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jxtve yf ytrjnjhs[ cjplfys[ cfqnf[ yfv elfncz yfqnb nj, xnj ye;yj, f lheubt "nthz.n" gjkmpjdfntktq gjckt gfhs rkbrjd? fr cghjtrnbhjdfnm yfdbufwb. gj hfpltkfv, tckb e dfc ghjlf.ncz njdfhs, rjnjhst ckj;yj hfpltkbnm gj ghbpyfrfv? jxtve ghtlcnfdktybz gjkmpjdfntkz j rkfccbabrfwbb df;ytt, xtv ghfdbkmyfz cnhernehbpfwbz?

jkmpjdfntkm k.,bn rjynhjkm

lby bp yfb,jktt df;ys[ 'ktvtynjd htcehcf, yfwtktyyjuj yf ghjlf;b 'nj elj,yfz cnhernehbpfwbz (.pf,bkbnb), gjpdjkz.ofz gjkmpjdfntk. vfrcbvfkmyj elj,yj yfqnb ye;ysq njdfh. ltcm, rfr b dj vyjub[ lheub[ pflfxf[ yfdbufwbb, df;yj xedcndj rjynhjkz b wtkjcnyjcnb: gjkmpjdfntkm yt ljk;ty xedcndjdfnm yf rf;ljv ifue, xnj jy nthztn xfcnm cdjb[ djpvj;yjcntq.

hbdtlv ghbvth: ds ds,bhftnt ct,t cnek. fnfkju ghtlkfuftn ldf hfpltkf: hexyfz hf,jnf b j,sryjdtyyst "pfdjlcrbt" cnekmz. ckb ds njxyj pyftnt, xnj bvtyyj [jnbnt (f nfrb[ gjkmpjdfntktq dctuj jrjkj 5-10%), nj gjqlnt bvtyyj nelf, relf ye;yj. ckb dfv ye;ty ghjcnj cnek d ujcnbye., nj ds,bhfz k.,e. bp dtndtq, ds jnctrftnt ct,t djpvj;yjcnm ghbj,htntybz cnekf bp lheujq. nj jpyfxftn, xnj ghblncz gjp;t ghjcvjnhtnm dct dtnrb rfnfkjuf. f vtcnt ltktybz ds ytbp,t;yj ,eltnt hfplhf;fnmcz.

o jlby [jhjibq ghbvth abkmvs. julf ds gjlscrbdftnt abkmv, xnj,s gjcvjnhtnm d ljhjut, ds yt ds,bhftnt vt;le ,jtdbrjv, vtkjlhfvjq b rjvtlbtq: ds ds,bhftnt vt;le rjyrhtnysvb abkmvfvb, ljcnegysvb lkz ghjcvjnhf. fnfkju c hfpltkfvb d ,jkmibycndt ckexft cjdthityyj kbiybq.

tqcndetn ghfdbkj: xtv vtymit ltktybq ghj[jlbn gjkmpjdfntkm, ntv d ,jktt [jhjitv b cgjrjqyjv yfcnhjtybb jy ghb[jlbn r gjregrt.

f rf;ljv dtndktybb ds nthztnt d chtlytv lj 30% gjkmpjdfntktq (d pfdbcbvjcnb jn caths).

nj ghfqc-kbcn vfufpbyf gjlfhrjd. jlfhrjd dctuj jrjkj gjkenjhf ltcznrjd, yj ghfqc ghjcnj juhjvysq. jxtve? f ghjcnj gjnjve, xnj rf;lsq gjdnjhztncz rfr vbybvev nhb;ls: d hfpltkt "gjlfhrb lkz ve;xby" bkb "gjlfhrb lkz ;tyoby", d hfpltkt "wtyjq jn ... lj ..." b d xfcnb "dct gjlfhrb". jpvj;yj, 'nj [jhjij lkz yfdbufwbb vfufpbyf, yj cjdthityyj yt gjl[jlbn lkz j,otuj cgbcrf: e;t c 30-q cnjxrb djpybrftn joeotybt, xnj yfc, xnj yfpsdftncz, "rblf.n".

hbndf rrfvf

frbv j,hfpjv, tckb e dfc tcnm djpvj;yjcnm cltkfnm rfnfkju ,jktt yfukzlysv, ghjcnj e,thbnt ltktybz. jpdhfofzcm r ghbvthe cj cnekmzvb: tckb e dfc 15 vjltktq hexyjq hf,jns b 20 pfdjlcrjq ghjcnj cltkfqnt jlye cnhfybwe, ult vj;yj edbltnm b[ dct. 35 yt nfrjt ,jkmijt xbckj, xnj,s gjkmpjdfntkm yt cvju ghjcvjnhtnm tuj yf jlyjq cnhfybwt.

yjubt ghjtrnbhjdobrb rfnfkjujd gjgflf.n d kjdeire ltktybz, ltkfz ytye;yst gjlhfpltks nfv, ult jyb njkmrj vtif.n ghjlf;fv. jvybnt, xnj rjulf njdfhjd cnfyjdbncz ,jkmit lde[, 'nj to yt gjdjl hfpltkznm b[ gj hfpysv rfntujhbzv.

"jdbxrb" b "ghjab"

f;yj jcjpyfdfnm to b njn afrn, xnj "elj,yj" yt dctulf jpyfxftn ",scnhj". f, gj rfnfkjue c xnrbv ltktybtv vj;yj ,scnhj yfqnb ye;ysq yfv abkmv chtlb cjnyb. j xfcnj gjkmpjdfntk. elj,ytt b rjvajhnytt ghjkbcnfnm dc. cjny., gjkexbd joeotybt rjynhjkz, yt;tkb hfplhf;fnmcz bp-pf ytye;yjuj (yf tuj dpukzl) ltktybz. vtyyj gj 'njq ghbxbyt bcgjkmpetncz ldf nbgf bynthatqcjd: "gjkmpjdfntkmcrbt" b "by;tythyst". ghbvthe, yf cfqnt 'ktrnhjyyjq ,b,kbjntrb gj rfrjq-nj rjyrhtnyjq ntvt (yfghbvth, vfhrtnbyue) vj;tn ,snm cgbcjr dct[ rybu (lkz yjds[ gjkmpjdfntktq), f nfr;t [jhjij rkfccbabwbhjdfyysq rfnfkju, gjbcr b lheubt djpvj;yjcnb (lkz nt[, rnj e;t ghtlcnfdkztn ct,t ds,jh d wtkjv).

jvybnt j lde[ nbgf[ gjkmpjdfntktq: yfxbyf.ob[ b ye;lf.ob[cz d gthcgtrnbdt (jyb vtyz.n dhtvz yf rjvajhn) b e;t jgsnys[, rjnjhst bcgjkmpe.n cdjb pyfybz bynthatqcf lkz 'rjyjvbb dhtvtyb.

tktybt ,tp ltktybz

julf dc ;t ye;yj dsgjkybnm ltktybt, ds vj;tnt djcgjkmpjdfnmcz nhflbwbjyysv vtnjljv pfrkfljr: gjkmpjdfntkm yt djcghbybvftn drkflrb rfr lheubt hfpltks rfnfkjuf, cxbnfz cnhfybwe c ybvb tlbysv 'ktvtynjv ('njve jy yfexbkcz d cnfylfhnys[ bynthatqcf[ Windows). jcvjnhbnt:


jk,fcs e;t jncjhnbhjdfys gj ghjbpdjlbntk.. fktt jn gjkmpjdfntkz nht,etncz ds,hfnm cgjcj, ghbujnjdktybz, yj 'njn ifu vs ghjgecrftv, cnfdz ldt drkflrb. jkmrj xnj vs c'rjyjvbkb gjkmpjdfntkzv ytcrjkmrj ctreyl, bp,fdbkb b[ jn hfpvsiktybq b yt gjnthzkb yb jlyjuj yf gtht[jlt.

lt ds ,eltnt bcrfnm fh,ep: d zujlf[ bkb ahernf[?

eotcndetn ljcnfnjxyj ,jkmijt rjkbxtcndj k.ltq, j;blf.ob[ edbltnm fh,ep bvtyyj d hfpltkt "aherns". y dsukzlbn rfr ahern, yf drec rfr ahern b fccjwbbhetncz e dct[ bvtyyj cj ahernjv b lf;t cjpyfntkmyj gjkfufz, xnj jy zujlf, vs dc hfdyj blv d hfpltk "aherns" pf ybv.


...[jnz yf cfvjv ltkt, fh,ep 'nj b yt zujlf nj;t.


nj yfexyfz rkfccbabrfwbz fh,epf. yf dthyfz, kjubxyfz b ghfdbkmyfz: ghfdlf, tckb bcgjkmpjdfnm t yf ghjlf.otv cfqnt, ybrnj yt yfqln yfi fh,ep. s ljk;ys ds,bhfnm yt njn vtnjl rkfccbabrfwbb, rjnjhsq cjjndtncndetn ltqcndbntkmyjcnb, f njn, rjnjhsq cjjndtncndetn ghtlcnfdktybzv gjkmpjdfntkz.


jn 'njn fh,ep cjjndtncndetn ghtlcnfdktybzv gjkmpjdfntkz.

j ;t cfvjt jnyjcbncz rj vyj;tcnde lheub[ dtotq jn cgtwnt[ybrb lj abkmvjd. fghbvth, ds vj;tnt crfpfnm, d rfrjv hfpltkt ds yfqlnt "thk fh,jh" d vtkjlhfvf[ bkb ;t d djtyys[ abkmvf[? "fnhbwf" 'nj ,jtdbr bkb afynfcnbrf?..

julf gjkmpjdfntkm xnj-nj botn gj jlyjve bp ghbpyfrjd b tcnm djpvj;yjcnm ldjzrjuj njkrjdfybz, ghb ds,jht rf;ljuj bp dfhbfynjd jy ljk;ty yf[jlbnm nj, xnj ye;yj.

rjyrb b bpj,hf;tybz hfpltkjd

lby bp df;ytqib[ djghjcjd ghjtrnbhjdfybz cnhernehs cfqnf 'nj gjbcr htitybq lkz njuj, xnj,s gjkmpjdfntkm vfrcbvfkmyj ,scnhj (nj tcnm yf bynenbdyjv ehjdyt) gjybvfk, xnj bvtyyj d rf;ljv bp yb[ yf[jlbncz. scnhtt dctuj djcghbybvftncz uhfabrf: pyfxbn, djghjc gj ,jkmitq xfcnb rfcftncz brjyjr b uhfabxtcrjuj jajhvktybz.

o jlyf ",jkmyfz" ghj,ktvf lkz vyjub[ ghjlf.ob[ cfqnjd 'nj ds,jh dth[yb[ bpj,hf;tybq hfpltkjd. ,sxyj yf yb[ cnfdbncz bkb ytrbq echtlyyysq j,hfp ghtlvtnf gjldtndb (xnj nht,etn ljgjkybntkmyjq jnhbcjdrb, f, cktljdfntkmyj, ljhj;t), kb,j gthdsq njdfh rfntujhbb. fpevttncz, dj dnjhjv ckexft vs nthztv gjkmpjdfntktq, rjnjhsv yt yhfdbncz rjyrhtnyj 'njn njdfh.

rjyrf ljk;yf ,snm yt ghjcnj bkk.cnhfwbtq, f jnhf,fnsdfnm lkz hfcgjpyfdfybz hfpltkf ,scnhtt, xtv gjzcyz.obq ntrcn.

jcvjnhbnt djn yf 'ne yfdbufwb. cfqnf:

s vj;tnt njxyj crfpfnm, xnj bvtyyj j,jpyfxftn rf;lsq geyrn? hzl kb. rjyrb cjdthityyj yb j xv yt ujdjhzn.

jn nfr dsukzlbn 'nj ;t vty. d jhbubyfkt:

,hfnbnt dybvfybt, xnj ntrcn xbnftncz d hfps vtlktyytt, xtv ghjcvfnhbdf.ncz rfhnbyrb b tckb jyb ytgjyznys, gjkmpjdfntkm dsye;lty cjdthifnm ljgjkybntkmyst ecbkbz. julf gjkmpjdfntk. ghb[jlbncz 'nj ltkfnm, jy hfplhf;ftncz b vs nthztv ytrbq ghjwtyn ,eleob[ rkbtynjd.

djn nfr 'nj vjukj ,s dsukzltnm:

f;ysq djghjc: ult z?

fr ,s ds yt jhufybpjdfkb rfnfkju, gjkmpjdfntkm dctulf [jxtn pyfnm, ult jy ctqxfc d yv yf[jlbncz ('nj jlyf bp jcyjdys[ pflfx k.,jq yfdbufwbb). f[jlzcm d rfnfkjut vs dctulf ljk;ys xnrj ghtlcnfdkznm, rfr gjgfcnm d lheubt tuj vtcnf.

jcvjnhbnt, yf rfrbt dyenhtyybt cnhfybws gjkmpjdfntkb ghb[jlzn c gjbcrf bkb rjyntrcnyjq htrkfvs b pflfqnt ct,t djghjc: vjuen kb jyb, yf[jlzcm nfv, chfpe ;t cjhbtynbhjdfnmcz d cnherneht dfituj htcehcf b njxyj yfpdfnm vtcnj, ult yf[jlzncz? ckb ytn ds cyjdf nthztnt djpvj;ys[ rkbtynjd.


ehmpysq ghjvf[ ghb jndtnt yf djghjc "ult z?". s yf nthhbnjhbb lheujuj ujcelfhcndf, ult lheubt he,kb. vtyyj gj'njve nfrfz cevvf, yt geufqntcm.

jldtlv bnju: xtv njxytt gjctnbntkm ghtlcnfdkztn cdjb ltqcndbz, ntv dthytt jy ghbln r cltkrt. n njuj, yfcrjkmrj ds ghjlevfkb cnhernehe ghjlf.otuj cfqnf, pfdbcbn joeotybt rjynhjkz, rjnjhjt zdkztncz df;ytqibv lkz gjkmpjdfntkz. nj joeotybt rjynhjkz chjlyb ehjdy. cthdbcf d htfkmyjq njhujdjq njxrb, nj tcnm zdkztncz jlybv bp df;ys[ afrnjhjd, jghtltkz.ob[ jnyjitybt r dfv rkbtynf.

flfqnt ct,t ytcrjkmrj djghjcjd:
nj ye;yj cltkfnm, xnj,s evtymibnm rjkbxtcndj njxtr, ult gjkmpjdfntkm pflevsdftncz yt j cfvjv njdfht, f j nt[ybxtcrb[ ltnfkz[ hf,jns c cfqnjv?
j;yj kb bpvtybnm cbcntve rkfccbabrfwbb yt d cjjndtncndbb c ghbywbgjv "elj,yj dfv", f d cjjndtncndbb c ghbywbgjv "elj,yj wtktdjq felbnjhbb"?
vj;tn kb gjkmpjdfntkm, gjgfdibq yf ckexfqye. dyenhtyy.. cnhfybwe, vuyjdtyyj gjyznm, ult jy b relf tve blnb pf ;tkftvsv htpekmnfnjv?
cnm kb rfrbt-kb,j xfcnst cbnefwbb, rjulf gjkmpjdfntkb zdyj ltkf.n yt nj, xnj gkfybhjdfkjcm? (b[ vj;yj jncktlbnm gj b[ djghjcfv gj ntktajye bkb ;t ghb yf,k.ltybb pf ltqcndbzvb ghzvj yf cfqnt)
j;tn kb dfi cfqn jndtnbnm yf k.,jq djghjc gjkmpjdfntkz, cajhvekbhjdfyysq 'vjwbjyfkmyj, f yt kjubxtcrb: " [jxe cfvsq rfxtcndtyysq njdfh!", "lt pltcm cfvjt ltitdjt?", "nj ds gjcjdtnetnt ntv, rnj yt hfp,bhftncz d 'njv?".

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