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Internet - ukj,fkmyfz rjvgm.nthyfz ctnm, j[dfnsdf.ofz dtcm vbh. tujlyz Internet bvttn jrjkj 15 vbkkbjyjd f,jytynjd d ,jktt xtv 150 cnhfyf[ vbhf. ;tvtczxyj hfpvth ctnb edtkbxbdftncz yf 7-10%. Internet j,hfpetn rfr ,s zlhj, j,tcgtxbdf.ott cdzpm hfpkbxys[ byajhvfwbjyys[ ctntq, ghbyflkt;fob[ hfpkbxysv exht;ltybzv dj dctv vbht, jlyf c lheujq.

ckb hfytt ctnm bcgjkmpjdfkfcm bcrk.xbntkmyj d rfxtcndt chtls gthtlfxb afqkjd b cjj,otybq 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxns, nj ctujlyz htif.ncz ,jktt ckj;yst pflfxb hfcghtltktyyjuj ljcnegf r htcehcfv. rjkj nh[ ktn yfpfl ,skb cjplfys j,jkjxrb, gjllth;bdf.obt aeyrwbb ctntdjuj gjbcrf b ljcnegf r hfcghtltktyysv byajhvfwbjyysv htcehcfv, 'ktrnhjyysv fh[bdfv.

Internet, cke;bdifz rjulf-nj bcrk.xbntkmyj bccktljdfntkmcrbv b ext,ysv uheggfv, xmb bynthtcs ghjcnbhfkbcm dgkjnm lj ljcnegf r cegthrjvgm.nthfv, cnfyjdbncz dct ,jktt gjgekzhyjq d ltkjdjv vbht.

jvgfybb cj,kfpyz.n ,scnhjnf, ltitdfz ukj,fkmyfz cdzpm, elj,cndj lkz ghjdtltybz cjdvtcnys[ hf,jn, ljcnegyst ghjuhfvvs, eybrfkmyfz ,fpf lfyys[ ctnb Internet. yb hfccvfnhbdf.n ukj,fkmye. ctnm rfr ljgjkytybt r cdjbv cj,cndtyysv kjrfkmyjq ctnzv.

hb ybprjq cnjbvjcnb eckeu (xfcnj 'nj njkmrj abrcbhjdfyyfz t;tvtczxyfz gkfnf pf bcgjkmpetvst kbybb bkb ntktajy) gjkmpjdfntkb vjuen gjkexbnm ljcneg r rjvvthxtcrbv b ytrjvvthxtcrbv byajhvfwbjyysv cke;,fv , fyfls, dcnhfkbb b vyjub[ tdhjgtqcrb[ cnhfy. fh[bdf[ cdj,jlyjuj ljcnegf ctnb Internet vj;yj yfqnb byajhvfwb. ghfrnbxtcrb gj dctv cathfv xtkjdtxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb, yfxbyfz c yjds[ yfexys[ jnrhsnbq lj ghjuyjpf gjujls yf pfdnhf.

cgktcr ukj,fkmyjq byajhvfwbjyyjq ctnb Internet yf,k.lftncz ctqxfc gjdctvtcnyj. ckj;bdib[cz eckjdbz[ gjnht,yjcnm d byajhvfwbb j ctnb Internet cnfyjdbncz jcj,tyyj jcnhjq. yfcnjzott dhtvz gj Internet hfcghjcnhfyztncz vyj;tcndj ljrevtynjd, rfcf.ob[cz rfr aeyrwbjybhjdfybz ctnb b hf,jns d ytq gjkmpjdfntktq, nfr b cdzpfyys[ c hfpkbxysvb cathfvb ;bpyb: yferjq, rekmnehjq, 'rjyjvbrjq b n.l. hb xv j,yjdktybt byajhvfwbb d Internet, j,ibhyjq hfpdtndktyyjq ctnb, rjnjhfz drk.xftn d ct,z rjvgm.nthyst epks, hfp,hjcfyyst gj dctve vbhe, ghjbc[jlbn, ghfrnbxtcrb, d ht;bvt htfkmyjuj dhtvtyb.

hjvt njuj, Internet ghtljcnfdkztn eybrfkmyst djpvj;yjcnb ltitdjq, yflt;yjq b rjyabltywbfkmyjq ukj,fkmyjq cdzpb gj dctve vbhe. nj jrfpsdftncz jxtym elj,ysv lkz abhv bvt.ob[ cdjb abkbfks gj dctve vbhe, nhfycyfwbjyfkmys[ rjhgjhfwbq b cnherneh eghfdktybz. ,sxyj, bcgjkmpjdfybt byahfcnhernehs Internet lkz vt;leyfhjlyjq cdzpb j,[jlbncz pyfxbntkmyj ltitdkt ghzvjq rjvgm.nthyjq cdzpb xthtp cgenybrjdsq rfyfk bkb xthtp ntktajy.

yfcnjzott dhtvz Internet bcgsnsdftn gthbjl gjl]tvf, dj vyjujv ,kfujlfhz frnbdyjq gjllth;rt cj cnjhjys ghfdbntkmcnd tdhjgtqcrb[ cnhfy b . ;tujlyj d dsltkztncz jrjkj 1-2 vbkkbfhljd ljkkfhjd yf cjplfybt yjdjq ctntdjq byahfcnhernehs. ccktljdfybz d j,kfcnb ctntds[ rjvveybrfwbq abyfycbhe.ncz nfr;t ghfdbntkmcndfvb tkbrj,hbnfybb, dtwbb, bykzylbb, thvfybb.

lyfrj, ujcelfhcndtyyjt abyfycbhjdfybt - kbim yt,jkmifz xfcnm gjcnegf.ob[ chtlcnd, n.r. dct ,jktt pfvtnyjq cnfyjdbncz "rjvvthwbfkbpfwbz" ctnb (j;blftncz, xnj 80-90% chtlcnd ,eltn gjcnegfnm bp xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf).

ynthytn, rfr b dsxbckbntkmyfz nt[ybrf, cjdthibk gtht[jl jn bcgjkmpjdfybz njkmrj ghjatccbjyfkfvb lj bcgjkmpjdfybz dctvb bynthtce.obvbcz. cfv ghjwtcc gtht[jlf ,sk cjdthityyj fyfkjubxty tnm gjcntgtyyj cnfyjdbkfcm ghjot d bcgjkmpjdfybb: xfcnbxyj gjnjve, xnj j,jheljdfybt cnfkj kexit, f xfcnbxyj gjnjve, xnj cfvf cnfkf crjhtt b yflt;ytt. cfvst cvtkst bp nt[, rnj cyfxfkf yt htifkcz cdzpsdfnmcz c ynthytnjv, yfxfkb tt bcgjkmpjdfnm. nb yjdst gjkmpjdfntkb gjhjlbkb juhjvye. gjnht,yjcnm d yjds[ htcehcf[ b kexitv bycnhevtynfhbb. kexifkbcm cnfhst chtlcndf, gjzdkzkbcm yjdst, ghtlyfpyfxtyyst lkz ljcnegf r yjdsv htcehcfv, xnj j,ktuxfkj bcgjkmpjdfybt ctnb. djn e;t lheufz uheggf k.ltq cnfkf gjybvfnm gjkmpe ynthytn. hjwtcc gjdnjhzkcz. njn rheujdjhjn ghjljk;ftn hfpdbdfnmcz b gj ctq ltym.

jyznbt byajhvfwbz

jkm byajhvfwbb d kbxyjq, ghjatccbjyfkmyjq b cjwbfkmyjq ;bpyb xtkjdtrf cnjkm dtkbrf, xnj gjgsnrf lfnm tt dctj,]tvk.ott jgbcfybt j,htxtyf yf ghjdfk. jybvfnm dtleoe. hjkm byajhvfwbb k.lb cnfkb yt jxtym lfdyj. jpybryjdtybt nfrjuj gjybvfybz cjdgfkj, xnj dtcmvf tcntcndtyyj, c ,ehysv hjcnjv byajhvfwbjyys[ nt[yjkjubq. njn hjcn htprj edtkbxbk nj rjkbxtcndj byajhvfwbb, c rjnjhsv gjdctlytdyj ghb[jlbncz bvtnm ltkj xtkjdtxtcnde. jyznbz byajhvfwbb, byajhvfnbrb b byajhvfwbjyys[ cbcntv b ctntq gjdctvtcnyj hfcghjcnhfytys. jxnb yfdthyzrf ytn xtkjdtrf, rjnjhsq yt njkmrj cksifk ,s 'nb nthvbys, yj b yt bvtk ,s j yb[ ytrjnjhjuj bynebnbdyjuj ghtlcnfdktybz, jlyfrj bynebnbdyjt gjybvfybt, f pyfxbn b gjlhfpevtdftvjt jghtltktybt nthvbyf (gjyznbz) byajhvfwbz, lfktrj yt jlyjpyfxys. frfz cbnefwbz xfcnj dcnhtxftncz ghb pyfrjvcndt c ljcnfnjxyj j,obvb gjyznbzvb, rjnjhst njxyj yt jghtltkz.ncz b b[ cvsck dsxktyztncz njkmrj ghb vfccjdjv bcgjkmpjdfybb. lkz jgbcfybz jcyjdys[ ghj,ktv, pfnhfubdftvs[ d lfyyjv gjcj,bb, bynebnbdyjuj gjybvfybz nthvbyf byajhvfwbz dgjkyt ljcnfnjxyj. tv yt vtytt, lkz hzlf jwtyjr rfxtcndf gjkexftvjq byajhvfwbb gjktpyj cltkfnm ytrjnjhst enjxytybz b ddtcnb ytrbt jghtltktybz. v b gjcdzoty 'njn hfpltk, rjnjhsq cnjbn ytcrjkmrj d cnjhjyt jn jcyjdys[ pflfx gjcj,bz, yj pyfrjvcndj c rjnjhsv, yf yfi dpukzl, dct ;t ljcnfnjxyj gjktpyj.

kjdj byajhvfwbz ghjbc[jlbn jn kfnbycrjuj ckjdf information - hfp]zcytybt, bpkj;tybt. nj jpyfxftn, xnj byajhvfwbz -- 'nj ytxnj ytceott bkb nfzott d ct,t ytrjnjhst cdtltybz. frjt jghtltktybt zdkztncz ljcnfnjxyj j,obv, b, rfr cktlcndbt, cdzpfyj c gjnthtq rjyrhtnyjcnb. jcktlytt j,cnjzntkmcndj tcntcndtyyj lkz j,ob[ jghtltktybq dct[ ,fpjds[ (aeylfvtynfkmys[) gjyznbq. uj crjhtt vj;yj yfpdfnm abkjcjacrbv jghtltktybtv. nfkj ,snm, lkz enjxytybz cvsckf nthvbyf byajhvfwbz ytj,[jlbvj enjxybnm b rjyrhtnbpbhjdfnm tuj cjlth;fybt, j,hfnbd dybvfybt yf tuj jcyjdyst cdjqcndf.

hb ddtltybb k.,juj yjdjuj nthvbyf ntjhbz j,sxyj cnhtvbncz jghtltkbnm tuj c gjvjom. lheub[ nthvbyjd, rjnjhst, d rjytxyjv bnjut, jgbhf.ncz yf hfpkbxyst gjcnekfns. frjq xbcnj ntjhtnbxtcrbq gjl[jl yt dctulf elj,ty, b gj'njve d yfitv ckexft vj;yj bc[jlbnm bp lheujuj gjl[jlf, rjnjhsq ghbyznj yfpsdfnm jgthfwbjyysv bkb jgthfwbjyfkbcnrbv. 'njv ckexft ddjlbvfz dyjdm dtkbxbyf jghtltkztncz gentv erfpfybz cgjcj,f tt bpvthtybz. hb nfrjv gjl[jlt byajhvfwb. vj;yj jghtltkbnm xthtp dspdfyyjt t. evtymitybt xbckf djpvj;ys[ jndtnjd d ytrjtq pflfxt (ghj,ktvt). frbv j,hfpjv, rjkbxtcndj byajhvfwbb cdzpsdftncz c evtymitybtv ytjghtltktyyjcnb. jkbxtcndtyysq gjl[jl r jghtltktyb. byajhvfwbb gjpdjkztn bpexfnm djghjcs [hfytybz b gthtlfxb byajhvfwbb, jlyfrj jy cjdthityyj yt rfcftncz wtyyjcnb byajhvfwbb. tyyjcnm byajhvfwbb cdzpsdf.n c tt ghfuvfnbxtcrbv cvsckjv, nj tcnm c djpvj;yjcnm. tt hfpevyjuj bcgjkmpjdfybz.

jzcybv gjyznbt ghfuvfnbxtcrjuj cvsckf byajhvfwbb. tyyjcnm byajhvfwbb pfdbcbn jn cjjndtncnde.otq cbnefwbb, f nfr;t jn ehjdyz cdtltybq, rjnjhst vjuen e;t bvtnmcz e bylbdbleevf. j;yj crfpfnm, xnj wtyyjcnm byajhvfwbb ceotcndtyysv j,hfpjv pfdbcbn jn [fhfrnthbcnbr djcghbybvf.ot. byajhvfwb. ce,]trnf, njxytt jn ehjdyz e;t bvt.ob[cz e ytuj pyfybq. evve 'nb[ pyfybq ghbyznj jghtltkznm rfr ntpfehec ce,]trnf. ysvb ckjdfvb, wtyyjcnm byajhvfwbb tcnm aeyrwbz ntpfehecf jcghbybvf.otuj j,]trnf b d 'njv cvsckt jyf jnyjcbntkmyf.

yfkbp vfntvfnbxtcrjq ajhveks lftn cjdthityyj hfpyst ghtlcnfdktybz j rhsnjv d ytq cvsckt d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, rfrjd j,hfpjdfntkmysq ehjdtym xtkjdtrf, c 'njq ajhvekjq pyfrjvzotujcz. frbv j,hfpjv, ctvfynbxtcrbq cvsck byajhvfwbb cdzpfy rfr c j,]trnjv, c rjnjhsv cjjnyjcbncz byajhvfwbz, nfr b c ce,]trnjv, gjkexf.obv b fyfkbpbhe.obv lfyye. byajhvfwb..

yfkbxbb byajhvfwbb j,sxyj celzn, tckb pfvtxf.n d hfcghtltktybb rfrb[-kb,j j,]trnjd (pyfrjd, ghtlvtnjd b n. l. ) ytrbt jnrkjytybz jn [fjcf. ysvb ckjdfvb, byajhvfwbz jghtltktyysv j,hfpjv cdzpfyf c egjhzljxtyyjcnm.. j;yj ujdjhbnm j njv, xnj dj dytiytv vbht k.,fz byajhvfwbz -- 'nj egjhzljxtybt, rjnjhjt vj;tn ,snm jcvscktyyj bcnjkrjdfyj. yajhvfwbz bcreccndtyyjuj ghjbc[j;ltybz, nj tcnm byajhvfwbz, rjnjhfz cjplfyf xtkjdtrjv, -- 'nj k.,jt wtktyfghfdktyyjt egjhzljxtybt. nj ;t dhtvz cktletn exbnsdfnm, xnj byajhvfwbz ghb gjkyjv egjhzljxtybb (rjulf, yfghbvth, dct pyfrb d ntrcnt cnhjuj gthbjlbxtcrb gjdnjhz.ncz), yf cfvjv ltkt yt nfr e; b dtkbrf. j,cndtyyj ujdjhz, d njv ckexft bvt.n ltkj njkmrj c jxtym vfksv rjkbxtcndjv byajhvfwbb: yfkbxbtv egjhzljxtyyjcnb b tt [fhfrnthbcnbrfvb. nj cjjndtncndetn vbybvfkmyj djpvj;yjve rjkbxtcnde byajhvfwbb, byjulf lf;t dctuj d 1 ,bn (jlyf tlbybwf ldjbxyjuj rjlf). (12, c. 36-37)

ynthfrnbdyjcnm

thvbys bynthfrnbdyjcnm, bynthfrnbdysq ctujlyz vj;yj dcnhtnbnm gjdc.le. f rfrbt-nj 5--7 ktn 'nb ckjdf, hfytt pyfrjvst kbim cgtwbfkbcnfv, ecgtkb ghbj,htcnb htrkfvysq jgtyjr b djikb d vjle. nfrjq cbnefwbb cjnhelybrb ghjvjenthcrb[ futyncnd, edktxtyyst cjxbytybtv ckjufyjd, gjlxfc pf,sdf.n j njv, xnj ;t 'nj nfrjt. nj e; ujdjhbnm j rjytxys[ gjnht,bntkz[ htrkfvbhetvjq ghjlerwbb..

cdtnt ghjbc[jlzotuj yt vtifkj ,s yfgjvybnm, xnj nthvby bynthfrnbdyjcnm ghjbc[jlbn jn fyukbqcrjuj ckjdf interaction, rjnjhjt, d cdj. jxthtlm, d gthtdjlt jpyfxftn dpfbvjltqcndbt. rfrjv ;t dpfbvjltqcndbb bltn htxm? frjds ce,]trns 'njuj ghjwtccf? hbvtybntkmyj r hfpujdjhe j, ynthytnt jlyb bp exfcnybrjd dpfbvjltqcndbz zdkztncz, ,tpeckjdyj, xtkjdtr. lkz njuj ;t, xnj,s ujdjhbnm j lheujq ce,]trnt, cktletn dsltkbnm wtkb, ghtcktletvst xtkjdtrjv d ynthytnt. gjlfdkz.otv ,jkmibycndt 'nj kb,j gjkextybt jghtltktyyjq byajhvfwbb (ntrcnjdjq, uhfabxtcrjq, pderjdjq -- d lfyyjv rjyntrcnt 'nj ytghbywbgbfkmyj), kb,j j,otybt c lheubvb k.lmvb.

xtdblyj, xnj ghjnbdjgjkj;ysv gjk.cjv ghjwtccf dpfbvjltqcndbz vj;tn cnfnm byajhvfwbjyysq htcehc ynthytnf (cfqn, ntktrjyathtywbz, [hfybkbot afqkjd) bkb ;t lheujq xtkjdtr, c rjnjhsv rjyrhtnysq gjkmpjdfntkm j,oftncz c gjvjom. cke;, ynthytnf. tujlyz dct rjve yt ktym yfpsdf.n ynthytn yfb,jktt bynthfrnbdysv bp dct[ chtlcnd byajhvfwbb b j,otybz. fr kb 'nj yf cfvjv ltkt?

ndtnbnm yf 'njn djghjc gjvj;tn gjyznbt cntgtym bynthfrnbdyjcnb -- gjrfpfntkm, [fhfrnthbpe.obq, yfcrjkmrj ,scnhj b elj,yj gjkmpjdfntkm vj;tn lj,bnmcz cdjtq wtkb. ghbvthe, ujhzxbt yjdjcnb gjkbnbxtcrjq ;bpyb cnhfys, ,tpeckjdyj, ds ,scnhtt b c ,jkmibv elj,cndjv epyftnt bp jykfqyjds[ bplfybq, xtv bp nhflbwbjyys[ ,evf;ys[ ufptn. lheujq cnjhjys, vfkjbpdtcnye. yfexye. ge,kbrfwb. vj;yj ybrjulf yt yfqnb yf ghjcnjhf[ tnb, yj ufhfynbhjdfyyj gjkexbnm d tybyrt. lf b j,sxysq ntktajy (ghb eckjdbb, xnj bpdtcnty yjvth f,jytynf b cdj,jlyf kbybz) j,kflftn ceotcndtyyj ,jkmitq cntgtym. bynthfrnbdyjcnb, xtv, r ghbvthe, 'ktrnhjyyfz gjxnf bkb lf;t IQ.

,obt wtkb, jgbcfyyst dsit, hfpevttncz, cjcnjzn bp ,jktt vtkrb[ gjlpflfx. brnj, levftncz, yt ,eltn jnhbwfnm njuj afrnf, xnj ghjwtccs gjbcrf ye;yjq byajhvfwbb b j,otybz d tnb ghjbc[jlzn jgjchtljdfyyj, gjcrjkmre gjkmpjdfntkm dpfbvjltqcndetn c ytrbv bynthatqcjv, ,elm nj web-cnhfybwf bkb jryj gjxnjdjuj rkbtynf, f yt c cfvbv web-htcehcjv.

gjnjve lfdfqnt gjghj,etv ghjfyfkbpbhjdfnm dtcm ghjqltyysq yf yfcnjzobq vjvtyn nthybcnsq genm hfpdbnbz ` wtb-nt[yjkjubq c gjpbwbb cntgtyb bynthfrnbdyjcnb cfqnjd, cjplfdftvs[ c b[ gjvjom..

yfxfkt ,sk HTML frnbxtcrjq jcyjdjq cnfk zpsr L, hfphf,jnfyysq bvjv thythcjv-b b 'yb'kjv jyyjkb yf jcyjdt 1 d 1990 ujle. thdsv cnfylfhnjv zpsrf hfpvtnrb, ghbyznsv r bcgjkmpjdfyb. d WWW, cnfk HTML ehjdyz (dthcbb) 0.0, drk.xfdibq d ct,z cfvsq vbybvfkmysq yf,jh n'ujd lkz hfpvtnrb cjlth;bvjuj ljrevtynjd. HTML 0.0 gjpdjkzk jgbcsdfnm ubgthccskrb, pfujkjdrb, gfhfuhfas, cgbcrb b b[ geyrns. cktle.otq dthcbb L 1.0 cnfkj djpvj;ysv dytlhznm d ljrevtyns uhfabxtcrbt bpj,hf;tybz. skb, rhjvt njuj, ceotcndtyyj hfcibhtys djpvj;yjcnb ajhvfnbhjdfybz ntrcnf. HTML 2.0 -- rkfccbrf ;fyhf. kfujlfhz gjllth;rt web-ajhv, gjpdjkz.ob[ gthtlfdfnm lfyyst jn rkbtynf cthdthe, 'njn ehjdtym L cnfk dgjkyt ljcnfnjxysv lkz cjplfybz gjkyjaeyrwbjyfkmys[ cfqnjd.

fr dblbv, cntgtym bynthfrnbdyjcnb gthds[ cfqnjd ,skf ljcnfnjxyj ytgkj[jq. bybvfkbpv -- pfkju crjhjcnb (ntrcnjdst cnhfybws c yt,jkmibv rjkbxtcndjv uhfabrb bkb gjkysv tt jncencndbtv uhepzncz vfrcbvfkmyj ,scnhj) b ghjcnjns (dct cnhfybws dsukzlzn gjxnb jlbyfrjdj, dct 'ktvtyns bynthatqcf jlyjnbgys). web-ajhvs b vt[fybpv (f d lfkmytqitv -- Java-cthdktns b lheubt cthdthyst nt[yjkjubb) dsdtkb bynthfrnbdyjcnm yf rfxtcndtyyj yjdsq ehjdtym: gjkmpjdfntkb gjkexbkb djpvj;yjcnm dpfbvjltqcndjdfnm c cfqnfvb ,jktt gjkyj b dctcnjhjyyt, gthtlfdfz cth- dthe hfpkbxyst gfhfvtnhs b gjkexfz d jndtn lbyfvbxtcrbt cnhfybws, cutythbhjdfyyst yf jcyjdt gthtlfyys[ pyfxtybq, xnj yfpsdftncz, cgtwbfkmyj lkz dfc. j ajhvs c ,jkmibv rjkbxtcndjv gjktq lkz pfgjkytybz ceotcndtyyj eckj;yz.n ;bpym gjctnbntktq cfqnf, cyb;fz ghjcnjne b elj,cndj tuj bcgjkmpjdfybz.

ktletn jnvtnbnm, xnj ceotcnde.obt ysyt cfqns, gjcdzotyyst gjkmpjdfntkmcrbv bynthatqcfv b djghjcfv .pf,bkbnb (www.useit.com, www.usabiliti.ru), ytlfktrj eikb jn vbybvfkbpvf L 2.0. f, 'nb cfqns bcgjkmpe.n nf,kbxye. dthcnre b jghtltktyye. hfphf,jnxbrjv wdtnjde. ufvve, yj yfkbxbt gjcktlytq yt zdkztncz cnjkm rhbnbxysv lkz fltrdfnyjuj djcghbznbz byajhvfwbb, f nf,kbws gjllth;bdf.ncz ctvb cjdhtvtyysvb ,hfepthfvb, drk.xfz lf;t Lynx.

thdjyfxfkmyst ehjdyb zpsrf L ghtljcnfdkzkb gj ,jkmitq xfcnb djpvj;yjcnb kjubxtcrjuj ajhvfnbhjdfybz ljrevtynjd, d nj dhtvz rfr dbpefkmysv 'aatrnfv (nfrbv rfr wdtnjdfz ufvvf) dybvfybz ghfrnbxtcrb yt eltkzkjcm. j d ynthytn ghbikf rjvvthwbz, b gjnht,jdfkjcm, xnj,s cfqns ,skb rhfcjxysvb, ghjbpdjlbkb dgtxfnktybt. nj dhtvz rjvgfybz Netscape e;t pfybvfkf ghjxyst gjpbwbb yf hsyrt b yfxfkf yf hfljcnm ,tcgtxysv gjkmpjdfntkzv dcnhfbdfnm d cdjq ,hfepth Navigator hfpyjj,hfpyst djpvj;yjcnb dbpefkmyjuj ajhvfnbhjdfybz. yjubt bp yjdjddtltybq, ghtlkj;tyys[ Netscape, dgjcktlcndbb ,skb drk.xtys d jabwbfkmye. cgtwbabrfwb. L 3.2 (yfgjvybv, xnj cnfylfhnbpfwbtq d j,kfcnb web-nt[yjkjubq pfybvftncz jycjhwbev W3, jcyjdfyysq bvjv thythcjv-b d 1994 ujle, www.w3.org).

j nen, <djdhtvz> cjj,hfpbd, xnj ytdybvfybt r jnhfckb web-nt[yjkjubq gjdktxtn gjnth. rhegyjq xfcnb gjntywbfkmyjq ghb,skb, j ct,t uhjvrj pfzdkztn Microsoft, ds,hjcbd yf hsyjr cdjq ,hfepth Internet Explorer. t;le Netscape b icuj5jf djpybrkf ;tcnjrfz rjyrehtynyfz ,jhm,f, gjdktrifz d ,erdfkmyjv cvsckt yfgktdfntkmcrjt jnyjitybt j,tb[ cnjhjy r rfrbv ,s nj yb ,skj htrjvtylfwbzv W3. fpdfyyst ghjbpdjlbntkb k.,jq wtyjq cnfhfkbcm ghbdktxm dybvfybt gjnht,bntktq r cdjtq ghjlerwbb, d htpekmnfnt xtuj d jnhfckb djpybr dctgjukjof.obq rhbpbc. abwbfkmyfz cgtwbabrfwbz HTML ceotcndjdfkf, yj tt, yt ,eltn ghtedtkbxtybtv crfpfnm, ybrnj yt ghblth;bdfkcz: cfqn, yjhvfkmyj dsukzlzobq d jlyjv ,hfeptht, d lheujv bcrf;fkcz lj ytepyfdftvjcnb. lj[jlbditt lj f,cehlf gthtyfcsotybt L djpvj;yjcnzvb dbpefkmyjuj ajhvfnbhjdfybz djj,ot ikj dhfphtp c tuj gthdjyfxfkmyjq rjywtgwbtq rfr zpsrf kjubxtcrjq hfpvtnrb.

xnj ,skj c [fhfrnthbcnbrfvb bynthfrnbdyjcnb? 'gj[e erhfifntkmcnd, d ntxtybt 'lfrjuj gjlhjcnrjdjuj gthbjlf hfpdbnbz cvtybdituj gjhe ltncrjq xbcnjns b gthdjplfyyjcnb gthds[ ehjdytq L, ntyltywbb ,skb rhfqyt ghjnbdjhtxbdsvb.

jpmvtv, r ghbvthe, ahtqvs -- 'nj jlyf bp rk.xtds[ hfphf,jnjr Netscape njuj dhtvtyb. ltz ahtqvjd dsukzlbn jxtym rhfcbdj, yj djn htfkbpfwbz... tljcnfnrjd yf gjdthre jrfpsdftncz ujhfplj ,jkmit, xtv ljcnjbycnd. nj,s yt ,snm ujkjckjdysv, ghbdtle kbim ytrjnjhst cfvst ckf,st cnjhjys nt[yjkjubb ahtqvjd:

ytdjpvj;yjcnm gjcnfdbnm ccskre yf dyenhtyy.. cnhfybwe cfqnf nfr, xnj,s ghb gtht[jlt gj nfrjq ccskrt cnhfybwf jnj,hf;fkfcm dyenhb ahtqvjdjq cnhernehs;

jncencndbt dczxtcrb[ djpvj;yjcntq yfdbufwbb ghb gjgflfybb yf dyenhtyy.. cnhfybwe cfqnf (jnj,hf;ftve. ,tp ahtqvjd, ljk;ys[ tt jrhe;fnm) gj ccskrt, dslfyyjq gjbcrjdjq cbcntvjq;

xhtpdsxfqyst nhelyjcnb lkz hfphf,jnxbrf ghb htfkbpfwbb ckj;yjq ahtqvjdjq cnhernehs d ckexfz[, rjulf ghb gtht[jlt gj ccskrt, hfcgjkj;tyyjq d yfdbufwbjyyjv ahtqvt, ytj,[jlbvj vtyznm cjlth;bvjt yt jlyjuj, f chfpe ytcrjkmrb[ cjctlyb[ ahtqvjd;

ytdjpvj;yjcnm njxyjuj gjpbwbjybhjdfybz gbrctktq d cjctlyb[ ahtqvf[ (ghj,ktvf yf,k.lfkfcm d ((hjlyjv>) lkz ahtqvjd ,hfeptht -- Netscape Navigator).

ot jlby ntpbc yt d gjkmpe ahtqvjd -- Netscape jnrfpfkfcm jn b[ bcgjkmpjdfybz yf rjhgjhfnbdyjv cfqnt ,erdfkmyj xthtp gjkujlf gjckt hfphf,jnrb 'njq nt[yjkjubb. (14, cn.10.1)

yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr

jrevtynfkmysq gjbcr: yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr, ghb rjnjhjv j,]trnfvb gjbcrf zdkz.ncz ljrevtyns.

dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq byajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr: yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr c bcgjkmpjdfybtv .

dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq ljrevtynfkmysq gjbcr: jrevtynfkmysq gjbcr c bcgjkmpjdfybtv .

b,kbjuhfabxtcrbq gjbcr: yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr d ,b,kbjuhfabxtcrjq ,fpt lfyys[.

bfkjujdsq gjbcr: dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq byajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr, ghb rjnjhjv gjkmpjdfntkm fdnjvfnbpbhjdfyyjq cbcntvs vj;tn ajhvekbhjdfnm byajhvfwbjyyst pfghjcs d lbfkjujdjv ht;bvt, rjhhtrnbhjdfnm b[ d ghjwtcct gjbcrf b gjkexfnm ghjvt;enjxyst htpekmnfns.

frtnysq gjbcr: dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq byajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr, ghb rjnjhjv byajhvfwbjyyst pfghjcs yfrfgkbdf.ncz d cgtwbfkmyjv vfccbdt lkz gjcktle.otq cjdvtcnyjq j,hf,jnrb.

tnhjcgtrnbdysq gjbcr: yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr gj hfpjdsv byajhvfwbjyysv pfghjcfv d hfytt yfrjgktyyjv byajhvfwbjyyjv vfccbdt.

jbcr yf tcntcndtyyjv zpsrt: dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq byajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr, lkz rjnjhjuj byajhvfwbjyysq pfghjc ajhvekbhetncz yf tcntcndtyyjv zpsrt.

jkyjntrcnjdsq gjbcr: dnjvfnbpbhjdfyysq ljrevtynfkmysq gjbcr, ghb rjnjhjv d rfxtcndt gjbcrjdjuj j,hfpf ljrevtynf bcgjkmpetncz tuj gjkysq ntrcn bkb ceotcndtyyst xfcnb ntrcnf.

ektdcrbq gjbcr: yajhvfwbjyysq gjbcr, ghb rjnjhjv byajhvfwbjyysq pfghjc ajhvbhetncz c gjvjom. ,ektdcrb[ jgthfnjhjd. ( 13, c 311 - 312)

cnjhbz cjplfybz ynthytnf

rjkj 20 ktn yfpfl bybcnthcndj ,jhjys cjplfkj ctnm, rjnjhfz zdbkfcm ghtlntxtq Internet, - jyf yfpsdfkfcm ARPAnet. ARPAnet ,skf 'rcgthbvtynfkmyjq ctnm., - jyf cjplfdfkfcm lkz gjllth;rb yfexys[ bccktljdfybq d djtyyj-ghjvsiktyyjq catht, - d xfcnyjcnb, lkz bccktljdfybz vtnjljd gjcnhjtybz ctntq, ecnjqxbds[ r xfcnbxysv gjdht;ltybzv, gjkexftvsv, yfghbvth, ghb ,jv,fhlbhjdrt fdbfwbtq b cgjcj,ys[ d nfrb[ eckjdbz[ ghjljk;fnm yjhvfkmyjt aeyrwbjybhjdfybt. nj nht,jdfybt lftn rk.x r gjybvfyb. ghbywbgjd gjcnhjtybz b cnhernehs Internet. vjltkb ARPAnet dctulf ,skf cdzpm vt;le rjvgm.nthjv-bcnjxybrjv b rjvgm.nthjv-ghbtvybrjv (cnfywbtq yfpyfxtybz). tnm ghtlgjkfufkfcm ytyflt;yjq: k.,fz xfcnm ctnb vj;tn bcxtpyenm d k.,jq vjvtyn.

f cdzpsdf.obtcz rjvgm.nths - yt njkmrj yf cfve ctnm - nfr;t djpkj;tyf jndtncndtyyjcnm j,tcgtxbdfnm yfkf;bdfybt b gjllth;fybt cdzpb. cyjdyjq ghbywbg cjcnjzk d njv, xnj k.,jq rjvgm.nth vju cdzpfnmcz rfr hfdysq c hfdysv c k.,sv lheubv rjvgm.nthjv.

thtlfxf lfyys[ d ctnb ,skf jhufybpjdfyf yf jcyjdt ghjnjrjkf Internet - IP. hjnjrjk IP - 'nj ghfdbkf b jgbcfybt hf,jns ctnb. njn cdjl drk.xftn ghfdbkf yfkf;bdfybz b gjllth;fybz cdzpb d ctnb, ghfdbkf j,hfotybz c IP-gfrtnfvb b b[ j,hf,jnrb, jgbcfybz ctntds[ gfrtnjd ctvtqcndf IP (b[ cnhernehf b n.g.). tnm pflevsdfkfcm b ghjtrnbhjdfkfcm nfr, xnj,s jn gjkmpjdfntktq yt nht,jdfkjcm ybrfrjq byajhvfwbb j rjyrhtnyjq cnherneht ctnb. kz njuj, xnj,s gjckfnm cjj,otybt gj ctnb, rjvgm.nth ljk;ty gjvtcnbnm lfyyst d ytrbq ``rjydthn'', yfpsdftvsq, yfghbvth, IP, erfpfnm yf 'njv ``rjydthnt'' rjyrhtnysq flhtc d ctnb b gthtlfnm gjkexbdibtcz d htpekmnfnt 'nb[ ghjwtleh gfrtns d ctnm.

nb htitybz vjuen gjrfpfnmcz cnhfyysvb, rfr b ghtlgjkj;tybt j ``ytyflt;yjq'' ctnb, yj e;t bvt.obqcz jgsn gjrfpfk, xnj ,jkmibycndj 'nb[ htitybq dgjkyt hfpevyj b dthyj. jrf t;leyfhjlyfz hufybpfwbz gj nfylfhnbpfwbb (Organization for International Standartization - ISO) nhfnbkf ujls, cjplfdfz jrjyxfntkmysq cnfylfhn lkz rjvgm.nthys[ ctntq, gjkmpjdfntkb ;lfnm yt ;tkfkb. rnbdbcns Internet yfxfkb ecnfyfdkbdfnm IP-ghjuhfvvyjt j,tcgtxtybt yf dct djpvj;yst nbgs rjvgm.nthjd. crjht 'nj cnfkj tlbycndtyysv ghbtvktvsv cgjcj,jv lkz cdzpb hfpyjhjlys[ rjvgm.nthjd. frfz c[tvf gjyhfdbkfcm ghfdbntkmcnde b eybdthcbntnfv, rjnjhst ghjdjlzn gjkbnbre gjregrb rjvgm.nthjd e hfpkbxys[ ghjbpdjlbntktq. f;lsq gjregfk njn rjvgm.nth, rjnjhsq tve yhfdbkcz b dghfdt ,sk j;blfnm, xnj cvj;tn hf,jnfnm gj ctnb cjdvtcnyj c lheubvb rjvgm.nthfvb.

hbvthyj 10 ktn cgecnz gjckt gjzdktybz ARPAnet gjzdbkbcm jrfkmyst sxbckbntkmyst tnb (LAN), yfghbvth, nfrbt rfr Ethernet b lh. lyjdhtvtyyj gjzdbkbcm rjvgm.nths, rjnjhst cnfkb yfpsdfnm hf,jxbvb cnfywbzvb. f ,jkmibycndt hf,jxb[ cnfywbq ,skf ecnfyjdktyf gthfwbjyyfz bcntvf UNIX. nf bvtkf djpvj;yjcnm hf,jns d ctnb c ghjnjrjkjv Internet (IP). cdzpb c djpybryjdtybtv ghbywbgbfkmyj yjds[ pflfx b vtnjljd b[ htitybz gjzdbkfcm yjdfz gjnht,yjcnm: jhufybpfwbb ;tkfkb gjlrk.xbnmcz r ARPAnet cdjtq kjrfkmyjq ctnm.. hbvthyj d nj ;t dhtvz gjzdbkbcm lheubt jhufybpfwbb, rjnjhst yfxfkb cjplfdfnm cdjb cj,cndtyyst ctnb, bcgjkmpe.obt ,kbprbt r IP rjvveybrfwbjyyst ghjnjrjks. nfkj zcyj, xnj dct njkmrj dsbuhfkb ,s, tckb ,s 'nb ctnb vjukb j,ofnmcz dct dvtcnt, dtlm njulf gjkmpjdfntkb bp jlyjq ctnb cvjukb ,s cdzpsdfnmcz c gjkmpjdfntkzvb lheujq ctnb.

lyjq bp df;ytqib[ chtlb 'nb[ yjds[ ctntq ,skf NSFNET, hfphf,jnfyyfz gj bybwbfnbdt fwbjyfkmyjuj fexyjuj jylf (National Science Foundation - NSF), fyfkjuf yfituj bybcnthcndf ferb. rjywt 80-[ NSF cjplfk gznm cegthrjvgm.nthys[ wtynhjd, cltkfd b[ ljcnegysvb lkz bcgjkmpjdfybz d k.,s[ yfexys[ exht;ltybz[. skj cjplfyj dctuj kbim gznm wtynhjd gjnjve, xnj jyb jxtym ljhjub lf;t lkz ,jufnjq vthbrb. vtyyj gj'njve b[ b cktljdfkj bcgjkmpjdfnm rjjgthfnbdyj. jpybrkf ghj,ktvf cdzpb: nht,jdfkcz cgjcj, cjtlbybnm 'nb wtynhs b ghtljcnfdbnm ljcneg r ybv hfpkbxysv gjkmpjdfntkzv. yfxfkf ,skf cltkfyf gjgsnrf bcgjkmpjdfnm rjvveybrfwbb ARPAnet, yj 'nj htitybt gjnthgtkj rhf[, cnjkryedibcm c ,.hjrhfnbtq j,jhjyyjq jnhfckb b ghj,ktvjq j,tcgtxtybz gthcjyfkjv.

julf NSF htibk gjcnhjbnm cdj. cj,cndtyye. ctnm, jcyjdfyye. yf IP nt[yjkjubb ARPAnet. tynhs ,skb cjtlbytys cgtwbfkmysvb ntktajyysvb kbybzvb c ghjgecryjq cgjcj,yjcnm. 56 Kbps . lyfrj, ,skj jxtdblyj, xnj yt cnjbn lf;t b gsnfnmcz cjtlbybnm dct eybdthcbntns b bccktljdfntkmcrbt jhufybpfwbb ytgjchtlcndtyyj c wtynhfvb, n.r. ghjkj;bnm nfrjt rjkbxtcndj rf,tkz - yt njkmrj jxtym ljhjuj, yj ghfrnbxtcrb ytdjpvj;yj. j'njve htityj ,skj cjplfdfnm ctnb gj htubjyfkmyjve ghbywbge. rf;ljq xfcnb cnhfys pfbynthtcjdfyyst exht;ltybz ljk;ys ,skb cjtlbybnmcz cj cdjbvb ,kb;fqibvb cjctlzvb. jkexbdibtcz wtgjxrb gjlcjtlbyzkbcm r cegthrjvgm.nthe d jlyjq bp cdjb[ njxtr, nfrbv j,hfpjv cegthrjvgm.nthyst wtynhs ,skb cjtlbytys dvtcnt. nfrjq njgjkjubb k.,jq rjvgm.nth vju cdzpfnmcz c k.,sv lheubv, gthtlfdfz cjj,otybz xthtp cjctltq.

nj htitybt ,skj ecgtiysv, yj yfcnfkf gjhf, rjulf ctnm e;t ,jktt yt cghfdkzkfcm c djphjcibvb gjnht,yjcnzvb. jdvtcnyjt bcgjkmpjdfybt cegthrjvgm.nthjd gjpdjkzkj gjlrk.xtyysv j,obyfv bcgjkmpjdfnm b vyj;tcndj lheub[ dtotq, yt jnyjczob[cz r cegthrjvgm.nthfv. tj;blfyyj eybdthcbntns, irjks b lheubt jhufybpfwbb jcjpyfkb, xnj pfbvtkb gjl herjq vjht lfyys[ b vbh gjkmpjdfntktq. jnjr cjj,otybq d ctnb (nhfabr) yfhfcnfk dct ,scnhtt b ,scnhtt gjrf, d rjywt rjywjd, yt gthtuhepbk eghfdkz.obt ctnm. rjvgm.nths b cdzpsdf.obt b[ ntktajyyst kbybb. 1987 u. rjynhfrn yf eghfdktybt b hfpdbnbt ctnb ,sk gthtlfy rjvgfybb Merit Network Inc., rjnjhfz pfybvfkfcm j,hfpjdfntkmyjq ctnm. bxbufyf cjdvtcnyj c IBM b MCI. nfhfz abpbxtcrb ctnm ,skf pfvtytyf ,jktt ,scnhsvb (ghbvthyj d 20 hfp) ntktajyysvb kbybzvb. skb pfvtytys yf ,jktt ,scnhst b ctntdst eghfdkz.obt vfibys.

hjwtcc cjdthitycndjdfybz ctnb bltn ytghthsdyj. lyfrj, ,jkmibycndj 'nb[ gthtcnhjtr ghjbc[jlbn ytpfvtnyj lkz gjkmpjdfntktq. rk.xbd rjvgm.nth, ds yt edblbnt j,]zdktybz j njv, xnj ,kb;fqibt gjkujlf Internet yt ,eltn ljcnegyf bp-pf vjlthybpfwbb. jpvj;yj lf;t ,jktt df;yj nj, xnj gthtuheprf ctnb b tt ecjdthitycndjdfybt cjplfkb phtke. b ghfrnbxye. nt[yjkjub.. hj,ktvs ,skb htitys, f bltb hfpdbnbz ghjdthtys d ltkt.

f;yj jnvtnbnm nj, xnj ecbkbz NSF gj hfpdbnb. ctnb ghbdtkb r njve, xnj k.,jq ;tkf.obq vj;tn gjkexbnm ljcneg r ctnb. ht;lt Internet ,skf ljcnegyf njkmrj lkz bccktljdfntktq d j,kfcnb byajhvfnbrb, ujcelfhcndtyysv cke;fobv b gjlhzlxbrfv. NSF cgjcj,cndjdfk dctj,otq ljcnegyjcnb Internet gj kbybb j,hfpjdfybz, drkflsdfz ltymub d gjlcjtlbytybt ext,yjuj pfdtltybz r ctnb, njkmrj tckb nj, d cdj. jxthtlm, bvtkj gkfys hfcghjcnhfyznm ljcneg lfktt gj jrheut. frbv j,hfpjv, rf;lsq cneltyn xtnsht[ktnytuj rjkktl;f vju cnfnm gjkmpjdfntktv Internet.

gjnht,yjcnb ghjljk;f.n hfcnb. jkmibycndj nfrb[ rjkktl;tq yf fgflt e;t gjlcjtlbytyj r Internet, ghtlghbybvf.ncz gjgsnrb gjlrk.xbnm r 'njve ghjwtcce chtlybt b yfxfkmyst irjks. sgecrybrb rjkktl;tq ghtrhfcyj jcdtljvktys j ghtbveotcndf[ Internet b hfccrfpsdf.n j yb[ cdjbv hf,jnjlfntkzv. cz 'nf ltzntkmyjcnm ghbdjlbn r ytghthsdyjve hjcne ctnb, r djpybryjdtyb. b htityb. ghj,ktv 'njuj hjcnf, hfpdbnb. nt[yjkjubq b cbcntvs ,tpjgfcyjcnb ctnb. (10, c 526 - 530)
jcneg d ynthytn
jcneg d Internet, j,sxyj, gjkexf.n xthtp gjcnfdobrjd eckeu (service provider). jcnfdobrb 'nb ghjlf.n hfpkbxyst dbls eckeu, rf;lsq bp yb[ bvttn cdjb ghtbveotcndf b ytljcnfnrb. fr ;t rfr b ghb gjregrt cfljdjq nfxrb (d jhbubyfkt - fdnjvj,bkz) ds htiftnt, rfrbvb rfxtcndfvb ljk;yf jyf j,kflfnm, crjkmrj ds pf ytt vj;tnt ct,t gjpdjkbnm pfgkfnbnm, b, bc[jlz bp 'njuj, ds,bhftnt gjl[jlzobq dfhbfyn bp ghtlkfuftvjuj vyj;tcndf.
j gthtl ntv, rfr yfxfnm ltqcndjdfnm d 'njv yfghfdktybb, n.t. lj,sdfnm cgbcjr gjcnfdobrjd Internet, xbnfnm b ds,bhfnm, cdzpsdfnmcz c ybvb, dszcybnt, f yt bvttnt kb ds e;t ljcnegf d Internet, cfvb njuj yt dtlfz. frjt dgjkyt vj;tn bvtnm vtcnj - d jccbb yt nfr xfcnj, d yt nfr e; b htlrj. ckb dfif jhufybpfwbz bkb exht;ltybt (bycnbnen, rjvgfybz) e;t bvttn ljcneg d Internet, nj dhzl kb ds cvj;tnt gjkexbnm gthcjyfkmysq ljcneg d ctnm kexibq, yt;tkb dfif jhufybpfwbz.
heubvb ckjdfvb, tckb ds e;t bvttnt ljcneg d Internet, dfv yt yflj ,eltn gkfnbnm ltytu bp cdjtuj rfhvfyf, yt yflj ,eltn cetnbnmcz djrheu gjcnfdobrjd eckeu b n.l., dfv ghjcnj yflj ,eltn yfexbnmcz gjkmpjdfnmcz ntv, xnj ds e;t bvttnt.
ckb dfif jhufybpfwbz gjrf yt bvttn ljcnegf d Internet, bkb djj,ot-nj bvttn, yj, djn ,tlf, yt dfit gjlhfpltktybt (kf,jhfnjhbz, jnltk, afrekmntn), dfv ghjcnj cktletn gjyf,k.lfnm b ghbrbyenm, crjkmrj tot gjntywbfkmys[ gjkmpjdfntktq bvttncz chtlb dfib[ cjcke;bdwtd, djpvj;yj, gjujdjhbnm c ybvb b pfhexbnmcz gjllth;rjq, cjcnfdbnm ghtlkj;tybt b/bkb gjlfnm nht,jdfybt dsitcnjzotve herjdjlcnde.
vt.ncz ([jnz 'nj dcnhtxftncz, eds, gjrf jxtym htlrj) tot djpvj;yjcnb gjkexbnm ljcneg d Internet yt xthtp tt ghzvs[ hfcghjcnhfybntktq, ,tp kbiyb[ pfnhfn.
thdsq - gjbobnt d ge,kbxys[ ,b,kbjntrf[: ytrjnjhst (wtynhfkmyst) bvt.n cke;,e, yfpsdftve. Freenet - cdj,jlyfz (,tcgkfnyfz) ctnm. nj byajhvfwbjyyfz cbcntvf, jcyjdfyyfz cjjndtncnde.obv cjj,otcndjv, j,sxyj bvt.ofz vjltvysq ljcneg r Internet gj ntktajye.
njhjq genm gjktpty lkz vjkjls[ k.ltq, ghj;bdf.ob[ d cnhfyf[ fgflf, bkb d wtynhfkmys[ ujhjlf[ e yfc. nfymnt cneltynjv, gjcnegbnt d pfgflysq bkb jhufybpjdfyysq e yfc ;t d jccbb cjdvtcnyj c fgfljv eybdthcbntn bkb rjkktl;. ds,thbnt cjjndtncnde.oe. cgtwbfkmyjcnm bkb pfgbibntcm yf rehcs, rjnjhst gjpdjkzn dfv lj,hfnmcz lj pfdtnyjuj rjvgm.nthf, bvt.otuj ljcneg d Internet. fghbvth, yfexbntcm gktcnb kfgnb - e;t gjnjv dfv ,eltn, xtv hfpdktxmcz, rjulf e dfc jn ytghthsdyjq hf,jns d ctnb gjtltn rhsif. rjulf ds yfexbntcm, e dfc ,eltn tot jlby ljdjl yfxfkmcnde d gjkmpe ghtljcnfdktybz dfv ljcnegf d Internet: ctnb rfr djple[ ytj,[jlbvf ,fpf lfyys[ c bycnherwbzvb gj gktntyb. kfgntq, ,tp yb[ jyb rfr ,tp her. frjq drkfl herjdjlcndj yt cvj;tn yt jwtybnm gj ljcnjbycnde. (2, c. 224)

jbcrjdst htcehcs

yajhvfwbjyyst htcehcs - jnltkmyst ljrevtyns b jnltkmyst vfccbds ljrevtynjd, ljrevtyns b vfccbds ljrevtynjd d byajhvfwbjyys[ cbcntvf[ (,b,kbjntrf[, fh[bdf[, ajylf[, ,fyrf[ lfyys[, lheub[ byajhvfwbjyys[ cbcntvf[).

yajhvfwbjyyst htcehcs zdkz.ncz ,fpjq lkz cjplfybz byajhvfwbjyys[ ghjlernjd. .,jq byajhvfwbjyysq ghjlern, zdkzzcm htpekmnfnjv byntkktrnefkmyjq ltzntkmyjcnb xtkjdtrf, ljk;ty ,snm pfabrcbhjdfy yf vfnthbfkmyjv yjcbntkt k.,juj abpbxtcrjuj cdjqcndf d dblt ljrevtynjd, cnfntq, j,pjhjd, ghjuhfvv, rybu b n.l.

yajhvfwbjyysq ghjlern vj;tn hfcghjcnhfyznmcz nfrbvb ;t cgjcj,fvb, rfr b k.,jq vfnthbfkmysq ghjlern, c gjvjom. eckeu.

yajhvfwbjyyst eckeub djpybrf.n njkmrj ghb yfkbxbb ,fps lfyys[ d rjvgm.nthyjv bkb ytrjvgm.nthyjv dfhbfynt. fps lfyys[ ghbyznj hfpltkznm yf ,b,kbjuhfabxtcrbt b yt,b,kbjuhfabxtcrbt.

sgecr byajhvfwbjyys[ bplfybq jpyfxftn gjlujnjdre gtxfnyjq ghjlerwbb: ,b,kbjuhfabxtcrb[ b lheub[ erfpfntktq, htathfnbdys[ c,jhybrjd, j,pjhys[ bplfybq, cghfdjxys[ bplfybq. yajhvfwbjyyst bplfybz gjlujnfdkbdf.ncz ghfrnbxtcrb dctvb dblfvb byajhvfwbjyys[ cke;,, jhufyjd b cbcntv. nb bplfybz cjlth;fn dnjhbxye. byajhvfwb., rjnjhfz cjplftncz yf jcyjdt hf,jns c ,fpfvb lfyys[, ghtljcnfdktybt hf,jns c rjnjhsvb nfr;t zdkztncz eckeujq. tnhjcgtrnbdysq gjbcr byajhvfwbb -- 'nj wtktyfghfdktyysq gj pfzdrt gjkmpjdfntkz gjbcr byajhvfwbb d ,fpt lfyys[ b gthtcskrf htpekmnfnjd kb,j dblty hfcgtxfnjr gj gjxnt, kb,j gj 'ktrnhjyyjq gjxnt d dblt afqkf.

,]tv byajhvfwbb, cjlth;fotqcz d ynthytnt, b d xfcnyjcnb, d tuj jkbwtndjhtybb -- cbcntvt WWW, yt gjllftncz bpvthtyb.. j;yj kbim jwtybnm tuj gjhzljr.

yfxfkt 90-[ uu. d., rjulf cthdths WWW tot vj;yj ,skj cjcxbnfnm, ceotcndjdfkb nfr yfpsdftvst jnghfdyst njxrb. nj ,skb cnhfybws, yf rjnjhs[ gthtxbckzkbcm ccskrb yf dct WWW-cthdths, cuheggbhjdfyyst gj ntvfnbxtcrjve kb,j utjuhfabxtcrjve ghbpyfre. fghbvth, ct WWW-cthdths gj ,bj[bvbb bkb ct WWW - cthdths bykzylbb (dvtcnj nthvbyf WWW - cthdth xfot ghjbpyjczn cfqn).

frbv j,hfpjv, jnrhsd ye;ye. jnghfdye. njxre, vj;yj ,skj gjcktljdfntkmyj j,jqnb dct ccskrb. nghfdyst njxrb cnfkb ghjj,hfpjv cjdhtvtyys[ rfnfkjujd htcehcjd ynthytnf. fnfkjub htcehcjd gjlj,ys cghfdjxybrfv, cjlth;fobv cbcntvfnbpbhjdfyyst ccskrb yf cfqn. cskrb j,]tlbyz.ncz d uheggs gj jghtltktyysv ghbpyfrfv, rfr ghfdbkj, gj ntvfnbrt. f;lfz uheggf vj;tn bvtnm ytcrjkmrj ehjdytq, n.t. rfnfkjub bvt.n lhtdjdblye. cnhernehe. hjvt njuj, rfnfkjub j,tcgtxbdf.n hfpyjj,hfpysq ljgjkybntkmysq cthdbc: gjbcr gj rk.xtdsv ckjdfv, cgbcrb gjcktlyb[ gjcnegktybq, cgbcrb yfb,jktt bynthtcys[ bp yb[. cskrb d rfnfkjub dyjczn flvbybcnhfnjhs, rjnjhst cnfhf.ncz cltkfnm cdjb rjkktrwbb yfb,jktt gjkysvb, drk.xf.obvb dct ljcnegyst htcehcs yf rf;le. ntve. fr;t ccskrb yf cdjb htcehcs ghtlkfuf.n b dkfltkmws. lvbybcnhfnjhs rfnfkjuf ghjdthz.n ccskre b dyjczn tt d cjjndtncnde.obq hfpltk.

nfhtqibq rfnfkju htcehcjd (Yahoo! www.yahoo.com.) cjcnjbn bp 14 hfpltkjd:

* creccndj b uevfybnfhyst yferb;

* bpytc b 'rjyjvbrf;

* jvgm.nths b ynthytn;

* ,hfpjdfybt;

* fpdktxtybt;

* tcehcs ghfdbntkmcndf ;

* ljhjdmt;

* jdjcnb b ;

* nls[ b cgjhn;

* ghfdjxyfz byajhvfwbz;

* tcehcs gj htubjyfv;

* cntcndtyyst yferb;

* ,otcndtyyst yferb;

* ,otcndj b rekmnehf.

jbcr c gjvjom. rfnfkjuf htcehcjd dsukzlbn cktle.obv j,hfpjv: gjkmpjdfntkm jghtltkztn, r rfrjq bp ntv jnyjcbncz hfpscrbdftvfz byajhvfwbz; gthtldbufzcm duke,m gj lthtde, yf[jlbn d rfnfkjut cjjndtncnde.obq hfpltk; j,[jlbn dct cnhfybws, gthtxbcktyyst d hfpltkt. fghbvth, yflj yfqnb byajhvfwb. j rjirf[ gjhjls jhybi trc. julf vj;yj gjcntgtyyj euke,kzzcm, gthtqnb d hfpltk Science > biology> zoology> Animals, Insects, fnd Pets> Mammals> fts >rttds>jrnish Rex.

ckb ;t yflj yfqnb rnj ghjlftn rjnzn 'njq gjhjls, gjvj;tn hfpltk Business and cjnomy>Shopping and Services>Animals>fts>Breeders>Cornish Rex. elj,cnde ghbvtytybz rfnfkjujd htcehcjd jnyjcbncz nj, xnj, tckb gjkmpjdfntk. bpdtcnyf ntvf bcrjvjuj ljrevtynf, jy ,eltn bccktljdfnm cjjndtncnde.oe. dtndm, yt jndktrfzcm yf gjcnjhjyybt, yt jnyjczobtcz r ltke ljrevtyns.

lyfrj j,]tv rfnfkjuf juhfybxty djpvj;yjcnzvb tuj flvbybcnhfnjhjd b b[ ce,]trnbdyjcnm. d ds,jht vfnthbfkf. hjvt njuj, ntvfnbre bcrjvjuj ljrevtynf yt dctulf vj;yj cajhvekbhjdfnm d ghtltkf[ rkfccbabrfwbb rfnfkjuf. 'njv ckexft ghb[jlzn yf gjvjom gjbcrjdst cbcntvs.

jbcr d ynthytnt.

lj,cndj ynthytnf d njv, xnj d ytv vj;yj yfqnb ghfrnbxtcrb k.,e. byajhvfwb., lf;t rjulf vs yt pyftv njxyj, ult jyf yf[jlbnmcz. ckb flhtc cnhfybws c bynthtce.obv yfc vfnthbfkjv ytbpdtcnty b cnhfybws c gjl[jlzobvb ccskrfvb nj;t ytn, ghb[jlbnmcz hfpscrbdfnm vfnthbfks gj dctve ynthytne. kz 'njuj ghbvtyz.n gjbcrjdst cbcntvs ynthytnf - cgtwbfkmyst web-epks, gjpdjkz.obt yfqnb ye;ysq ljrevtyn.

bgs gjbcrjds[ cbcntv.

eotcndetn ldf jcyjdys[ vtnjlf gjbcrf d ynthytnt. gthdjv ckexft ds bobnt web-cnhfybws, jnyjczobtcz r jghtltktyyjq ntvt. jbcr ghjbpdjlbncz gentv ds,jhf ntvfnbxtcrjq rfntujhbb b gjcntgtyysv tt ce;tybtv. jlj,yst gjbcrjdst cbcntvs yfpsdf.n gjbcrjdsvb rfnfkjufvb. yb elj,ys, rjulf dfv ye;yj dst gjpyfrjvbnmcz c yjdjq lkz ct,z ntvjq bkb lj,hfnmcz lj ibhjrj bpdtcnys[ rkfccbxtcrb[ htcehcjd gj lfyyjq ntvt. njhjq cgjcj, gjbcrf bcgjkmpetncz, rjulf ntvf yjcbn eprbq, cgtwbabxtcrbq [fhfrnth bkb ye;ys htlrbt, vfkjbpdtcnyst htcehcs. 'njv ckexft ds ljk;ys ghtlcnfdkznm ct,t, rfrbt rk.xtdst ckjdf ljk;ys dcnhtnbnmcz d ljrevtynt gj bynthtce.otq dfc ntvt. nb ckjdf yflj ds,hfnm nfrbv j,hfpjv, xnj,s jyb, crjhtt dctuj, bvtkbcm d ye;ys[ ljrevtynf[, yt bvt.ob[ jnyjitybz r ds,hfyyjq ntvt. bcntvs, gjpdjkz.obt dsgjkyznm gjlj,ysq gjbcr, yfpsdf.n gjbcrjdsvb erfpfntkzvb. jbcrjdst rfnfkjub jnkbxf.ncz jn gjbcrjds[ erfpfntktq yt njkmrj vtnjljv gjbcrf, yj b cgjcj,jv ajhvbhjdfybz. .,fz gjbcrjdfz cbcntvf ynthytnf cjcnjbn bp lde[ xfcntq. gtwbfkbpbhjdfyyfz web-cnhfybwf, ljcnegyfz dctv ;tkf.obv b gjpdjkz.ofz dsgjkyznm gjbcr, jgbhftncz yf ,jkmie., gjcnjzyyj gjgjkyztve. b j,yjdkztve. ,fpe lfyys[, rjnjhfz cjlth;bn cdtltybz j htcehcf[ ynthytnf.

gjcj, gjgjkytybz 'njq ,fps lfyys[ pfdbcbn jn nbgf gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs, gjbcrjds[ rfnfkjujd cfvjt ukfdyjt -- 'nj njxyjcnm jn,jhf. f;lsq yfqltyysq htcehc ljk;ty ,snm gjktpysv. tvfnbrf cnhfybws jghtltkztncz bkb ghjdthztncz dhexye.. p-pf 'njuj j,]tv gjbcrjds[ rfnfkjujd jnyjcbntkmyj ytdtkbr. julf j,]tv ghb,kb;ftncz r vbkkbjye cnhfybw, j,]tv hexyjuj nhelf yfcnjkmrj dtkbr, xnj lfkmytqibq hjcn rfnfkjuf jcnfyfdkbdftncz.

jbcrjdst erfpfntkb, yfghjnbd, jhbtynbhjdfys yf ibhjne j[dfnf. jghtltktybtv ckjd, bvt.ob[cz yf web-cnhfybwt, dgjkyt cghfdkztncz fdnjvfnbrf, lfyys[ gjbcrjdjuj erfpfntkz vj;tn j[dfnsdfnm vyjubt vbkkbjys web-cnhfybw. hb 'njv dsgjkyznm gjbcr d erfpfntkt nhelytt, xtv d rfnfkjut, gjnjve xnj jlyb nt ;t rk.xtdst ckjdf vjuen dcnhtxfnmcz yf web-cnhfybwf[, gjcdzotyysv hfpysv ntvfv.

jbcrjdst cbcntvs

hbywbgs gjbcrf byajhvfwbb d ynthytnt.

nfd gjkyjghfdysv gjkmpjdfntktv ynthytnf, ds gjkexftnt ljcneg r juhjvyjve xbcke byajhvfwbjyys[ htcehcjd. fghbvth, rjkbxtcndj bvt.ob[cz d tnb L-ljrevtynjd bpvthztncz e;t yt ltcznrfvb, f cjnyzvb vbkkbjyjd. dtlm d ynthytnt vj;yj yfqnb yt njkmrj ntrcn, yj b ghjuhfvvs, bpj,hf;tybz, pderjdst b dbltjafqks b n. l. jlyjq cnjhjys, d 'njv vjht byajhvfwbb yfdthyzrf yfqltncz b nf, rjnjhjq ds bynthtcetntcm, lf;t tckb cathf dfib[ bynthtcjd dtcmvf cgtwbabxyf. lheujq cnjhjys, yfqnb chtlb cjnty vbkkbjyjd web-cnhfybw bvtyyj nt, rjnjhst dfv bynthtcys, -- pflfxf yt bp kturb[. ,ktuxbnm gjkmpjdfntkzv tnb gjbcr ytj,[jlbvjq byajhvfwbb ghbpdfys gjbcrjdst cbcntvs.

yajhvfwbjyyj-gjbcrjdst cbcntvs hfpvtof.ncz d ynthytnt yf j,otljcnegys[ cthdthf[. cyjdjq gjbcrjds[ cbcntv zdkz.ncz nfr yfpsdftvst gjbcrjdst vfibys, bkb fdnjvfnbxtcrbt byltrcs. gtwbfkmyst ghjuhfvvs-hj,jns (bpdtcnyst nfr;t rfr gferb) d fdnjvfnbxtcrjv ht;bvt gthbjlbxtcrb j,cktle.n ynthytn yf jcyjdt jghtltktyys[ fkujhbnvjd, ghjdjlz byltrcfwb. yfqltyys[ ljrevtynjd. jplfyyst byltrcyst ,fps lfyys[ bcgjkmpe.ncz gjbcrjdsvb vfibyfvb lkz ghtljcnfdktybz gjkmpjdfntk. ljcnegf r hfpvtotyyjq yf epkf[ tnb byajhvfwbb. jkmpjdfntkm d hfvrf[ cjjndtncnde.otuj bynthatqcf ajhvekbhetn pfghjc, rjnjhsq j,hf,fnsdftncz cbcntvjq, gjckt xtuj d jryj ,hfepthf dslf.ncz htpekmnfns j,hf,jnrb pfghjcf. t[fybpvs j,hf,jnrb pfghjcjd gjcnjzyyj cjdthitycnde.ncz, b cjdhtvtyyst gjbcrjdst cbcntvs yt ghjcnj gtht,bhf.n juhjvyjt xbckj ljrevtynjd.- jbcr dtltncz yf jcyjdt jhbubyfkmys[ b dtcmvf ckj;ys[ fkujhbnvjd, f tuj htpekmnfns fyfkbpbhe.ncz b cjhnbhe.ncz nfrbv j,hfpjv, xnj,s ghtlcnfdktyyfz gjkmpjdfntk. byajhvfwbz d yfb,jkmitq cntgtyb cjjndtncndjdfkf tuj j;blfybzv.

yfcnjzott dhtvz d hfpdbnbb gjbcrjds[ cbcntv yf,k.lftncz ntyltywbz j,]tlbytybz fdnjvfnbxtcrb[ byltrcys[ gjbcrjds[ vfiby b cjcnfdkztvs[ dhexye. rfnfkjujd ynthytn-htcehcjd. tcehcs 'nb[ cbcntv elfxyj ljgjkyz.n lheu lheuf, d j,]tlbytybt b[ djpvj;yjcntq dgjkyt kjubxyj.

tv yt vtytt bccktljdfybz djpvj;yjcntq gjbcrjds[ vfiby, lf;t cfvs[ vjoys[ bp yb[, nfrb[ rfr AltaVista bkb HotBot, gjrfpsdf.n, xnj htfkmyfz gjkyjnf j[dfnf htcehcjd ctvbhyjq gfenbys jnltkmyjq nfrjq cbcntvjq yt ghtdsiftn 30%. j'njve yt cnjbn juhfybxbdfnmcz bcgjkmpjdfybtv rfrjq-kb,j jlyjq bp yb[. ckb dfv yt elfkjcm jnscrfnm bynthtce.oe. dfc byajhvfwb. c gjvjom. jlyjq cbcntvs, gjghj,eqnt djcgjkmpjdfnmcz lheujq.

f;lfz gjbcrjdfz bcntvf bvttn cdjb jcj,tyyjcnb b, b rfxtcndj gjkextyyjuj htpekmnfnf pfdbcbn jn ghtlvtnf gjbcrf b njxyjcnb ajhvekbhjdrb pfghjcf. j'njve, ghbcnegfz r gjbcre byajhvfwbb, ght;lt dctuj, ye;yj xtnrj ghtlcnfdkznm ct,t, xnj bvtyyj b ult ds [jnbnt yfqnb. fghbvth, pfhe,t;yst cbcntvs gjhf;f.n xbckjv ghjbyltrcbhjdfyys[ ljrevtynjd. kz gjbcrf d j,kfcnb ghjatccbjyfkmys[ pyfybq, jcj,tyyj byajhvfwbb yf byjcnhfyyjv zpsrt, nfrbt cbcntvs, rfr AltaVista, HotBot bkb Northern, gjl[jlzn yfbkexibv j,hfpjv.

lyfrj lkz gjbcrf byajhvfwbb yf heccrjv zpsrt, jcj,tyyj d hjccbqcrjq xfcnb ynthytnf, kexit ghbcgjcj,ktys heccrbt gjbcrjdst vfibys. j-gthds[, jyb cgtwbfkmyj jhbtynbhjdfyyst bvtyyj yf heccrjzpsxyst htcehcs tnb b, rfr ghfdbkj, jnkbxf.ncz ,jkmitq gjkyjnjq j[dfnf b uke,byjq bccktljdfybz 'nb htcehcjd. j-dnjhs[, hjccbqcrbt cbcntvs hf,jnf.n c extnjv vjhajkjubb heccrjuj zpsrf, nj tcnm d gjbcr drk.xf.ncz dct ajhvs bcrjvs[ ckjd. jccbqcrbt cbcntvs kexit exbnsdf.n b nfre. bcnjhbxtcrb ckj;bdie.cz jcj,tyyjcnm hjccbqcrb[ ynthytn-htcehcjd, rfr cjceotcndjdfybt ytcrjkmrb[ rjlbhjdjr rbhbkkbws.

ynthatqc dct[ gjbcrjds[ cbcntv gjcnhjty ghbvthyj jlbyfrjdj. jkmpjdfntk. ghtlkfuftncz ddtcnb pfghjc j cgtwbfkmyjt gjkt, f pfntv bybwbbhjdfnm gjbcr otkxrjv yf ryjgrt. bcntvf dsgjkyztn gjbcr b dslftn htpekmnfns d jryt ,hfepthf. hjvt njuj, vyjubvb gjbcrjdsvb cbcntvfvb gjkmpjdfntk. ghtljcnfdkztncz djpvj;yjcnm pflfnm ljgjkybntkmyst rhbnthbb gjbcrf. fghbvth vj;yj bcrfnm njkmrj d jghtltktyyjq ntvfnbxtcrjq rfntujhbb bkb njkmrj jghtltktyys[ cthdthf[.(15, c.523-525)

fcibhtyysq gjbcr.

hjvt j,sxyjuj pfghjcf yf tcntcndtyyjv zpsrt gjkmpjdfntkb ,jkmibycndf cbcntv vjuen nfr;t djcgjkmpjdfnmcz ht;bvjv hfcibhtyyjuj gjbcrf (d pfhe,t;ys[ cbcntvf[ -- Advanced Search), d rjnjhjv c gjvjom. cgtwbfkmys[ cbvdjkjd vj;yj pflfnm ,jktt njxyst rhbnthbb b j,kfcnm gjbcrf. eccrjt yfpdfybt 'njuj ht;bvf, hjlbdittcz, dblbvj, bp yt cjdctv njxyjuj gthtdjlf c fyukbqcrjuj, ytkmpz ghbpyfnm elfxysv, nfr rfr yf cfvjv ltkt hfcibhtyysv zdkztncz njkmrj yf,jh rhbnthbtd gjbcrf, f yju j,kfcnm gjbcrf d ,jkmibycndt ckexftd ceotcndtyyj ce;ftncz.

jkmibycndj gjbcrjds[ cbcntv gjpdjkztn bcgjkmpjdfnm dtcmvf hfpdbnsq b ckj;ysq cbynfrcbc pfghjcjd. lyfrj gj lfyysv cjplfntktq gjbcrjds[ cbcntv, rjnjhst, ,elexb k.lmvb ljnjiysvb, dtlen extn gjctoftvjcnb hfpkbxys[ cnhfybw cdjb[ cthdthjd, jrfpsdftncz, xnj kbim jrjkj ltcznb ghjwtynjd gjctnbntktq lj,bhf.ncz lj cnhfybw c jgbcfybtv zpsrf eckj;ytyys[ pfghjcjd. nj ujdjhbn yt cnjkmrj j njv, xnj gjkmpjdfntkb tnb yt ;tkf.n hfp,bhfnmcz d cgtwbfkmys[ cbvdjkf[ b cjcnfdkznm ytrbt ajhveks, crjkmrj j njv, xnj ,jkmibycndj boeob[ dgjkyt eljdktndjhz.n htpekmnfns, gjkextyyst c gjvjom. ghjcnjuj pfghjcf. tv yt vtytt, vyjubt aeyrwbb hfcibhtyyjuj gjbcrf dtcmvf elj,ys b jlbyfrjds lkz hfpys[ cbcntv, f pfgjvybnm ghfdbkf b[ bcgjkmpjdfybz ytckj;yj. gjvjom. eckj;ytyys[ pfghjcjd vj;yj pflfnm cfvst hfpyjj,hfpyst ht;bvs gjbcrf, yfghbvth juhfybxbnm gjbcr njkmrj jghtltktyysvb cfqnfvb bkb jghtltktyysvb 'ktvtynfvb ljrevtynf. j;yj nfr;t yfcnhfbdfnm cgjcj,s cjhnbhjdrb htpekmnfnjd gjbcrf, jghtltkbd ,jktt b vtytt df;yst ckjdf d pfghjct. fxfcne. cjplfntkb cbcntvs ghtljcnfdkz.n nfr;t djpvj;yjcnm erfpfybz dpfbvyjuj hfcgjkj;tybz bcrjvs[ ckjd d ghtlkj;tybb bkb ljrevtynt, yfghbvth yfcrjkmrj lfktrj jlyj bcrjvjt ckjdj vj;tn jncnjznm jn lheujuj. jlhj,yjt jgbcfybt cbynfrcbcf pfghjcjd lkz rjyrhtnys[ cbcntv bvttncz yf cfqnf[ 'nb[ cbcntv d hfpltkt cghfdjxyjq byajhvfwbb.

b,kbjntxyst byltrcs lkz Internet

fxbyfz gjbcr xtuj-kb,j d Internet b bvtz vbybvev byajhvfwbb, f nfr ;t gsnfzcm juhfybnm gjnthb dhtvtyb, lkz gjkextybz yfb,jktt j,otq byajhvfwbb djpvj;yj j,hfotybt r cktle.otq ,fpt lfyys[.

fpf lfyys[: ghtlvtn dtltn r t;ctntdsv htcehcfv, gjcnhjtyysv ,b,kbjntrfhzvb.

jlth;fybt: dsit 2,500 cdzptq c Internet htcehcfvb, rhfnrj fyyjnbhetvsvb, c erfpfyysvb ghtlvtnysvb pfujkjdrfvb.

jbcr: jbcrb vjuen ,snm juhfybxtys yfpdfybtv htcehcf, jgbcfybtv tuj, bkb c erfpfyysvb ghtlvtnysvb pfujkjdrfvb.

tpekmnfns: tpekmnfns gjrfpfys d fkafdbnyjv gjhzlrt yfpdfybzvb htcehcf.

lhtc: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/InternetInd ex/

ndt[

jbcrjdfz cbcntvf ndt[ hfcgjkfuftncz gj flhtce www.efndt[.ru. yf ,skf jabwbfkmyj ddtltyf d 'rcgkefnfwb. 23 ctynz,hz 1997 ujlf.

nj ;t nfrjt ndt[? jn rfr jndtxf.n yf 'njn djghjc cjplfntkb cbcntvs. ndt[ -- 'nj gjkyjntrcnjdfz byajhvfwbjyyj-gjbcrjdfz cbcntvf (), exbnsdf.ofz vjhajkjub. heccrjuj b fyukbqcrjuj zpsrjd. bcntvf ndt[ ghtlyfpyfxtyf lkz gjbcrf byajhvfwbb d 'ktrnhjyys[ ntrcnf[ hfpkbxyjq cnhernehs b hfpys[ cgjcj,jd ghtlcnfdktybz (ajhvfnjd). ndt[ (ghjbpyjcbncz zyltrc) hfcibahjdsdftncz rfr zpsrjdsq byltrc bkb, d fyukbqcrjv yfgbcfybb, Yandex -- Yet Another INDEX. fr;t vj;yj hfccvfnhbdfnm ndt[ rfr xfcnbxysq gthtdjl ckjdf Index c fyukbqcrjuj yf heccrbq zpsr ( I jpyfxftn ߻).

jcyjdt gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs Yandex.Ru kt;bn cbcntvyjt zlhj, j,ott lkz dct[ ghjlernjd c ghtabrcjv ndex (ndex.Site, ndex.Lib, ndex.Dict, ndex.D). thdst ghjlerns cthbb ndex (ndex.Site, ndex.Dict) ,skb ghtlcnfdktys ibhjrjq ge,kbrt 18 jrnz,hz 1996 ujlf yf dscnfdrt Netcom'96. jbcrjdfz vfibyf lkz heccrjuj ynthytnf. zdbkfcm tcntcndtyysv ghjljk;tybtv kbybb ndex. fr e;t ujdjhbkjcm, d [jhjitv djghjct cjlth;bncz gjkjdbyf jndtnf. crfnm b yf[jlbnm ye;yjt d djhj[t ntrcnjd d ynthytnt -- evtybt yt njkmrj gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs, vj b gjkmpjdfntkz, pflf.otuj pfghjc. ndex yt nht,etn jn gjkmpjdfntkz pyfybz cgtwbfkmys[ rjvfyl lkz gjbcrf. ljcnfnjxyj yf,hfnm djghjc (ult yfqnb ltitdst rjvgm.nths bkb ye;ys ntktajys jcrds b jcrjdcrjq j,kfcnb), b ds gjkexbnt htpekmnfn -- cgbcjr cnhfybw, ult dcnhtxf.ncz 'nb ckjdf. tpfdbcbvj jn njuj, d rfrjq ajhvt ds egjnht,bkb ckjdj d pfghjct, gjbcr exbnsdftn dct tuj ajhvs gj ghfdbkfv heccrjuj zpsrf. fghbvth, tckb pflfy pfghjc blnb, nj d htpekmnfnt gjbcrf ,elen yfqltys ccskrb yf ljrevtyns, cjlth;fobt ckjdf blnb, bltn, itk, ikf b n.l.

ndex hf,jnftn yt njkmrj c zpsrjdsvb pfghjcfvb, yj b gjpdjkztn dsgjkyznm gjbcr njkmrj yf jghtltktyys[ cthdthf[ ;t bcrk.xbnm bp gjbcrf pfdtljvj ytye;yst cthdths. jzdbkfcm djpvj;yjcnm gjbcrf bpj,hf;tybq gj gjlgbczv r ybv b gj bvtyfv afqkjd. fr;t cnfkb ljcnegysvb lkz gjbcrf nfrbt j,]trns, rfr cwtyfhbb, fggktns b cnbkb (gjbcr jceotcndkztncz gj yfpdfyb.). lj,yfz hf,jnf c yjdsvb djpvj;yjcnzvb ghtlkfuftncz yf cnhfybwt hfcibhtyyjuj gjbcrf, ult ckj;ysq zpsr pfghjcjd cdtlty r pfgjkytyb. gjktq d ajhvt. hjvt cnfylfhnyjq cjhnbhjdrb htpekmnfnjd - gj htktdfynyjcnb (nj tcnm gj cntgtyb cjjndtncndbz pfghjce), vj;yj jncjhnbhjdfnm ljrevtyns gj lfnt j,yjdktybz. ynthtcyjq jcj,tyyjcnm. cbcntvs zdkztncz djpvj;yjcnm gjbcrf d yltrct d k.,jv vtcnt ynthytnf. kz 'njuj ye;yj pfuhepbnm c cfqnf http://bar.efndt[.ru ghjuhfvve gjk yfpdfybtv yltrc.fh b ecnfyjdbnm tt. jckt 'njuj d jryt ,hfepthf gjzdbncz yjdfz gfytkm. yf ghtlyfpyfxtyf lkz ddjlf pfghjcf yf gjbcr (,tp ytj,[jlbvjcnb jnrhsdfnm cnhfybwe yltrcf) b dsgjkytybz hzlf lheub[ aeyrwbq.

j dytiytve dble yltrc ghtlcnfdkztn cj,jq nbgbxysq gjhnfk, yf ukfdyjq cnhfybwt rjnjhjuj vj;yj yfqnb ccskrb yf vfnthbfks ghfrnbxtcrb k.,jq ntvfnbrb. j 'nj yt tlbycndtyyjt tuj kbwj, lkz cthmtpys[ gjkmpjdfntktq, rjnjhst yt [jnzn nhfnbnm dhtvz yf pfuhepre ytye;yjq d lfyysq vjvtyn byajhvfwbb, ceotcndetn lheujq yltrc. uj cnhfybwf dgtxfnkztn crhjvyjcnm. lbpfqyf b crjhjcnm. pfuheprb. lhtc 'njq 'cctywbb gjbcrjdjq vfibys - www.ya.ru.

AltaVista

AltaVista (www.AltaVista.com) - jlyf bp cnfhtqib[ gjbcrjds[ cbcntv d ynthytnt. thdsq web-byltrc ,sk ghtlcnfdkty rjvgfybtq d 1995 ujle. lhj gjbcrjdjq cbcntvs j,zpfyj cdjbv hj;ltybtv cnhfyyjq jcj,tyyjcnb bccktljdfntkmcrjq kf,jhfnjhbb rjvgfybb Digital Equipment Corp. jnhelybrb 'njq kf,jhfnjhbb pfxtv - nj [hfybkb dc. cdj. 'ktrnhjyye. gthtgbcre pf gjcktlybt 10 ktn. nj,s 'nf rexf byajhvfwbb yt ghjcnj pfybvfkf lbcrjdjt ghjcnhfycndj, f ghbyjcbkf [jnm rfre.-nj gjkmpe, ,skf cjplfyf ghjuhfvvf lkz byltrcbhjdfybz ljrevtynjd b gjbcrf ye;ys[ ckjd d djhj[t gj;tkntditq jn dhtvtyb 'ktrnhjyyjq rjhhtcgjyltywbb. bcntvf gjkexbkfcm yfcnjkmrj elfxyjq, xnj dgjcktlcndbb c ecgt[jv gthtrjxtdfkf yf ghjcnjhs ctvbhyjq gfenbys.

yltrc AltaVista cjlth;bn ljrevtyns yf ,jktt xtv 25 zpsrf[. jrfkbpjdfyyst dthcbb cfqnf AltaVista hfcgjkfuf.ncz d ljvtyf[ 20 cnhfy. j,kfcnm gjbcrf vj;yj drk.xbnm ljrevtyns yf dct[ gjllth;bdftvs[ zpsrf[ bkb njkmrj d ljrevtynf[ yf jghtltktyyjv zpsrt, f yf cgtwbfkmyjq cnhfybwt vj;yj epyfnm ytcrjkmrj zpsrjd lkz gjbcrf yf dct[ ds,hfyys[ zpsrf[ jlyjdhtvtyyj.

Hot Bot

fpf lfyys[: fcgjkj;tyyst gj dctve vbhe WWW-cnhfybws.

jlth;fybt: 54 vbkkbjyf WWW-cnhfybw(yf ctynz,hm 1996 u.).

jbcr: htlkfuftn S - gjbcr b rcgthn (Expert ()) - gjbcr, gjllth;bdftn boolean-jgthfnjhs ( b ), gjbcr ahfps, b ds,jh " xtkjdtr "bkb" URL ". -gjbcr nfr;t gjllth;bdftn pflfybt lfns, vtcnjgjkj;tybt (cnhfyf b n.l.)

TS - gjbcr: bcgjkmpetn pfrk.xtybt ahfps d ldjqyst rfdsxrb (yfghbvth, " ckjdf ahfps ").

tpekmnfns: tpekmnfns gjrfpfys c yfpdfybtv ljrevtynf, hfphzl evtcnyjcnb d ghjwtynt, URL, hfpvth ljrevtynf.

lhtc: http://www.hotbot.com/

Ditto

thdth Ditto (www.ditto.com) jnkbxftncz jn ,jkmibycndf gjbcrjds[ cbcntv ntv, xnj jy cgtwbfkbpbhetncz d j,kfcnb nfr yfpsdftvjuj dbpefkmyjuj gjbcrf. lfyyjv ckexft gjl 'nbvb ckjdfvb gjlhfpevtdftncz gjbcr bpj,hf;tybq gj rk.xtdsv ckjdfv -- ghjot ujdjhz, gj ytpfntqkbdjve jgbcfyb.. cj;fktyb., 'nb ckjdf bvttn cvsck ddjlbnm njkmrj yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt; gj rhfqytq vtht, d jndtn yf jgbcfybt yf heccrjv cbcntvf dslftn ahfps nbgf There are no images matching your search bkb Server busy. Please try again.

Yahoo!

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jlth;fybt: cyjdyfz lbhtrnjhbz cjlth;bn: flhtcf (URLs) kkz Internet-htcehcjd b rhfnrjt jgbcfybt lkz 'nb[ cdzptq.

jbcr: ct Yahoo cnhfybws ghtlkfuf.n yt njkmrj ghjcnjt gjbcrjdjt jryj, yj b jgwbb lkz 'njuj gjbcrf, f nfr ;t gjbcr Usenet bkb Email-flhtcf. jbcr vj;tn juhfybxbdfnmcz erfpfybtv jghtltkyyjuj ghjvt;enrf dhtvtyb. Boolean jgthfnjhs (b, bkb) b gjcktljdfntkmysq gjbcr nfr;t gjllth;fys. nvtnbv: tckb gjbcr d Yahoo! yt ghbdk r gjkj;bntkmyjve htpekmnfne, nj ghjwtcc gjbcrf fdnjvfnbxtcrb gtht[jlbn yf Alta Vista, rjnjhfz ghjljk;ftn gjbcr, b d ckexft gjkj;bntkmys[ htpekmnfnjd fdnjvfnbxtcrb djpdhfoftn yfqltyye. byajhvfwb. d Yahoo!.

ckb Yahoo! yt vj;tn ecnfyjdbnm cdzpm ljcnfnjxyj ,scnhj c Alta Vista, nj d 'njv ckexft Yahoo! ,eltn j,tcgtxbdfnm cnhfybwe cdzpb c yf,jhjv bycnhevtynjd gjbcrf. jckt njuj rfr jlyf bp 'nb[ cdzptq ds,bhftncz, rk.xtdst ckjdf gthtlf.ncz r gjbcrjdjq vfibyt yf dfit ecvjnhtybt.

htlcndjv, j,ktuxf.obv gjbcr, zdkztncz yfkbxbt tip search(TS) - gjbcr c gjvjom. yfvtrf: Yahoo! dkztncz gjlxbytyysv cghfdjxybrjv, xnj jpyfxftn, xnj cbcntvf yt bvttn nfr vyjuj cnhfybw, rfr gjbcrjdst vfibys, jlyfrj pflfybt yfb,jktt j,ob[ rk.xtds[ ckjd gjpdjkbn yfqnb ytj,[jlbve. ntve yf cnhfybwt dscjrjuj ehjdyz (gthdfz cnhfybwf, rjnjhfz djpybrftn gthtl gjkmpjdfntktv ghb gjctotybb cfqnf) lkz jhufybpfwbb bkb rjvgfybb.

tpekmnfns: dzpb jnj,hf;f.ncz d cjjndtncndbb c jxthlyjcnm. pflfdftvs[ ckjd gjcktljdfntkmyjcnm. gjbcrf yfhzle c b[ jgbcfntkmysv ntrcnjv b gjlxbytyyjq bthfh[btq.

lhtc: http://www.yahoo.com/

Google

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