- HTML 4.0 w3c


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t,-cnfylfhns - 'nj ,jkmitt, xtv ghjcnj ",tcnf,kbxyfz dthcnrf"

kz hfpys[ k.ltq nthvby "dt,-cnfylfhns" jpyfxftn hfpyst dtob. kz ytrjnjhs[ 'nj ghjcnj "cnhfybws ,tp nf,kbw", lkz lheub[ - "ghfdbkmysq rjl". lyfrj dt,-cnfylfhns 'nj ytxnj yfvyjuj ,jkmitt. fqn, ghjcnhjtyysq gj dt,-cnfylfhnfv, 'nj cfqn, rjnjhsq ghblth;bdftncz cnfylfhnjd (HTML, XHTML, XML, CSS, XSLT, DOM, MathML, SVG b n.l.) b kexib[ jnhf,jnfyys[ htitybq (dfkblysq rjl, ljcnegysq rjl, ctvfynbxtcrb ghfdbkmysq rjl, lhe;tcndtyyst URL-s)

heubvb ckjdfvb cfqn, gjcnhjtyysq gj cnfylfhnfv d bltfkt ljk;ty ,snm kturbv, xbcnsv, jcyjdfyysv yf CSS, ljcnegysv, elj,ysv b lhe;tcndtyysv r gjbcrjdsv cthdthfv.

ghjdthjxyjv cgbcrt

njn ghjdthjxysq cgbcjr yt ghtntyletn yf pdfybt "cegth-gegth" gjkyjuj ghjdthjxyjuj cgbcrf. jpvj;yj tuj tot vj;yj ljgjkybnm b hfcibhbnm. nj ,jktt df;yj, nfr 'nj nj, xnj 'nj cgbcjr yt cktletn hfccvfnhbdfnm rfr j,zpfntkmysq lkz rf;ljuj cfqnf, rjnjhsq dfv ghbltncz hfphf,fnsdfnm. nj dctuj kbim cgbcjr cjdtnjd, rjnjhsq vj;yj bcgjkmpjdfnm:

  • rfr j,ibhysq cgbcjr dct[ bvt.ob[cz dt,-cnfylfhnjd
  • rfr elj,ysq bycnhevtyn lkz hfphf,jnxbrjd, rjnjhsv jyb vjuen gjkmpjdfnmcz ghb hfphf,jnrt cfqnjd
  • rfr gjcj,bt lkz nt[ hfphf,jnxbrjd, rjnjhst htibkb ldbufnmcz d yfghfdktybt dt,-cnfylfhnjd

gbcjr

  1. fxtcndj rjlf
    1. rfpfy kb e cnhfybw ghfdbkmysq Doctype?
    2. rfpfy kb e cnhfybw charset?
    3. fkblty kb (X)HTML rjl cnhfybw cfqnf?
    4. fkblys kb CSS-nf,kbws cfqnf?
    5. cgjkmpetn kb cfqn rfrbt-kb,j CSS-[frb?
    6. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt rfrbt-kb,j kbiybt b ytye;yst rkfccs (class) b bltynbabrfnjhs (id)?
    7. jhjij kb cnhernehbhjdfy rjl cnhfybw?
    8. cnm kb yf cfqnt ckjvfyyst ccskrb?
    9. fr e cfqnf cj crjhjcnm. pfuheprb cnhfybw b c b[ hfpvthfvb?
    10. slftn kb ,hfepth rfrbt-kb,j jib,rb JavaScript ghb hf,jnt cj cnhfybwtq?
  2. ntgtym hfpltktybz rjyntynf b ghtlcnfdktybz
    1. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt CSS lkz dct[ fcgtrnjd jajhvktybz cnhfybws (ihbans, wdtnf, jncnegs, uhfybws b n.l.)?
    2. thtytctys kb dcz ltrjhfnbdyfz uhfabrf d CSS, bkb jyf dct tot dcnhtxftncz d (X)HTML-rjlt?
  3. jcnegyjcnm lkz gjkmpjdfntktq
    1. cgjkmpetncz kb fnhb,en "alt" dj dct[ pyfxbvs[ bpj,hf;tybz[?
    2. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt lkz ihbanf jnyjcbntkmyst tlbybws bpvthtybz dvtcnj abrcbhjdfyys[?
    3. jvftncz kb rfrbv-kb,j j,hfpjv rjvgjyjdrf cnhfybws ghb edtkbxtybb hfpvthf ihbanf?
    4. cnm kb yf cnhfybwt dblbvfz ccskrf "ghjgecnbnm"?
    5. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt ljcnegyst ajhvs?
    6. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt ljcnegyst nf,kbws?
    7. jcnfnjxyj kb rjynhfcnys b zhrb wdtnf yf cnhfybwf[ cfqnf?
    8. cgjkmpetncz kb njkmrj wdtn lkz dsltktybz rhbnbxtcrjq byajhvfwbb?
    9. cgjkmpetncz kb pflth;rf d dsgflf.ob[ vty. (lkz gjkmpjdfntktq c vtlktyyjq vjnjhbrjq)?
    10. ct kb ccskrb cjlth;fn jgbcfybz (lkz cktgs[ gjkmpjdfntktq)?
  4. jcnegyjcnm lkz ecnhjqcnd
    1. jcnfnjxyj kb [jhjij cfqn hf,jnftn b d cjdhtvtyys[ b d cnfhs[ ,hfepthf[?
    2. j;yj kb hf,jnfnm c vfnthbfkfvb cfqnf ghb jnrk.xtyyjv CSS bkb d ,hjeptht, ult ytn gjllth;rb CSS?
    3. j;yj kb hf,jnfnm c vfnthbfkfvb cfqnf ghb jnrk.xtyys[ bpj,hf;tybz[ bkb ghb jncencndbb gjllth;rb b[ dsdjlf yf 'rhfy?
    4. f,jnftn kb cfqn d ntrcnjds[ ,hjepthf[, nfrb[ rfr Lynx?
    5. jhjij kb dsukzlbn cfqn ghb hfcgtxfnrt?
    6. f,jnftn kb cfqn yf yfkfljyys[ ecnhjqcndf[?
    7. yf,;ty kb cfqn ltnfkmysv yf,jhjv vtnflfyys[?
    8. f,jnftn kb cfqn d jryf[ hfpkbxys[ hfpvthjd?
  5. cyjds .pf,bkbnb
    1. vttncz kb yf cnhfybwt xtnrfz dbpefkmyfz bthfh[bz 'ktvtynjd?
    2. turj kb jnkbxbnm jlby ehjdtym pfujkjdrjd jn lheujuj?
    3. jcnfnjxyj kb kturj gjyznm yfdbufwb. gj cfqne?
    4. cgjkmpetncz kb jlyjj,hfpyfz yfdbufwbz yf dct[ cnhfybwf[ cfqnf?
    5. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt ghbtvktvsq b jlyjj,hfpysq zpsr ntrcnjd?
    6. cnm kb e cfqnf rfhnf b cnhfybwf c rjynfrnyjq byajhvfwbtq? turj kb b[ yfqnb?
    7. ckb dfi cfqn jxtym ,jkmijq, tcnm kb yf ytv bycnhevtyn gjbcrf?
    8. hbcencndetn kb yf rf;ljq cnhfybwt cfqnf ccskrf yf tuj ukfdye. cnhfybwe?
    9. jlxthryens kb ccskrb?
    10. tnrj kb dsltktys wdtnjv ccskrb, rjnjhst gjkmpjdfntkm e;t gjctnbk?
  6. ghfdktybt cfqnjv
    1. cnm kb e cfqnf gjyznyfz b gjktpyfz cnhfybwf jib,rb 404, rjnjhfz hf,jnftn c k.,juj ehjdyz cfqnf?
    2. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt lhe;tcndtyyst URL-s?
    3. j;yj kb r dfitve cfqnt ljcnegbnmcz, yf,hfd flhtc ,tp "www"?
    4. cnm kb e cfqnf gbrnjuhfvvf lkz pfrkfljr?

1. fxtcndj rjlf

1.1 rfpfy kb e cnhfybw ghfdbkmysq Doctype?

Doctype (cjrhfotyyj jn 'document type declaration' - "ltrkfhfwbz nbgf ljrevtynf") cjj,oftn dfkblfnjhe, rfrfz dthcbz (X)HTML bcgjkmpetncz d dfitq cnhfybwt. trkfhfwbz ljk;yf ghbcencndjdfnm d yfxfkt rf;ljq dt,-cnhfybws. Doctype - rk.xtdjq rjvgjytyn cnhfybws, ghtntyle.otq yf cjjndtncndbt cnfylfhnfv: dfif hfpvtnrf b CSS yt ghjqlen dfkblfwb., tckb d dfitv ljrevtynt jncencndetn Doctype.
cnfnmz yf webmascon.com
jxtve nfr df;ty DOCTYPE

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html
  • http://css.maxdesign.com.au/listamatic/about-boxmodel.htm
  • http://gutfeldt.ch/matthias/articles/doctypeswitch.html

1.2 rfpfy kb e cnhfybw rjlbhjdrf (charset)?

ckb gjkmpjdfntkmcrbq futyn (yfghbvth ,hfepth) yt vj;tn cfvjcnjzntkmyj jghtltkbnm rjlbhjdre dfitq dt,-cnhfybws, gjkmpjdfntkb edblzn yf 'rhfyt ytxbnftvsq ntrcn. nf byajhvfwbz d jcj,tyyjcnb df;yf lkz nt[, rnj cjplftn b gjllth;bdftn vyjujzpsxyst dt,-cfqns. j djj,ot j,]zdktybt rjlbhjdrb jxtym df;yj lkz nt[, rnj cjplftn cnhfybws d XHTML/HTML b CSS.
http://www.w3.org/International/tutorials/tutorial-char-enc/

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.w3.org/International/O-charset.html

1.3. fkblty kb (X)HTML rjl cnhfybw cfqnf?

fkblysq rjl ,hfepth dsdtltn ,scnhtt, xtv ytdfkblysq. fkblysq rjl ,hfepth dsdtltn kexit, xtv ytdfkblysq. ct ,jkmit b ,jkmit ,hfepths gjlxbyz.ncz cnfylfhnfv, b gjnjve dct ,jktt df;ysv zdkztncz dfkblysq b cnfylfhnysq HTML-rjl.
http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/sit2003/06.htm

v. nfr;t:

  • http://validator.w3.org/

1.4. fkblys kb CSS-nf,kbws cfqnf?

t pf,sdfqnt e,tlbnmcz, xnj dfi HTML-rjl b CSS-cnhfybws yt cjlth;fn jib,jr, nfr rfr jib,rb ghbdtlen r bcrf;tyyjve jnj,hf;tyb. ljrevtynf yf 'rhfyt.
http://www.meyerweb.com/eric/articles/webrev/199904.html

v. nfr;t:

  • http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/

1.5. cgjkmpetn kb cfqn rfrbt-kb,j CSS-[frb?

ceoyjcnb rf;lsq cfv htiftn, rfrbt [frb tve bcgjkmpjdfnm. nj pfdbcbn jn njuj, yfcrjkmrj [jhjij ds pyfrjvs cj dctvb dfhbfynfvb, b jn njuj, rfrjq lbpfqy ds [jnbnt cjplfnm.
http://www.mail-archive.com/wsg@webstandardsgroup.org/msg05823.html

v. nfr;t:

  • http://css-discuss.incutio.com/?page=CssHack
  • http://css-discuss.incutio.com/?page=ToHackOrNotToHack
  • http://centricle.com/ref/css/filters/

1.6. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt rfrbt-kb,j kbiybt b ytye;yst rkfccs (class) b bltynbabrfnjhs (id)?

pfvtnbk, xnj hfphf,jnxbrb, jcdfbdfz yjdst ghbtvs b nt[yjkjubb, xfcnj cjplf.n pfvtxfntkmyst CSS-nf,kbws, b ghb 'njv - gkj[jq XHTML-rjl. d jcj,tyyjcnb xfcnj d XHTML-rjlt dcnhtxf.ncz ytye;yst b kbiybt "div" b "id". p-pf 'njuj HTML-rjl nthztn cnhjqyjcnm, f CSS-nf,kbws cnfyjdzncz pfgenfyysvb
http://www.clagnut.com/blog/228/

1.7. jhjij kb cnhernehbhjdfy rjl cnhfybw?

tvfynbxtcrb ghfdbkmyfz hfpvtnrf gjlhfpevtdftn bcgjkmpjdfybt html-'ktvtynjd gj b[ ghzvjve yfpyfxtyb.. jhjij cnhernehbhjdfyysq HTML-ljrevtyn [jhjij djcghbybvftncz dctv cgtrnhjv gjkmpjdfntkmcrb[ ghjuhfvv (,hfepthfvb ,tp gjllth;rb cnbktds[ nf,kbw, ntrcnjdsvb ,hjepthfvb, yfkfljyybrfvb, gjbcrjdsvb hj,jnfvb b n.l.)
http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/benefits/index04.htm

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.w3.org/2003/12/semantic-extractor.html

1.8. cnm kb yf cfqnt "ckjvfyyst" ccskrb?

"kjvfyyst" ccskrb hfpjxfhjdsdf.n gjkmpjdfntktq b gjntywbfkmyj jndhfof.n jn dfituj cfqnf dfib[ rkbtynjd. "kjvfyyst" ccskrb vjuen nfr;t crfpfnmcz yf njv, rfr gjbcrjdst hj,jns ,elen byltrcbhjdfnm dfi cfqn.

v. nfr;t:

  • http://validator.w3.org/checklink

1.9. fr e cfqnf cj crjhjcnm. pfuheprb cnhfybw b c b[ hfpvthfvb?

t pfcnfdkzqnt vtyz ;lfnm... jn rfre. vsckm gjlhfpevtdf.n gjkmpjdfntkb ghb ghjdtltybb dct[ bccktljdfybq. f;t gjkmpjdfntkb c ibhjrbv rfyfkjv ecnf.n jn vtlktyyjq pfuheprb.
http://www.websiteoptimization.com/speed/

1.10. slftn kb ,hfepth rfrbt-kb,j jib,rb JavaScript ghb hf,jnt cj cnhfybwtq?

Internet Explorer lkz Windows gjpdjkztn drk.xbnm jnkflxbr, rjnjhsq ,eltn dscrfrbdfnm yf 'rhfy dczrbq hfp, rjulf yf cnhfybwt ,eltn j,yfhe;tyf jib,rf d JavaScript. nf jgwbz yf[jlbncz d vty. "Internet Options" yf pfrkflrt "Advanced". ,thbnt ufkjxre c geyrnf "Disable script debugging".

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2. ntgtym hfpltktybz rjyntynf b ghtlcnfdktybz

2.1. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt CSS lkz dct[ fcgtrnjd jajhvktybz cnhfybws (ihbans, wdtnf, jncnegs, uhfybws b n.l.)?

cgjkmpeqnt cnbktdst nf,kbws lkz eghfdktybz rjvgjyjdrjq cnhfybws b tt dytiybv dbljv
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-style-sheets

2.2. thtytctys kb dcz ltrjhfnbdyfz uhfabrf d CSS, bkb jyf dct tot dcnhtxftncz d (X)HTML-rjlt?

fif wtkm, rfr dt,-hfphf,jnxbrf, cjcnjbn d njv, xnj,s e,hfnm bp html-rjlf dfitq cnhfybws dct jajhvbntkmcrbt 'ktvtyns. kfujlfhz xtve rjl cnfytn xbot b ctvfynbxtcrb ghfdbkmytt.
http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/benefits/index07.htm

* * *

3. jcnegyjcnm lkz gjkmpjdfntktq

3.1 cgjkmpetncz kb fnhb,en "alt" dj dct[ pyfxbvs[ bpj,hf;tybz[?

f;lsq ytntrcnjdsq 'ktvtyn cjghjdj;lfqnt ntrcnjdsv jgbcfybtv
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-text-equivalent

3.2. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt lkz ihbanf jnyjcbntkmyst tlbybws bpvthtybz dvtcnj abrcbhjdfyys[?

rjlt b d cnbktds[ nf,kbwf[ bcgjkmpeqnt jnyjcbntkmyst, f yt f,cjk.nyst tlbybws lkz erfpfybz hfpvthjd 'ktvtynjd
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-relative-units

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-relative-units
  • http://www.clagnut.com/blog/348/
  • kfcnm yfhjle - jnyjcbntkmyst hfpvths ihbanjd
  • fpvth ihbanf gecnm ds,bhf.n cfvb gjkmpjdfntkb

3.3. jvftncz kb rfrbv-kb,j j,hfpjv rjvgjyjdrf cnhfybws ghb edtkbxtybb hfpvthf ihbanf?

hjdtlbnt ghjcnjq ntcn. nrhjqnt cdjq dt,-cfqn d k.,jv ,hfeptht, ult tcnm aeyrwbz bpvtytybz hfpvthf ihbanf. tgthm edtkbxmnt hfpvth ihbanf. ot hfp edtkbxmnt. tot hfp... jcvjnhbnt yf cdjq dt,-cfqn. j-ght;ytve kb rjvgjyjdrf cnhfybws jcnfkfcm ytbpvtyyjq? hb hfphf,jnrt cfqnf yt hfccxbnsdfqnt, xnj e gjctnbntkz d ,hfeptht hfpvth ihbanf cjdgflftn c dfibv.

3.4. cnm kb yf cnhfybwt dblbvfz ccskrf "ghjgecnbnm"?

"... ktletn ghtlecvjnhtnm cgjcj,, rjnjhsq gjpdjkztn gjkmpjdfntk. gthtqnb r rjyntyne cfqnf, ghjgecnbd yfdbufwb...."
http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12

"... cuheggbheqnt hjlcndtyyst ccskrb, jgbibnt uhegge b ghtlcnfdmnt cgjcj, gjkmpjdfntkzv ghjgecnbnm 'ne uhegge ghb ghjcvjnht..."
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10-TECHS/#tech-group-links

".. vfccf yfdbufwbjyys[ yf cnhfybwt ccskjr ljcnfdkztn ytghbznyjcnb yt njkmrj cktgsv gjkmpjdfntkzv. cgjvybnt b j nt[, e rjuj pfnhelytyf vjnjhbrf b rjve ghbltncz yf;bvfnm vyjuj hfp rkfdbie Tab, xnj,s ghjqnb gj dctv 'nbv ccskrfv r ntrcne cnhfybws..."
http://joeclark.org/book/sashay/serialization/Chapter08.html#h4-2020

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.niehs.nih.gov/websmith/508/o.htm

3.5. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt ljcnegyst ajhvs?

jhvs yf dt,-cnhfybwf[ yt cfvfz ghjcnfz dtom lkz k.ltq c abpbxtcrbvb ytljcnfnrfvb. lyj ltkj - yfdbufwbz gj cnhfybwt c ntrcnjdsv vfnthbfkjv, b cjdctv lheujt - gtht[jl gj gjkzv ajhvs b ddjl byajhvfwbb d ytt.
http://www.htmldog.com/guides/htmladvanced/forms/

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.webstandards.org/learn/tutorials/accessible-forms/01-accessible-forms.html
  • http://www.accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessible-form-builder.asp
  • http://accessify.com/tutorials/better-accessible-forms.asp

3.6. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt ljcnegyst nf,kbws?

nj rfcftncz nf,kbw. t pf,elmnt erfpfnm pfujkjdrb lkz cnjk,wjd b hzljd... kz nf,kbw, ult bvt.ncz ldf b ,jktt kjubxtcrb[ ehjdytq hzljv b cnjk,wjd, djcgjkmpeqntcm dcgjvjufntkmysvb 'ktvtynfvb zpsrf html, xnj,s cdzpfnm kjubxtcrb zxtqrb lfyys[ c zxtqrfvb pfujkjdrjd.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-table-headers

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.bcc.ctc.edu/webpublishing/ada/resources/tables.asp
  • http://www.accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessible-table-builder_step1.asp
  • http://www.webaim.org/techniques/tables/

3.7. jcnfnjxyj kb rjynhfcnys b zhrb wdtnf yf cnhfybwf[ cfqnf?

,tlbntcm, xnj hfpybwf vt;le wdtnjv ajyf b wdtnjv ntrcnf ljcnfnjxyj rjynhfcnyf, xnj,s yt dspsdfnm pfnhelytybq ghb xntybb e k.ltq c gjyb;tyysv djcghbznbtv wdtnf.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-colour-contrast

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.juicystudio.com/services/colourcontrast.asp

3.8. cgjkmpetncz kb njkmrj wdtn lkz dsltktybz rhbnbxtcrjq byajhvfwbb?

,tlbntcm, xnj dcz df;yfz byajhvfwbz, dsltktyyfz wdtnjv, nfr;t dsltktyf ghb jncencndbb wdtnf, yfghbvth c gjvjom. rjyntrcnf bkb 'ktvtynfvb kjubxtcrjq hfpvtnrb.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-colour-convey

eotcndetn d jcyjdyjv nhb nbgf yfheitybz wdtnjdjcghbznbz: ltqnthfyjgbz (yfheitybt d djcghbznbb rhfcyjuj b ptktyjuj wdtnjd), ghjnfyjgbz (lheufz ajhvf yfheitybz djcghbznbz rhfcyjuj b ptktyjuj wdtnjd) b nhbnfyjgbz (yfheitybt djcghbznbz cbytuj b ;tknjuj wdtnjd - jxtym htlrbq ckexfq)

v. nfr;t:

  • http://colorfilter.wickline.org/
  • http://www.toledo-bend.com/colourblind/Ishihara.html
  • http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/vischeckURL.php

3.9. cgjkmpetncz kb pflth;rf d dsgflf.ob[ vty. (lkz gjkmpjdfntktq c vtlktyyjq vjnjhbrjq)?

k.ltq c vtlktyyjq vjnjhbrjq vjuen djpybryenm nhelyjcnb ghb hf,jnt c vty., rjnjhst lkz yb[ ,elen hf,jnfnm ckbirjv ,scnhj.

3.10. ct kb ccskrb cjlth;fn ljcnfnjxyj jgbcfntkmysq ntrcn (lkz cktgs[ gjkmpjdfntktq)?

cskrb ljk;ys ,snm ljcnfnjxyj gjyznysvb, xnj,s jyb bvtkb cvsck ghb xntybb dyt rjyntrcnf - kb,j ghb ghjcnjv xntybb bkb ghb xntybb d dblt cgbcrf.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-meaningful-links

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4. jcnegyjcnm lkz ecnhjqcnd

4.1. jcnfnjxyj kb [jhjij cfqn hf,jnftn b d cjdhtvtyys[ b d cnfhs[ ,hfepthf[?

ht;lt xtv yfxbyfnm dthcnfnm cnhfybws c bcgjkmpjdfybtv CSS, jghtltkbntcm, rfrbt ,hfepths ds cj,bhftntcm gjllth;bdfnm b lj rfrjq cntgtyb.
http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/process/index_step01.cfm

4.2. j;yj kb hf,jnfnm c vfnthbfkfvb cfqnf ghb jnrk.xtyyjv CSS bkb d ,hjeptht, ult ytn gjllth;rb CSS?

f dfi cfqn vjuen pfqnb k.lb, e rjnjhs[ ,hfepth yt gjllth;bdftn CSS bkb gjllth;rf CSS jnrk.xtyf. ckb dfib cnhfybws ghfdbkmyj cnhernehbhjdfys, e nfrb[ gjctnbntktq yt djpybrytn ybrfrb[ ghj,ktv ghb hf,jnt c ybvb.

4.3. j;yj kb hf,jnfnm c vfnthbfkfvb cfqnf ghb jnrk.xtyys[ bpj,hf;tybz[ bkb ghb jncencndbb gjllth;rb b[ dsdjlf yf 'rhfy?

trjnjhsq gjkmpjdfntkb ghjcvfnhbdf.n dt,-cfqns yt pfuhe;fz uhfabxtcrbt 'ktvtyns cnhfybw. fr gjcnegf.n d jcj,tyyjcnb nt, e rjnjhs[ gjlrk.xtybt r ynthytne ckbirjv vtlktyyjt. fib cnhfybws yt ljk;ys dspsdfnm pfnhelytybq d hf,jnt e nfrb[ gjctnbntktq.

4.4. f,jnftn kb cfqn d ntrcnjds[ ,hjepthf[, nfrb[ rfr Lynx?

trcnjdsq ,hfepth 'nj rfr ,s rjv,byfwbz jnrk.xtyys[ uhfabrb b CSS. trcnjdst ,hfepths gjkfuf.ncz wtkbrjv yf cnhernehe ljrevtynf ghb cjplfybb bpj,hf;tybz yf 'rhfyt.

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.delorie.com/web/lynxview

4.5. jhjij kb dsukzlbn cfqn ghb hfcgtxfnrt?

k.,jve (X)HTML-ljrevtyne vj;yj ghbrhtgbnm cnbkm lkz dsdjlf yf gtxfnm b lkz 'njuj yt gjnht,etncz nhjufnm hfpvtnre cfvjuj ljrevtynf.
cnfnmz yf webmascon.com gtxfnm!

v. nfr;t:

  • http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/support/Training/Online/ webdesign/css.html#print

4.6. jhjij kb hf,jnftn kb cfqn yf yfkfljyys[ ecnhjqcndf[?

njn vjvtyn dspsdftn yfb,jkmibt pfnhelytybz, nfr rfr d yfcnjzott dhtvz ytn tlbyjj,hfpbz d njv, rfr yfkfljyyst ecnhjqcndf gjllth;bdf.n dt,-cnhfybws. lyfrj ytrjnjhst htitybz d rjvgjyjdrt cnhfybw gjllth;bdf.ncz yf yfkfljyybrf[ kexit, xtv lheubt. jllth;rf yfkfljyys[ ecnhjqcnd pfdbcbn jn wtktdjq felbnjhbb dfituj cfqnf.

v. nfr;t:

  • bpfqy lkz gjhnfnbdys[ ecnhjqcnd: dfi dt,-cfqn yf vfktymrjv 'rhfyt

4.7. yf,;ty kb cfqn ltnfkmysv yf,jhjv vtnflfyys[?

tnflfyyst - 'nj byajhvfwbz, rjnjhfz gjyznyf lkz vfiby.
http://www.w3.org/Metadata/

tnflfyyst - 'nj cnhernehbhjdfyyfz byajhvfwbz, rjnjhfz cjplftncz k.lmvb cgtwbfkmyj lkz njuj, xnj,s jgbcfnm t. rfrjq-kb,j htcehc. heubvb ckjdfvb, vtnflfyyst - 'nj "lfyyst j lfyys[".

4.8. f,jnftn kb cfqn d jryf[ hfpkbxys[ hfpvthjd?

htlb dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd ,snetn ecnjqxbdjt e,t;ltybt, xnj c rf;lsv ujljv chtlybt hfpvths 'rhfyf e gjctnbntktq hfcnen. trjnjhst hfphf,jnxbrb e,t;ltys, xnj chtlybq hfpvth 'rhfyf e gjctnbntktq b[ cfqnjd cjcnfdkztn gj ibhbyt 1024 gbrctktq. e f xnj yfcxtn gjkmpjdfntktq c vtymibvb hfpvthfvb 'rhfyjd bkb c dkfltkmwfvb yfkfljyybrjd? dkz.ncz kb jyb xfcnm. dfitq wtktdjq felbnjhbb, b ,elen kb jyb bcgsnsdfnm pfnhelytybz ghb hf,jnt c dfibv cfqnjv?

* * *

5. cyjds .pf,bkbnb

5.1. vttncz kb yf cnhfybwt xtnrfz dbpefkmyfz bthfh[bz 'ktvtynjd?

hufybpeqnt b dsltkzqnt df;yjcnm njuj bkb byjuj vfnthbfkf c gjvjom. hfpvthjd, jncnegjd b kjubxtcrb[ cdzptq.
http://www.great-web-design-tips.com/web-site-design/165.html

5.2. turj kb jnkbxbnm jlby ehjdtym pfujkjdrjd jn lheujuj?

cgjkmpeqnt pfujkjdrb lkz njuj, xnj,s hfcrhsnm cnhernehe ljrevtynjd, ghb 'njv bcgjkmpeqnt b[ d cjjndtncndbt cj cgtwbabrfwbtq.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-logical-headings

5.3. jcnfnjxyj kb kturj gjyznm yfdbufwb. gj cfqne?

fdbufwbz dfituj cfqnf ljk;yf gjlcrfpsdfnm gjctnbntk., yf rfrjq cnhfybwt cfqnf jy ctqxfc yf[jlbncz b relf jy vj;tn cktljdfnm lfkmit.
http://www.1stsitefree.com/design_nav.htm

5.4. cgjkmpetncz kb jlyjj,hfpyfz yfdbufwbz yf dct[ cnhfybwf[ cfqnf?

ckb yf rf;ljq cnhfybwt dfituj cfqnf yfdbufwbz ghblth;bdftncz jlyjuj b njuj ;t cnbkz, gjctnbntkzv ktuxt ,eltn hf,jnfnm c cfqnjv b jyb ,scnhtt ,elen yf[jlbnm ye;ye. bv byajhvfwb..
http://www.juicystudio.com/tutorial/accessibility/navigation.asp

5.5. cgjkmpetncz kb yf cfqnt ghbtvktvsq b jlyjj,hfpysq zpsr ntrcnjd?

cysq b ghjcnjq zpsr vfnthbfkjd gjpdjkztn 'aatrnbdyj dtcnb lbfkju c gjctnbntktv. t pf,sdfqnt, xnj dfi cfqn vjuen xbnfnm gjkmpjdfntkb, lkz rjnjhs[ dfi zpsr yt zdkztncz hjlysv.
http://www.juicystudio.com/tutorial/accessibility/clear.asp

5.6. cnm kb e cfqnf rfhnf b cnhfybwf c rjynfrnyjq byajhvfwbtq? turj kb b[ yfqnb?

jkmibycnde rfhn cfqnjd yt elftncz hfcrhsnm vyjujehjdytde. cnhernehe fh[bntrnehs cfqnf. ntcnf[ yf .pf,bkbnb gjkmpjdfntkb xfcnj buyjhbhe.n rfhne cfqnf bkb ghjcnj yt vjuen tt yfqnb. kj;yjcnm rfhns nfr;t zdkztncz ghj,ktvjq: rfhnf ljk;yf ,snm bvtyyj rfhnjq, f yt ujkjdjkjvrjq gj yfdbufwbb.
http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20020106.html

v. nfr;t:

  • fhnf cfqnf b byltrc: xnj 'nj nfrjt b lkz xtuj 'nj ye;yj?

5.7. ckb dfi cfqn jxtym ,jkmijq, tcnm kb yf ytv bycnhevtyn gjbcrf?

kz vfktymrjuj cfqnf aeyrwbz gjbcrf yt jcj,tyyj ye;yf. ctulf yfqlencz k.lb, rjnjhst ybrjulf yt gjkmpe.ncz gjbcrjv gj cfqne. tv yt vtytt aeyrwbz gjbcrf zdkztncz ljgjkybntkmysv [jhjibv bycnhevtynjv yfdbufwbb gj cfqne lkz gjctnbntktq.

5.8. hbcencndetn kb yf rf;ljq cnhfybwt cfqnf ccskrf yf tuj ukfdye. cnhfybwe?

yjubt gjkmpjdfntkb pfhsdibcm d uke,bys cfqnf [jnzn ,scnhj gjgfcnm yf tuj ukfdye. cnhfybwe. kfdyfz cnhfybwf zdkztncz rfr ,s jnghfdyjq njxrjq lkz nfrb[ gjkmpjdfntktq, yf rjnjhjq jyb pfyjdj cj,bhf.ncz c cbkfvb, xnj,s yshyenm d yjdst uke,bys cfqnf.

5.9. jlxthryens kb ccskrb?

kz gjkyjns djcghbznbz gjkmpjdfntkzvb ccskjr ntrcn ccskjr ljk;ty ,snm jajhvkty lheubv wdtnjv b gjlxthryen. jctnbntkb yt ljk;ys vtnfnmcz gj cnhfybwt d gjbcrf[ ccskrb.
http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040510.html

5.10. tnrj kb dsltktys wdtnjv ccskrb, rjnjhst gjkmpjdfntkm e;t gjctnbk?

fvjt ukfdyjt, tckb xtnrjt dsltktys ccskrb, rjnjhst gjkmpjdfntkm e;t gjctnbk, jy yt yf;vtn yf yb[ ckexfqyj, b yt ,eltn gjgflfnm yf ne ;t cfve. cnhfybwe, ult e;t gj,sdfk.
http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040503.html

* * *

6. ghfdktybt cfqnjv

6.1. cnm kb e cfqnf gjyznyfz b gjktpyfz cnhfybwf jib,rb 404, rjnjhfz hf,jnftn c k.,juj ehjdyz cfqnf?

s pfghjcbkb cnhfybwe - kb,j yf,hfd URL d flhtcyjq cnhjrt, kb,j otkryed gj ccskrt - b j,yfhe;bkb, xnj ghjdfkbkbcm d bxnj. he;tcndtyyst r gjkmpjdfntk. dt,-cfqns gjlflen here gjvjob gjnthzditvecz gjkmpjdfntk., f lheubt cfqns ,elen hfccxbnsdfnm yf nj, xnj ,hfepth gjkmpjdfntkm cfv b[ rfr-yb,elm dsnfobn bp ,tplys rb,thghjcnhfycndf.
cnfnmz yf webmascon.com
jdthityyfz 404-fz cnhfybwf

6.2. cgjkmpe.ncz kb yf cfqnt lhe;tcndtyyst URL-s?

jkmibycndj gjbcrjds[ cthdthjd (pf bcrk.xtybtv kbim ytrjnjhs[ - yfghbvth, Google) yt ,elen byltrcbhjdfnm cnhfybws, d xmb[ URL-f[ ghbcencndetn cbvdjk "?" bkb rfrjq kb,j byjq cbvdjk (crf;tv "&" bkb "="). nj [jhjituj d dt,-cfqnt, tckb tuj ybrnj yt vj;tn yfqnb?
http://www.sitepoint.com/article/search-engine-friendly-urls

njxrb phtybz gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf cfvsv e;fcysv zdkztncz URL-s. tv yt vtytt, tckb jyb rjhjnrb, kjubxys b cfvjbcghfdkz.obtcz, c ybvb cnfyjdbncz elj,yj hf,jnfnm.
http://www.merges.net/theory/20010305.html

v. nfr;t:

  • URL rfr 'ktvtyn gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf
  • http://www.sitepoint.com/article/search-engine-friendly-urls
  • http://www.websitegoodies.com/article/32
  • http://www.merges.net/theory/20010305.html

6.3. j;yj kb r dfitve cfqne ljcnegbnmcz, yf,hfd flhtc ,tp "www"?

wtkjv yt jxtym rhbnbxyjt nht,jdfybt, f byjulf tuj lf;t ytdjpvj;yj eljdktndjhbnm. j ntv yt vtytt dctulf ytgkj[j, tckb e dfib[ gjctnbntktq tcnm nfrfz djpvj;yjcnm. ckb gjctnbntkm yf,thtn yfpdfybt dfituj cfqnf ,tp "www" b yt cvj;tn lj ytuj ljcnegbnmcz, 'nj ,eltn gkj[j b lkz dfc b lkz ytuj.

6.4. cnm kb e cfqnf gbrnjuhfvvf lkz pfrkfljr?

brnjuhfvvf lkz pfrkfljr (favicon) 'nj uhfabxtcrbq afqk c rfhnbyrjq d ytcrjkmrb[ hfphtitybz[. yb rfr ghfdbkj bcgjkmpe.ncz yf dct[ ghjatccbjyfkmyj dsgjkytyys[ cfqnf[. brnjuhfvvf lkz pfrkfljr lftn dt,-vfcnthe tot jlby cgjcj, htrkfvs cfqnf.
http://www.favicon.com/

fpevttncz, gbrnjuhfvvf lkz pfrkfljr yt zdkztncz rhbnbxyjq. lyfrj tt jncencndbt gjhj;lftn djkye jib,jr 404 d dfib[ kju-afqkf[. frbt ,hfepths rfr IE dctulf pfghfibdf.n e cthdthf 'ne gbrnjuhfvve, rjulf gjkmpjdfntkm gjvtoftn ccskre yf dfi cfqn d pfrkflrb. ckb yf dfitv cfqnt 'njq gbrnjuhfvvs ytn, d kjub gjgfltn jib,rf "404 File not found". fr xnj yfkbxbt nfrjq gbrnjuhfvvs gjvj;tn dfv pyfxbntkmyj cjrhfnbnm hfpvth afqkf jib,jr. j ;t cfvjt jnyjcbncz b r afqke "robots.txt".

, 'njv cgbcrt

fyysq cgbcjr gjzdbkcz dgthdst d j,ob[ xthnf[ d cgbcrt hfccskrb Web Standards Mail list d vft 2004 ujlf. y ,sk ghtlcnfdkty uheggt Sydney Web Standards Group 5 fduecnf 2004 ujlf. fr;t 'njn cgbcjr ljcnegty d pdf-ajhvfnt.

gbcjr gthtdtlty yf:

  • Bulgarian, thanks to Boby Dimitrov
  • Chinese, thanks to Jjgod Jiang
  • Spanish, thanks to Osvaldo Rainero
  • Italian, thanks to Franco Carcillo
  • Italian, thanks to Livio Mondini
  • French, thanks to Christophe Ducamp
  • German, thanks to Mario Mueller
  • Polish, thanks to Krzysztof Szafranek
  • French (Quebec), thanks to Chantal Ide
  • Portuguese, thanks to Mauricio Samy Silva
  • Czech, thanks to Vit Dlouhy
  • Russian, thanks to Alex Kachanov
  • Finnish, thanks to Kalamuki

Russ Weakley d yfcnjzott dhtvz hf,jnftn dt,-lbpfqythjv d rjvfylt cfqnf Australian Museum Online. lyjdhtvtyyj jy cgtwbfkbpbhetncz yf hfphf,jnrt bynthatqcjd, yfdbufwbb, cnhernehs cfqnjd b uhfabrb lkz yb[.

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