthjd."

"jcnjzyyj gjzdkz.ncz yjdst fkmnthyfnbdyst cgjcj,s ljcnegf d bynthytn. [:] XHTML hfphf,fnsdfkcz c extnjv j,otq cjdvtcnbvjcnb gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ ,hfepthjd (user agents). fr xnj,s yjdst gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt ,hfepths, cthdthf b ghjrcb vjukb ljcnbxm yfbkexitq nhfycajhvfwbb rjyntynf. rjytxyjv cxtnt, vj;yj ,eltn hfphf,jnfnm XHTML-rjyajhvysq rjyntyn, rjnjhsq ,eltn ljcnegty bp k.,juj XHTML-rjyajhvyjuj gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj ,hfepthf"

jhjxt ujdjhz d ,eleotv, rjnjhjt gjrf ytbpdtcnyj, ekexitybz XHTML ,elen gjpdjkznm hfphf,jnxbrfv bcgjkmpjdfnm yjdtqibt, gjrf yt yfgbcfyyst, vjlekb lkz hfcibhtybz XHTML, xnj,s drk.xfnm yjdst, gjrf yt jghtltktyyst, dtob d cdjb dt,-cnhfybws. lj,fdjr rj dctve, W3C j;blftn, xnj d ,eleobt ,hfepths ,elen bcgjkmpjdfnm XHTML dvtcnj HTML.

X 'nj bp cdjtuj cgbcrf

yt cxbnf., xnj 'nb[ lde[ ghbxby ljcnfnjxyj lkz njuj, xnj,s vs, dt,-hfphf,jnxbrb, gthtikb c HTML yf XHTML.

thdfz ghbxbyf d yfcnjzobq vjvtyn yt df;yf cfvf gj ct,t. jpvj;yj, vjlekb XHTML jitkjvzn yfc, djpvj;yj, jyb djj,ot yb yf xnj yt cujlzncz. k.,jv ckexft, gjzdzncz jyb ujlf xthtp ldf-nhb, nfr xnj vs gjrf lf;t yt vj;tv ghtlgjkfufnm, rfr jyb ,elen hf,jnfnm b xnj jyb ,elen ltkfnm. f;t tckb c ybvb yt ,eltn jcj,s[ ghj,ktv, vs dct hfdyj gjrf ybxtuj yt vj;tv c ybvb cltkfnm bkb rfr-nj ghbujnjdbnmcz r b[ gjzdktyb..

njhfz ghbxbyf gjrf nj;t yt df;yf. yfcnjzott dhtvz ytn xbcns[ XHTML-rjyajhvys[ ,hfepthjd, rjnjhsv ytj,[jlbv XHTML. f b djj,ot ytbpdtcnyj, gjzdzncz kb jyb rjulf-kb,j. rjywt rjywjd, tckb ds cjplflbnt ,hfepth, rjnjhsq jnj,hf;ftn njkmrj XHTML, jy yt ,eltn rjhhtrnyj jnj,hf;fnm HTML-cnhfybws. hjbpdjlbntkb ,hfepthjd 'njuj cjdctv yt [jnzn.

ghbvthe, llb jytxysq-jkmpjdfntkm pf[jlbn yf cdjq k.,bvsq cfqn yjdsv, nht,e.obv XHTML, njkmrj xnj ecnfyjdktyysv ,hfepthjv kmnhf-hfpeth X7 b dblbn njkmrj vyj;tcndj cjj,otybq j, jib,rf[, rfcf.ob[cz dfkblyjcnb XHTML-rjlf. nj jy gjlevftn: "hjrkznst dt,-hfphf,jnxbrb! s ljk;ys ,skb bcgjkmpjdfnm XHTML!" bkb "htyjd ,hfepth c rextq ,fujd!"?

fr xnj, tckb yjdsq ,hfepth dsqltn, hfphf,jnxbrb dct hfdyj gjpf,jnzncz j gjllth;rt cnfhjuj lj,hjuj HTML. jdst ,hfepths yf rfrb[-nj yjds[ gkfnajhvf[ djpvj;yj b ,elen nht,jdfnm XHTML ([jnz z nfr yt levf.), yj Netscape b Explorer ybrjulf, gjnjve xnj jyb ljk;ys ,snm rjycthdfnbdysvb d ds,jht zpsrf.

fgfc ghjxyjcnb

levf., xnj vyjubt k.lb ytljjwtybdf.n pfgfc ghjxyjcnb HTML. nj cnfylfhn yf ctujlyziybq vjvtyn, ,tp rjnjhjuj ds yt cvj;tnt cltkfnm dt,-cnhfybwe. jnjve xnj dct dt,-hfphf,jnxbrb bcgjkmpe.n HTML. jnjve xnj bp-pf 'njuj dct ,eleobt ,hfepths, rjnjhst [jnzn jnj,hf;fnm nhflbwbjyyst cnhfybws, ljk;ys drk.xfnm gjllt h;re HTML. jnjve xnj bp-pf 'njuj dct hfphf,jnxbrb ,elen ghjljk;fnm bcgjkmpjdfnm HTML, nfr xnj dt,-cnhfybws ,elen gj-ght;ytve yfgbcfys yf HTML, nfr xnj ,hfepthfv ghbltncz gjllth;bdfnm tuj b n.l.

xnj c yjdsvb ,hfepthfvb? nj vj;yj crfpfnm j yjds[ j,kfcnz[ ynthytn, nfrb[ rfr WAP? fr yfcxtn bpextybz XML bcgjkmpez XHTML? bnfqnt lfkmit:

hjcnj crf;bnt ytn

jytxyj, yjdst ,hfepths yf yjds[ gkfnajhvf[ vjuen nht,jdfnm XHTML. j njulf jyb cnjkryencz c njq ;t ghj,ktvjq, xnj b cnfhst ,hfepths yf cnfhs[ gkfnajhvf[: jyb yt cvjuen rjhhtrnyj jnj,hf;fnm ceotcnde.obt HTML-cnhfybws, f 'nj jpyfxftn rhfqytt ytljdjkmcndj rjytxys[ gjkmpjdfntktq. j bp,t;fybb 'njuj, yjdst ,hfepths ljk;ys gjllth;bdfnm HTML.

jytxyj, XHTML vj;tn cnfnm cnfylfhnjv lkz yjds[ j,kfcntq ynthytn, rfr WML cnfk cnfylfhnysv zpsrjv lkz WAP. nj jlyf bp ghbxby, gj rjnjhjq W3C hfphf,fnsdfk XHTML. j, jnrhjdtyyj ujdjhz, z d 'nj yt dth.. jdst j,kfcnb ynthytn nht,e.n ltqcndbntkmyj yjds[ zpsrjd, gjnjve xnj jyb jnkbxf.ncz jn WWW, njulf rfr XHTML [jhjij gjl[jlbn njkmrj lkz nhflbwbjyys[ WWW-cnhfybw.

jytxyj, XHTML vj;tn evtymibnm hfphsd vt;le HTML b XML b gjpyfrjvbnm dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd c cbynfrcbcjv XML. lyfrj z cjvytdf.cm, xnj XML yfcnjkmrj df;ty lkz bcnbyys[ dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd. yt cxbnf., xnj rf;lsq dt,-hfphf,jnxbr ljk;ty pyfnm XML, gjnjve xnj yt pyf. ibhjrj bcgjkmpetvs[ ,hfepthjd, rjnjhst rjhhtrnyj jnj,hf;fkb XML yf cnjhjyt rkbtynf. XML yf cnjhjyt cthdthf, rjytxyj, lheujt ltkj.

pfrk.xtybb, gjdnjh. ahfpe W3C:

" rjytxyjv cxtnt, vj;yj ,eltn hfphf,jnfnm XHTML-rjyajhvysq rjyntyn, rjnjhsq ,eltn ljcnegty bp k.,juj XHTML-rjyajhvyjuj gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj futynf"

nj yt rf;tncz dfv pyfrjvsv? fpdt HTML hfphf,fnsdfkcz yt lkz dct[ nbgjd gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ futynjd? s dct pyftv, xnj ckexbkjcm c 'nbv gkfyjv:

nfr, tckb HTML jcnfytncz, pfxtv gtht[jlbnm yf ,jktt ckj;ysq zpsr, rjnjhsq bpvtybn dfib ghbdsxrb rjlbhjdfybz, yj ybxtuj yt lfcn? yt db;e yb jlyjq ghbxbys yfxfnm bcgjkmpjdfnm XHTML. c yfckf;ltymtv ghjljk;e gbcfnm ntub d dth[ytv htubcnht b ,ele ghjgecrfnm byjulf ntub

, tckb gjxedcnde., xnj dct ,eltn [jhjij b ,tp yb[.

fr b dct cgtwbabrfwbb W3C, XHTML - 'nj bynthtcyfz ntjhtnbxtcrfz rjycnherwbz, rjnjhfz vj;tn hfpdbnmcz b csuhfnm df;ye. hjkm d ynthytnt. j gjrf jyf ,tcgjktpyf yf ghfrnbrt. fphf,jnxbrb ,hfepthjd ljk;ys cltkfnm gthdsq [jl. yb ljk;ys dytlhbnm gjllth;re XHTML rjycnhernbdysv cgjcj,jv, xnj,s gjkmpjdfntkb yt jndthyekbcm jn b[ ghjlernjd. jkmrj d 'njv ckexft pf ybvb gjnzytncz jcnfkmyfz xfcnm dt,f.

nt afyfnbrb, rjnjhst cxbnf.n, xnj rf;ljt ckjdj W3C bvttn cbke j;mtq fgjdtlb b cvjnhzn yf dct[, rnj yt bcgjkmpetn XHTML, rfr yf thtnbrjd, rjnjhs[ yflj c;txm yf rjcnht b xtv hfymit, ntv kexit, ghjcnj jib,f.ncz. XHTML - 'nj yt j yfcnjzotv, XHTML - 'nj j ,eleotv.

Copyright 2000 (c) Peter-Paul Koch and A List Apart
gthtdjl, b[fbk e,frjd

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