HTML5, XHTML2


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f,jnf dt,-hfphf,jnxbrf dj dctvbhyjq ctnb cdzpfyf c e;t lfdyj ecnjzdibvbcz nt[yjkjubzvb.
HTML 4.01 ,sk cltkfy htrjvtylfwbtq d 1999, XHTML 1.0 (gthtajhvekbhjdfybt HTML 4 d XML 1.0) cnfk htrjvtylfwbtq d 2000, b ,sk gthtcvjnhty d 2002. heubvb ckjdfvb aeylfvtynjv cjdhtvtyyjq dt,-hfphf,jnrb zdkztncz djcmvbktnyzz nt[yjkjubz.

j;tn ,snm HTML 4.01 zdkztncz [jhjibv aeylfvtynjv lkz dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd, yj 'njn aeylfvtyn vj;tn cnfnm to rhtgxt. f gjcktlybt djctvm ktn ghjbpjikj vyjuj bpvtytybq, gjdkbzdib[ yf nj, rfr bcgjkmpetncz b djcghbybvftncz dctvbhyfz ctnm. s, dt,-hfphf,jnxbrb, jcjpyfkb ytljcnfnrb HTML 4.01, b ntgthm pyftv, rfrbvb cgjcj,fvb vj;yj ekexibnm 'njn zpsr hfpvtnrb. fcnfn dhtvz nt[yjkjubq yjdjuj gjrjktybz, b jyb cnjzn yfituj dybvfybz. jdjddtltybz rjcyencz rf;ljuj rnj d ,bpytct.

fylblfns

W3C lfdyj hf,jnftn yfl XHTML2, wtkm rjnjhjuj dpznm yf ct,z hjkm HTML 4.01 b XHTML 1.0. jdsq zpsr gjzdbncz d dblt j,yjdktybz bkb pfvtys c ekexitybzvb b bpvtytybtv ceotcnde.ob[ ctvfynbxtcrb[ 'ktvtynjd. j dctve ghjxtve jy vj;tn cxbnfnmcz gjkyjcnm. yjdsv zpsrjv. jlndthlbnm 'nj vj;tn njn afrn, xnj e ytuj cjdctv hfpyst yf,jhs ghfdbk (namespace).

HTML5 (tuj to yfpsdf.n Web Applications 1.0) 'nj nt[yjkjubz, hfphf,jnre rjnjhjq dtln WHATWG jnrhsnjt cjj,otcndj, yfxfnjt nhtvz bp xtnsh[ rhegytqib[ gjcnfdobrjd ,hfepthjd: Mozilla, Opera b Apple. t yflj hfccvfnhbdfnm HTML5 rfr pfvtye lkz HTML 4.01 bkb XHTML 1.0. kz 'njq nt[yjkjubb ,jkmit gjl[jlbn gjyznbt 'djk.wbb. njn zpsr yfwtkty yf j,hfnye. cjdvtcnbvjcnm. y gsnftncz bp,fdbnmcz jn ytjghtltkyys[ gjdtltybq, rjnjhst ghbceob HTML 4.01, genv jghtltktybz 'nb[ gjdtltybq. j dhtvz hfp,jhf cnhfybws ,hfepthjv (parsing), HTML5 ghtlkfuftn j,hf,fnsdfnm dct n'ub jghtltkyysv cgjcj,jv, xnj,s yt gjkjvfnm cnhfybwe b ghfdbkmyj dsdtcnb t cjlth;bvjt gjkmpjdfntk. (lf;t tckb yf cnhfybwt tcnm jib,rb). fhfkktkmyj HTML5 lj,fdkztn xhtpdsxfqyj ytj,[jlbvst ctvfynbxtcrbt 'ktvtyns. yb gjvjuf.n ekexibnm dfkblfwb. ajhv, lj,fdbnm bynthfrnbdyst 'ktvtyns b gjcnjzyyjt vtcnj [hfytybz byajhvfwbb.

tujlyziybq HTML dj dctvbhyjq ctnb

jhvfkmyj, HTML 4.01 ghtlcnfdkztn cj,jq ljrevtyn d ajhvfnt SGML, ghb 'njv tlbycndtyyst ghbkj;tybz, rjnjhst hf,jnf.n c HTML 4.01 d nfrjv ajhvfnt 'nj dfkblfnjhs. lheujq cnjhjys ,hfepths bpj dct[ cbk gsnf.ncz hfpj,hfnm lf;t cbkmyj bcrf;tyye. cnhfybwe b ghtlcnfdbnm t gjkmpjdfntk. d ljcnegyjq ajhvt. xtym vfkj cjlth;bvjuj bynthytnf yfgbcfyj yf ghfdbkmyjv HTML 4.01; ,jkmibycndj bynthytn-cnhfybw hfp,bns b ytghfdbkmyj cjcnfdktys, yj ,hfepthfv dc hfdyj ghb[jlbnmcz ltkfnm hfp,jh cnhfybw, byfxt gjkmpjdfntkm ,eltn ds,bhfnm njn ,hfepth, rjnjhsq ghfdbkmyj jnj,hf;ftn tuj k.,bvst cfqns.

xtym df;yj rjhhtrnbhjdfnm jib,rb d ljrevtynf[, yj rf;lsq ,hfepth ltkftn 'nj ckturf gj-hfpyjve. ct ,hfepths gsnf.ncz ltkfnm 'nj nfr, rfr 'nj ltkf.n b[ cfvst ,jkmibt rjyrehtyns. rjulf jlyf b nf ;t cnhfybwf jnj,hf;ftncz jlbyfrjdj d hfpys[ ,hfepthf[, 'nj yt jpyfxftn, xnj ghjwtcc hfp,jhf n'ujd b rjhhtrwbb jib,jr ,sk nj;t jlbyfrjdsv. HTML5 cnfhftncz gjrjyxbnm c nfrbv gjl[jljv, b jlyjpyfxyj jghtltkbnm lkz dct[ ,hfepthjd ghjwtcc hfp,jhf bynthytn-cnhfybws. flfxf HTML5 cjcnjbn yt njkmrj d njv, xnj,s jghtltkznm gjdtltybt dfkblys[ cnhfybw, yj b jghtltkznm, rfr ,hfepth ljk;ty hfp,bhfnm ytdfkblyst, gjkjvfyyst b ytghfdbkmyj cajhvbhjdfyyst ljrevtyns. ct 'nj ytj,[jlbvj lkz njuj, xnj,s hfphf,jnxbrb ,hfepthjd vjukb j,tcgtxbnm gjkyjt dpfbvjltqcndbt lheu c lheujv.

tujlyziybq XML dj dctvbhyjq ctnb

jkmibycndj cjlth;bvjuj dctvbhyjq ctnb, yfgbcfyyjuj yf XHTML dslfncz d dblt text/html, lheubvb ckjdfvb ,hfepths ghjdjlzn hfp,jh cnhfybws d dblt yf,jhf j,sxys[ n'ujd, f yt rfr XML.

lyf bp ghbxby nfrjuj gjl[jlf rhjtncz d jxtym ;tcnrjv vt[fybpvt j,hf,jnrb jib,jr d XML. fp,jh XML-ljrevtynf jcnfyjdbncz yf cfvjq gthdjq jib,rt. nj jpyfxftn, xnj cnhfybwf ,eltn gjkyjcnm. ytljcnegyf d njv ckexft, tckb ceotcndetn [jnz ,s jlyf jib,rf. tghfdbkmyjt gjcnhjtybt XML ljrevtynf gjrf;tn njkmrj ltnfkb jib,rb, yj yt t cjlth;fybt. ctulf tcnm hbcr ljgecnbnm jib,re lf;t d ghfdbkmyj gjcnhjtyyjv b cajhvbhjdfyyjv XML-ljrevtynt. fxfcne. c 'nbv vj;yj cnjkryenmcz yf cnhfybwf[, ult cjlth;fybt yt rjynhjkbhetncz XML-bycnhevtynfvb c [jhjitq j,hf,jnrjq hfpkbxys[ rjlbhjdjr. fghbvth jib,rb gjzdkz.ncz nfv, ult gjctnbntkb jcnfdkz.n rjvvtynfhbq bkb pfgbcm, bkb ult cjlth;fybt gjzdkztncz bp dytiyb[ bcnjxybrjd, nfrb[ rfr j,hfnyfz cdzpm, htrkfvyst cthdbcs bkb rfrjt-yb,elm hfcibhtybt r ghjuhfvvt bkb r dt,-ghbkj;tyb.. c 'nj xfcnj ghbdjlbn r gjzdktyb. jib,jr.

yfxbntkmyjq ghj,ktvjq XML-ljrevtynjd dj dctvbhyjq ctnb zdkztncz Internet Explorer, rjnjhsq yt gjllth;bdftn XHTML 1.0 (d dblt application/xhtml+xml). njn ,hfepth gjllth;bdftn j,obq XML, yj ,tp rfrjuj-kb,j pyfybz yf,jhf ghfdbk XHTML. ytuj ytn pyfybq j ctvfynbrt XHTML-'ktvtynjd, b jy lf;t yt ghbvtyztn nf,kbwe cnbktq, rjnjhfz ljk;yf ghbvtyznmcz gj evjkxfyb.. (cnm djpvj;yjcnm bcgjkmpjdfnm XSLT lkz nhfycajhvfwbb ljrevtynf d HTML, yj DOM dtln ct,z gj-hfpyjve d ht;bvt XML b d ht;bvt j,sxys[ n'ujd. nj jpyfxftn, xnj crhbgns, hf,jnf.obt d jlyjv ht;bvt, vjuen gjkyjcnm. yt hf,jnfnm d lheujv.)

XHTML 1.0 hfphtiftn dslfdfnm ljrevtyns d dblt text/html, yj ghb 'njv jyb ljk;ys ,snm j,hfnyj cjdvtcnbvs d cjjndtncndbb c ggtylbrcjv C cgtwbabrfwbb HTML. nj jpyfxftn, xnj ljrevtyns ,elen j,hf,fnsdfnmcz d ht;bvt j,sxyjuj yf,jhf n'ujd, f yt d ht;bvt XML. (cnm djpvj;yjcnm dslfdfnm ljrevtyns d ye;yjv dblt lkz ,hfepthjd, yt gjllth;bdf.ob[ XHTML ljk;ysv j,hfpjv, yj ghb 'njv cnjbn exbnsdfnm nt ;t ytljcnfnrb, xnj b ghb nhfycajhvfwbb ljrevtynjd, bcgjkmpez XSLT yf cnjhjyt rkbtynf.)

jn afrn, xnj Internet Explorer yt gjllth;bdftn XHTML d dblt XML, b nt ghj,ktvs, rjnjhst cjplfn XML d ckexft, tckb yt dct bycnhevtyns hfphf,jnxbrf zdkz.ncz bvtyyj XML-bycnhevtynfvb, dct 'nj cyb;ftn cnbvek bcgjkmpjdfnm XML dj dctvbhyjq ctnb. k.c r 'njve gjbcrjdst cbcntvs yt byltrcbhe.n XHTML d dblt XML-ljrevtynjd; jxtym vfkj bycnhevtynjd lkz hf,jns c XML; jxtym vfkj CMS bkb ,kjuuthcrb[ bycnhevtynjd, rjhhtrnyj gjllth;bdf.ob[ XML yf ghjnz;tybb dctuj genb jn ddjlf byajhvfwbb d ,fpe lfyys[ lj utythfwbb byajhvfwbb; b jxtym vfkj htrkfvjlfntktq gjllth;bdf.n XML.

t,jkmijq cnbvek ,eltn, tckb bcgjkmpjdfnm MathML, SVG b lheubt XML-ghbkj;tybz d XHTML-ljrevtynf[, yj jxtym vfkfz xfcnm hfphf,jnxbrjd bcgjkmpe.n XHTML rfr XML.

XHTML2 'nj XML

ntgthm cfvfz ,jkmifz ghj,ktvf. jvbvj dct[ ckj;yjcntq, c rjnjhsvb cnfkrbdf.ncz hfphf,jnxbrb dj dhtvz hf,jns c XML-ljrevtynfvb, XHTML2 lj,fdkztn to jlby ehjdtym ckj;yjcnb. tlm 'nj yt HTML 4.01 gthtajhvekbhjdfyysq d dblt XML; 'nj lheujq, yj gj[j;bq zpsr, d rjnjhjv lj,fdktyf, elfktyf bkb bpvtytyf ctvfynbrf lkz jxtym vyjub[ 'ktvtynjd. pvtytybz yfghfdktys d ye;yjt heckj, yj ghb 'njv dj dhtvz hfphf,jnrb XHTML2 yt exbnsdfkjcm vytybt cfvb[ dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd. fghbvth, djj,ot yt flhtcjdfys ghj,ktvs b ytljcnfnrb HTML 4.01 b XHTML 1.0 d j,kfcnb cjukfcjdfyyjcnb ltqcndbq, kjrfkmyjuj [hfytybz lfyys[, bkb dpfbvjltqcndbz crhbgnjd.

f lfyysq vjvtyn XHTML2 zdkztncz hf,jxbv ghjtrnjv. fcnm 'njuj ghjtrnf jcnfdfkfcm ,tp bpvtytybq ujlfvb, gj'njve 'njn zpsr dc to ytcnf,bkty, yt ujnjd lkz htfkbpfwbb, b gkj[j gjllth;bdftncz xtnshmvz df;ytqibvb yfghfdktybzvb: ,hfepths, gjbcrjdst cbcntvs, cbcntvs gj eghfdktyb. cjlth;fybtv b bycnhevtyns lkz hfphf,jnrb. b jlby bp rhegys[ hfphf,jnxbrjd ,hfepthjd yt gjllth;bdftn XHTML2, b fxtq nf[jdmzr (Maciej Stachowiak) bp rjvgfybb Apple cltkfk cktle.ott pfzdktybt:

s jnrfpfkbcm ghbybvfnm exfcnbt d hf,jxtq uheggt XHTML2 gjnjve, xnj vs yt cxbnftv nt[yjkjub. XHTML2 gjl[jlzotq lkz dctvbhyjq ctnb.

Web Applications 1.0 ytxnj ,jkmit xtv HTML5

gtwbabrfwbz Web Applications 1.0 (WA1) ghbpdfyf j,yjdbnm HTML, yj 'nj yt dc, yf xnj jyf cgjcj,yf. yf nfr;t j,yjdkztn XHTML 1.0 (gjl c,bdf.obv c njkre bvtytv XHTML5), b nfr;t j,yjdkztn HTML DOM gjl bvtytv DOM5 HTML. jnz HTML 4.01 ajhvfkmyj jcyjdfy yf SGML, HTML5 gjpdjkztn ,hfepthfv bcgjkmpjdfnm gfhcths, rjnjhst rjhhtrnbhe.n jib,rb. hb 'njv HTML5 jgbcsdftn jghtltkyye. yt SGML vjltkm, rjnjhfz drk.xftn d ct,z vjltkm rjhhtrwbb jib,jr. (fp,jh XHTML5 ghjbpdjlbnmcz XML-gfhcthjv, b 'njn hfp,jh jceotcndkztncz gj ghfdbkfv XML, f yt gj ghfdbkfv HTML5.)

WA1 nfr;t jghtltkztn ytcrjkmrj ghjuhfvvys[ bynthatqcjd (API), rjnjhst afrnbxtcrb zdkz.ncz cnfylfhnfvb, b lj,fdkztn ytcrjkmrj yjds[. njv vtcnt, ult XHTML2 ltkftn XHTML ekexityysv ctvfynbxtcrbv zpsrjv lkz jgbcfybz ljrevtynf, WA1 ghjltksdftn ,jktt crhjvye. hf,jne, yj ghb 'njv ekexiftn djpvj;yjcnm bcgjkmpjdfnm dctvbhye. ctnm rfr gkfnajhve lkz ghbkj;tybq. WA1 lj,fdkztn nfrbt dtob rfr [hfytybt lfyys[ d bcnjhbb ,hfepthf j gjcktlytv ltqcndbb dt,-ghbkj;tybz, kjrfkmyjt [hfytybt byajhvfwbb, fdnjyjvysq ghjcvjnh, gthtnfcrbdfybt (drag and drop), rjgbhjdfybt (copy and paste), gjdnjh b jnvtyf ltqcndbz (under and redo) b lheujt.

jnkbxbt jn XHTML2, rjnjhsq ybrfr yt gjllth;bdftncz ,hfepthfvb, HTML5 gjllth;bdftncz dctvb rhegysvb hfphf,jnxbrfvb ,hfepthjd, rhjvt Microsoft. gtwbabrfwbz to yt pfrjyxtyf, yj t xfcnb yf hfpys[ cnflbz[ pfdthitybz vyjubt xfcnb e;t htfkbpjdfys. fghbvth, 'ktvtyn canvas, rjnjhsq gjllth;bdftncz ,hfepthfvb Mozilla, Safari b Opera, b rjnjhsq bcgjkmpjdfkcz dj vyjub[ ltvjycnhfwbz[ gthtljdjq aeyrwbjyfkmyjcnb.

W3C b HTML

W3C cjplfkb yjde. f,jxe. hegge HTML, jnltkmyj jn uheggs, hf,jnf.otq yfl XHTML2. f,jxfz uheggf HTML ge,kbxyj jnrhsnf xthtp vt[fybpv ghbukfitybz 'rcgthnjd. eleott gjrf;tn, rfr 'nj cdzpfyj c hf,jnjq lheub[ uhegg W3C. htlctlfntkzvb yjdjq uheggs ,elen hbc bkcjy (Chris Wilson) fh[bntrnjh gkfnajhvs Internet Explorer d Microsoft, b 'y jyyjkkb (Dan Connolly) bp W3C.

W3C e;t ghbcgjcj,bkf vyjuj nt[yjkjubq (cjplfyys[ WHATWG) xthtp Rich Web Clients Activity, yfwtkbdfzcm yf ekexitybt gjkmpjdfntkmcrjq cnjhjys dctvbhyjq ctnb. jdfz hf,jxfz uheggf gj HTML pfdbcbn rfr vbybvev jn jlyjq uheggs d 'njq j,kfcnb hfphf,jnrb hf,jxtq uheggs WebAPI.

hfybws b cdzpb c dytiybvb uheggfvb, rjnjhst zdkz.ncz xfcnm. hf,jxtq uheggs HTML, gjpdjkz.n ghtlgjkj;bnm, xnj yjdfz hf,jxfz uheggf HTML gjgsnftncz bcgjkmpjdfnm d dblt aeylfvtynf lkz j,yjdktybz HTML b XHTML cgtwbabrfwb. HTML5, bkb, gj rhfqytq vtht, nj, xnj WHATWG dkj;bkf d HTML5.

nj kexit lkz dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd

XHTML2

jllth;rf ,hfepthjd rk.xtdjq djghjc lkz dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd. Internet Explorer ytn ljk;yjq gjllth;rb nt[yjkjubb XHTML, b e ytuj gjzdkz.ncz ,jkmibt ghj,ktvs, rjulf XHTML gjcskftncz d dblt XML ghj,ktvf c rjlbhjdrfvb, ghj,ktvf c dytiybv bcnjxybrjv byajhvfwbb, ghj,ktvf j,hf,jnrb cjlth;fybz d dblt wtgjxrb, f yt ghfdbkmyj gjcnhjtyyjuj XML, dct 'nj jckj;yztn bcgjkmpjdfybt XML. htdhfotybt ljrevtynf ajhvfnf HTML 4.01 bkb XHTML d XHTML2-ljrevtyn yt j,zpfntkmyj ,eltn kurbv ghjwtccjv. kz 'njuj ytj,[jlbvj bpvtybnm cnhernehe ljrevtynf b, xnj zdkztncz rhbnbxtcrbv, yb jlby bp rhegys[ hfphf,jnxbrjd ,hfepthjd yt gjllth;bdftn XHTML2.

HTML5

,jkmibycndt ckexftd, xnj,s cltkfnm bp ljrevtynf ajhvfnf HTML 4.01 ljrevtyn ajhvfnf HTML5, ytj,[jlbvj ghjcnj pfvtybnm ltrkfhfwb. DOCTYPE. hfepth cltkftn hfp,jh cnhfybws j,sxysv vtnjljv d njv ckexft, tckb ljrevtyn yt bcgjkmpetn yjdst 'ktvtyns bkb API, rjnjhst ,skb ghtlcnfdktys gj chtlcndfv HTML5. kz ,jkmibycndf cbcntv gj eghfdktyb. cjlth;fybtv b bycnhevtynjd hfphf,jnrb, cutythbhjdfnm HTML5 dvtcnj HTML 4.01 ,eltn ghjot ghjcnjuj, b yjdst djpvj;yjcnb HTML5 cvjuen ,snm kturj lj,fdktys. k.c r 'njve, vj;yj 'vekbhjdfnm c gjvjom. JavaScript vyjuj yjds[ djpvj;yjcntq HTML5, rjnjhst yt gjllth;bdf.ncz ntv bkb bysv ,hfepthjv. nj gjpdjkbn gjcntgtyyj gthtqnb jn HTML 4.01 r HTML5.

frk.xtybt

XHTML2 zdkztncz ctvfynbxtcrbv ekexitybtv nt[yjkjubb XHTML 1.0. j gj[j;t, xnj 'nj yt ,eltn djkyjdfnm dt,-hfphf,jnxbrjd to ljkujt dhtvz, jcj,tyyj exbnsdfz nj, xnj Internet Explorer lj cb[ gjh yt gjllth;bdftn XHTML 1.0. hjqln vyjuj ktn, gjrf yjdfz dthcbz ,eltn gjllth;bdfnm XHTML2, ntv ,jktt e yfc ytn ybrfrb[ ghtlgjcskjr, xnj,s nfr levfnm.

lheujq cnjhjys, vyjuj xfcntq HTML5 e;t ghjktpf.n d ,hfepths, b tckb Microsoft ,eltn ghbybvfnm frnbdyjt exfcnbt d hfphf,jnrt HTML5, nj vyjuj e;t [jhjij jngjkbhjdfyys[ djpvj;yjcntq ,elen gjllth;bdfnmcz ,hfepthfvb pf ,jktt rjhjnrbq dhtvtyyjq ghjvt;enjr. jn afrn, xnj ytcrjkmrj xfcntq HTML5 e;t ujnjds lkz htfkbpfwbb d nj dhtvz, rjulf hfphf,jnrf zpsrf to ghjljk;ftncz, ltkftn 'ne nt[yjkjub. ljcnegyjq lkz xfcnbxyjuj ghbvtytybz, gjrf gjllth;rf ,hfepthjd yt 'djk.wbjybhetn lj njuj vjvtynf, rjulf dct djpvj;yjcnb ,elen gjkyjcnm. gjllth;bdfnmcz.

HTML5 'nj ,eleott dctvbhyjq ctnb, gj'njve vjq cjdtn ghbcnfkmyj cktlbnm pf hfpdbnbtv 'njq nt[yjkjubb.

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