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dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf 'nj jlby bp vtnjljd yferb .pf,bkbnb, rjnjhsq cke;bn lkz j,yfhe;tybz ghj,ktv c .pf,bkbnb d lbpfqyt gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, bcghfdktybt rjnjhs[ zdkztncz xfcnm. vyjuj'nfgyjuj ghjwtccf lbpfqyf. dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf ghjdjlbncz yt,jkmijq uheggjq k.ltq, rjnjhst jwtybdf.n bynthatqc b celzn j tuj ghfdbkmyjcnb, jgbhfzcm yf jghtltktyyst j,otghbpyfyyst ghbywbgs .pf,bkbnb (rjnjhst yfpsdf.ncz "'dhbcnbrfvb").
wtkjv, 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf - dtcmvf nheljtvrbq ghjwtcc lkz jlyjuj xtkjdtrf, nfr rfr jlby xtkjdtr ybrjulf yt cvj;tn j,yfhe;bnm dct ghj,ktvs c .pf,bkbnb d bynthatqct. cxfcnm., jgsn hf,jns yfl vyj;tcndjv ghjtrnjd gjrfpfk, xnj hfpkbxyst k.lb yf[jlzn hfpkbxyst ghj,ktvs. ktljdfntkmyj, 'aatrnbdyjcnm vtnjlf vj;yj pyfxbntkmyj gjdscbnm, tckb ghbdktxm r jwtyrt ytcrjkmrb[ k.ltq. bc.1 ltvjycnhbhetn ghbvth htpekmnfnjd jlyjq bp nfrb[ jwtyjr, ult 19 exfcnybrjd j,yfhe;bkb 16 hfpkbxys[ ghj,ktv d cbcntvt fdnjjndtnxbrf, c gjvjom. rjnjhjuj rkbtyns ,fyrf gjkexfkb ljcneg r cdjbv cxtnfv (Nielsen 1992). f;lsq xthysq rdflhfnbr yf hbc.1 j,jpyfxftn j,yfhe;tybt jlyjq bp ghj,ktv jlybv bp exfcnybrjd. kk.cnhfwbz zcyj gjrfpsdftn hfpybwe vt;le hfpkbxysvb ghj,ktvfvb yfqltyysvb hfpkbxysvb exfcnybrfvb. fpevttncz, ytrjnjhst ghj,ktvs ,skj nfr kturj j,yfhe;bnm, xnj b[ yfikb ghfrnbxtcrb dct exfcnybrb, yj ,skb b nfrbt ghj,ktvs, rjnjhst cvjukb j,yfhe;bnm kbim ytvyjubt exfcnybrb ntcnf. ktljdfntkmyj, ytkmpz celbnm j njv, rnj kexit yf[jlbn ghj,ktvs, f rnj [e;t, jcyjdsdfzcm njkmrj yf rjkbxtcndtyyjv htpekmnfnt. j-gthds[, yt dctulf jlby b njn ;t xtkjdtr d hfpys[ ntcnf[ cvj;tn gjrfpfnm jlby b njn ;t kexibq htpekmnfn. j-dnjhs[, ghj,ktvs, rjnjhst nhelytt dctuj ,skj yfqnb (cfvsq ktdsq cnjk,tw yf hbc.1), ,skb j,yfhe;tys exfcnybrfvb, rjnjhst djdct yt vjuen gj[dfcnfnmcz cdjtq htpekmnfnbdyjcnm.. ktljdfntkmyj, r 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrt ytj,[jlbvj ghbdktrfnm rfr vj;yj ,jkmit k.ltq (cv. yb;t hfcce;ltybz j njv, crjkmrj ljk;yj ,snm exfcnybrjd). htrjvtyle. ghbdktrfnm jn nht[ lj gznb exfcnybrjd, nfr rfr ghb ckbirjv ,jkmijv rjkbxtcndt exfcnybrjd ds ,eltnt d jcyjdyjv gjkexfnm gjdnjhz.oe.cz byajhvfwb..

bc. 1

kk.cnhfwbz gjrfpsdftn, rfrjq bp exfcnybrjd ntcnbhjdfybz ,fyrjdcrjq cbcntvs rfre. ghj,ktve yfitk. f;lsq hzl nf,kbws cjjndtncndetn jlyjve bp 19 exfcnybrjd ntcnf, f rf;lsq cnjk,tw - jlyjq bp 16 j,yfhe;tyys[ ghj,ktv. f;lsq rdflhfnbr gjrfpsdftn, rfre. bp ghj,ktv j,yfhe;bk njn bkb byjq exfcnybr: tckb rdflhfnbr xthysq - exfcnybr j,yfhe;bk 'ne ghj,ktve, tckb ,tksq - yt j,yfhe;bk. zls nf,kbws dscnhjtys nfr, xnj cfvst ecgtiyst exfcnybrb ntcnf yf[jlzncz dybpe, f cfvst ytelfxyst - ddth[e. njk,ws nf,kbws ,skb dscnhjtys nfr, xnj ghj,ktvs, rjnjhst ktuxt dctuj ,skj yfqnb, hfcgjkfuf.ncz cghfdf, f cfvst nhelyst ghj,ktvs - cktdf.

fr 'nj ltkftncz

j dhtvz ghjdtltybz 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb rf;lsq exfcnybr dsgjkyztn cdj. hf,jne bylbdblefkmyj. jkmrj gjckt njuj, rfr dct exfcnybrb pfrjyxfn dsgjkytybt hf,jns, bv hfphtiftncz gjujdjhbnm lheu c lheujv b j,]tlbybnm gjkextyyst cdtltybz. xtym df;yj cj,k.lfnm bvtyyj nfrjq gjhzljr, xnj,s gjkexbnm d htpekmnfnt ytpfdbcbvst b ytghtldpznst jwtyrb jn rf;ljuj exfcnybrf. tpekmnfns jwtyjr kb,j pfgbcsdf.ncz yf ,evfut d dblt jnxtnjd jn rf;ljuj exfcnybrf, kb,j bpkfuf.ncz ecnyj rf;lsv exfcnybrjv dj dhtvz dsgjkytybz ntcnf. bcmvtyyst jnxtns [jhjib ntv, xnj zdkz.ncz ajhvfkmyjq pfgbcm. htpekmnfnjd jwtyrb, yj yf b[ cjcnfdktybt nht,e.ncz ljgjkybntkmyst ecbkbz jn exfcnybrf ntcnf, b ytj,[jlbvj dhtvz herjdjlbntkz ntcnf yf b[ ghjxntybt b cdtltybt. ckb ;t jnxtn dtltncz ecnyj, d rf;ljv ntcnt nht,etncz yf,k.lfntkm lkz pfgbcb rjvvtynfhbtd, yj ,kfujlfhz 'njve cybvftncz yfuheprf c cfvb[ exfcnybrjd ntcnf. hjvt njuj, htpekmnfns ntcnjd vj;yj gjkexbnm gjxnb chfpe gjckt jrjyxfybz gjcktlytuj ntcnf. flth;rf cdzpfyf c ntv, xnj yf,k.lfntk. cfvjve ye;yj dhtvz yf ghjcvjnh b cdtltybt cdjb[ kbxys[ pfgbctq. tv yt vtytt yf 'nj eqltn vtymit dhtvtyb, xtv yf yfgbcfybt jnxtnf rf;lsv bp exfcnybrjd ntcnf. jvbvj 'njuj yf,k.lfntkm vj;tn gjvjxm exfcnybrfv d hf,jnt c bynthatqcjv d ckexft djpybryjdtybz ghj,ktv, yfghbvth, d ckexft c ytcnf,bkmysv ghjnjnbgjv, kb,j gjvjxm exfcnybrfv, tckb e yb[ jncencnde.n ytj,[jlbvst pyfybz lkz hf,jns c ghjnjnbgjv b bv yflj j,]zcybnm, rfr xnj hf,jnftn.

ckexft ntcnbhjdfybz c exfcnbtv gjkmpjdfntkz yf,k.lfntkm (rjnjhsq dscnegftn d hjkb "herjdjlbntkz") jndtxftn pf bynthghtnfwb. ltqcndbq gjkmpjdfntkz b b[ cdzpm c ghj,ktvfvb .pf,bkbnb d lbpfqyt bynthatqcf. kfujlfhz 'njve nfrbt ntcns vj;yj ghjdjlbnm lf;t d nt[ ckexfz[, rjulf gjkmpjdfntkm-exfcnybr f,cjk.nyj ybxtuj yt pyftn j lbpfqyt bynthatqcjd. ckexft ;t c 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrjq jndtncndtyyjcnm pf fyfkbp bynthatqcf djpkfuftncz yf cfvjuj exfcnybrf, f yf,k.lfntk. jndjlbncz kbim hjkm ctrhtnfhz, pfgbcsdf.otuj rjvvtynfhbb exfcnybrf, n.t. yf,k.lfntkm d lfyyjv ckexft yt pfybvftncz jwtyrjq ltqcndbq exfcnybrf.

tkmpz yt yfgjvybnm j lde[ lheub[ hfpkbxbz[ vt;le 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrjq cbcntvs b nhflbwbjyysv tt ntcnbhjdfybtv c gjvjom. gjkmpjdfntkz. txm bltn j ghfdt yf,k.lfntkz jndtxfnm yf djghjcs exfcnybrf ntcnf dj dhtvz tuj ghjdtltybz, f nfr;t j uke,byt jndtnjd yf 'nb djghjcs. nhflbwbjyyjv ntcnt c exfcnbtv gjkmpjdfntkz pflfxf cjcnjbn d njv, xnj,s j,yfhe;bnm, rfrbt jib,rb d hf,jnt c bynthatqcjv vj;tn ljgecnbnm gjkmpjdfntkm. frbv j,hfpjv, jhufybpfnjh ntcnbhjdfybz yt crkjyty lfdfnm exfcnybre byajhvfwb. ,jkmit, xtv nj ytj,[jlbvj. fr;t gjkmpjdfntktq ghjczn jnscrfnm jndtn yf djpybribq djghjc c gjvjom. cfvjq cbcntvs, f yt yfltznmcz yf jndtn yf,k.lfntkz. ckexft ;t c 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrjq ythfpevyj jnrfpsdfnm exfcnybre jwtyrb d jndtnf[ yf djghjcs, rfcf.obtcz ghtlvtnyjq j,kfcnb cbcntvs, d jcj,tyyjcnb tckb 'rcgthn yt zdkztncz cgtwbfkbcnjv d njq j,kfcnb, c rjnjhjq cdzpfyf cbcntvf. lfyyjv ckexft gjkyst jndtns yf,k.lfntkz yf djghjcs 'rcgthnf gjvjuen gjcktlytve ,jktt uke,jrj jwtybnm .pf,bkbnb gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf, jgbhfzcm yf gjkextyyst jn yf,k.lfntkz pyfybz. jxyj nfr;t, rjulf 'rcgthn cnjkrytncz c pfnhelytybzvb, yf,k.lfntkm vj;tn lfnm cjdtn, rfr dsqnb bp cbnefwbb, xnj,s yt nhfnbkjcm lhfujwtyyjt dhtvz yf ,jhm,e c bynthatqcjv. ltcm, jlyfrj, df;yj jnvtnbnm, xnj yf,k.lfntkm yt ljk;ty gjvjufnm lj nt[ gjh, gjrf jy zcyj yt e,tlbncz d njv, xnj 'rcgthn gjgfk d pfnhelybntkmyjt gjkj;tybt b xtnrj jnvtnbk ghj,ktve c .pf,bkbnb.

fr ghfdbkj 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf jnltkmysv 'rcgthnjv lkbncz jlby ldf xfcf. jktt lkbntkmyst ntcns vjuen gjnht,jdfnmcz d ckexft jxtym ,jkmijq bkb jxtym ckj;yjq cbcntvs, ult ghbcencnde.n vyj;tcndj lbfkjujds[ 'ktvtynjd. j d 'njv ckexft jwtyre kexit hfpltkbnm yf ytcrjkmrj ctfycjd, d rjnjhjv jwtybdftncz njkmrj rfrfz-nj jghtltktyyfz xfcnm bynthatqcf.

j dhtvz ctfycf jwtyrb 'rcgthn ytcrjkmrj hfp ghj[jlbn gj bynthatqce b hfccvfnhbdftn tuj hfpkbxyst lbfkjujdst 'ktvtyns, chfdybdfz b[ cj cgbcrjv ghbywbgjd .pf,bkbnb ('dhbcnbrb). nb 'dhbcnbrb zdkz.ncz j,obvb ghfdbkfvb, rjnjhst jgbcsdf.n j,obt cdjqcndf dct[ bynthatqcjd, rjnjhst cxbnf.ncz elj,ysvb d bcgjkmpjdfybb. ljgjkytybt r lfyyjve cgbcre j,ob[ 'dhbcnbr 'rcgthn, hfpevttncz, bvttn ghfdj gjkmpjdfnmcz k.,svb lheubvb bpdtcnysvb tve ghbywbgfvb bkb htpekmnfnfvb ghtlsleob[ jwtyjr, rjnjhst ghbvtybvs r rfrjve-nj rjyrhtnyjve 'ktvtyne bynthatqcf. jktt njuj, yf jcyjdt j,ob[ 'dhbcnbr vj;yj hfphf,jnfnm cgbcjr 'dhbcnbr, rjnjhst cgtwbabxys bvtyyj lkz lfyyjq rfntujhbb cbcntv. gbcjr nfrb[ cgtwbabxtcrb[ 'dhbcnbr vj;yj cjcnfdbnm, ghjdtlz, yfghbvth, fyfkbp rjyrehbhe.otq cbcntvs bkb ntcnbhjdfybt ceotcnde.ob[ cbcntv c gjvjom. gjkmpjdfntktq, gjckt xtuj yflj dsdtcnb f,cnhfrnyst ghbywbgs [jhjituj bynthatqcf yf jcyjdt j,yfhe;tyys[ ghj,ktv c .pf,bkbnb (Dykstra 1993).

.fycs

wtkjv 'rcgthns cfvb htif.n, rfr jyb cj,bhf.ncz jwtybdfnm bynthatqc. rfxtcndt j,otq htrjvtylfwbb vs cjdtnetv, xnj,s dj dhtvz ctfycf 'rcgthn ghjitkcz gj bynthatqce ldf;ls. thdsq ghj[jl cke;bn lkz gjybvfybz, rfr hf,jnftn bynthatqc cbcntvs b d rfrjq gjcktljdfntkmyjcnb dsgjkyz.ncz ltqcndbz. j dhtvz dnjhjuj ghj[jlf 'rcgthn rjywtynhbhetn dybvfybt yf jghtltktyys[ 'ktvtynf[ bynthatqcf, e;t pyfz, rfr jyb crkflsdf.ncz d j,oe. rfhnbye.

fr rfr 'rcgthns yt bcgjkmpe.n bynthatqc rfr nfrjdjq (n.t. yt dsgjkyz.n htfkmye. pflfxe, f kbim jwtybdf.n cfv bynthatqc), 'dhbcnbxtcre. jwtyre ghbvtybnm lf;t r bynthatqce, rjnjhsq ceotcndetn d dblt ,evf;ys[ ghjnjnbgjd [cv. cjjndtncnde.obq vtnjl d rfnfkjut vtnjljd dt,-lbpfqyf b cnfnm. bkmctyf yf 'ne ntve], yj d htfkmyjcnb tot yt cltkfy (Nielsen 1990). nj pyfxbn, xnj 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf vj;tn ghjdjlbnmcz yf hfyyb[ 'nfgf[ lbpfqyf cbcntvs.

ckb cbcntvf bvttn ghjcnjq bynthatqc b ghtlyfpyfxtyf lkz ibhjrjq felbnjhbb, bkb tckb 'rcgthns hfp,bhf.ncz d ghtlvtnyjq j,kfcnb, bv gjvjom d hf,jnt c bynthatqcjv yt gjyflj,bncz. ghjnbdyjv ckexft, rjulf cbcntvf cgtwbabxyf b 'rcgthns yt ckbirjv uke,jrj pyfrjvs c ghtlvtnyjq j,kfcnm., bv vj;tn gjyflj,bnmcz gjvjom lkz hf,jns c bynthatqcjv. rfxtcndt gjvjob 'rcgthnfv vj;yj hfplfnm nbgbxyst cwtyfhbb bcgjkmpjdfybz cbcntvs, ult ,elen gthtxbcktys hfpkbxyst ifub, rjnjhst ljk;ty dsgjkybnm nbgbxysq gjkmpjdfntkm, xnj,s dsgjkybnm rfre.-nj htfkmye. pflfxe. frbt cwtyfhbb cjcnfdkz.ncz yf jcyjdt fyfkbpf pflfx gjkmpjdfntktq b b[ hf,jns b d lfkmytqitv cke;fn jcyjdjq lkz gjybvfybz njuj, rfr d ,eleotv ,eltn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz cbcntvf.

tpekmnfns

tpekmnfnjv jwtyrb gj 'dhbcnbxtcrjve vtnjle zdkztncz cgbcjr ghj,ktv c .pf,bkbnb bynthatqcf cj ccskrfvb yf nt ghbywbgs .pf,bkbnb, rjnjhst ,skb yfheitys d lbpfqyt bynthatqcf gj vytyb. rf;ljuj bp 'rcgthnjd. rcgthnfv ytljcnfnjxyj njkmrj crfpfnm, xnj bv xnj-nj nfv yt gjyhfdbkjcm; jyb ljk;ys j,]zcybnm gjxtve bv xnj-nj yt gjyhfdbkjcm cj ccskrjq yf 'dhbcnbrb bkb yf lheubt htpekmnfns jwtyrb .pf,bkbnb. rcgthns-jwtyobrb ljk;ys ,snm njxys d cdjb[ ckjdf[ yfcrjkmrj 'nj djpvj;yj b ljk;ys erfpsdfnm rf;le. j,yfhe;tyye. ghj,ktve d jnltkmyjcnb. fghbvth, tckb d jghtltktyyjv lbfkjujdjv 'ktvtynt nhb dtob cltkfys ytghfdbkmyj, dct nhb cktletn erfpfnm gj jnltkmyjcnb cj ccskrfvb yf hfpkbxyst ghbywbgs .pf,bkbnb, rjnjhst j,]zcyz.n, gjxtve lfyysq fcgtrn 'ktvtynf bynthatqcf cjlth;bn ghj,ktve. nltkmyjt egjvbyfybt rf;ljq ghj,ktvs dspdfyj ldevz ghbxbyfvb: dj-gthds[, tckb ghj,ktvf zdyj yt erfpfyf, ceotcndetn hbcr gjdnjhbnm ytdthyjt htitybt d lbfkjujdjv 'ktvtynt lf;t d njv ckexft, rjulf jy gjkyjcnm. pfvtyty yf yjdsq. j-dnjhs[, vj;tn ,snm b yt elfcncz bcghfdbnm dct ghj,ktvs c .pf,bkbnb d bynthatqct bkb pfvtybnm 'ktvtyn yf yjdsq, yj gj rhfqytq vtht rfrbt-nj bp j,yfhe;tyys[ ghj,ktv vj;yj ,eltn htibnm, tckb jyb njxyj erfpfys d cgbcrt.

dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf yf zdkztncz vtnjljv cbcntvfnbxtcrjuj ntcnbhjdfybz bynthatqcf bkb vtnjljv jwtyrb rfxtcndf jceotcndktyyjuj htlbpfqyf. tv yt vtytt, nfr rfr 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf gjlhfpevtdftn j,]zcytybt rf;ljq j,yfhe;tyyjq ghj,ktvs yf jcyjdt jghtltktyys[ ghbywbgjd .pf,bkbnb, 'njn vtnjl gjvjuftn ljdjkmyj kturj ltkfnm yjdsq lbpfqy. hjvt njuj, vyjubt ghj,ktvs c .pf,bkbnb, cnjbn b[ njkmrj j,yfhe;bnm, vj;yj ljcnfnjxyj kturj b ,scnhj bcghfdbnm.

fghbvth, tckb ghj,ktvf cjcnjbn d njv, xnj gjkmpjdfntkm yt vj;tn crjgbhjdfnm byajhvfwb. bp jlyjuj jryf d lheujt, nj htitybt 'njq ghj,ktvs ljcnfnjxyj jxtdblyjt - lj,fdbnm nfre. aeyrwb. d ghjuhfvve. jxyj nfr;t, tckb ghj,ktvf cjcnjbn d njv, xnj d bynthatqct ghjuhfvvs bcgjkmpe.ncz hfpyst ihbans, gj hfpyjve gbiencz ckjdf bkb yfpsdftncz jlby b njn ;t nthvby, htitybt lfyyjq ghj,ktvs nfr;t jxtdblyj - ds,hfnm tlbysq ajhvfn lkz dctuj bynthatqcf. tv yt vtytt, lf;t d 'nb[ ghjcns[ ghbvthf[ lbpfqyth yt gjkexftn jn 'rcgthnf ybrfrjq byajhvfwbb rfr bvtyyj tve ye;yj bpvtybnm bynthatqc (yfghbvth, rfr bvtyyj ljk;yf ,snm htfkbpjdfyf aeyrwbz rjgbhjdfybz bp jlyjuj jryf d lheujt, bkb rfrjq bvtyyj yflj ds,hfnm ajhvfn ihbanf lkz bynthatqcf).

rfxtcndt hfcibhtybz vtnjlf 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb, xnj,s e lbpfqythjd gjzdbkfcm jnghfdyfz njxrf lkz hf,jns, vs htrjvtyletv ghjdjlbnm j,ot cj,hfybt 'rcgthnjd gjckt ghjdtltybz gjcktlytuj ctfycf jwtyrb. xbckj exfcnybrjd cj,hfybz drk.xf.n 'rcgthnjd, yf,k.lfntkz b ghtlcnfdbntktq lbpfqythcrjq rjvfyls. j,hfybt ghjdjlbncz cyfxfkf d ht;bvt vjpujdjuj inehvf b rjywtynhbhetncz yf njv, rfrbt yflj dytcnb bpvtytybz d lbpfqy, xnj,s bcghfdbnm j,yfhe;tyyst jib,rb bkb ,jktt j,obt jib,rb lbpfqyf d wtkjv. nj cj,hfybt nfr;t [jhjifz djpvj;yjcnm j,celbnm gjpbnbdyst vjvtyns d bccktljdfyyjv lbpfqyt, nfr rfr 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf ybrfr yt pfnhfubdftn 'ne df;ye. cnjhjye bccktletvjuj ghtlvtnf.

dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf jnyjcbncz r vtnjlfv .pf,bkbnb "lkz vfkjuj ,.l;tnf". tpfdbcbvst bccktljdfybz (Jeffries et al. 1991) ,tpeckjdyj gjrfpfkb, xnj vtnjl 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb zdkztncz jxtym 'aatrnbdysv vtnjljv .pf,bkbnb. jlyjv bp ckexftd bp vjtuj kbxyjuj jgsnf yfv elfkjcm ljcnbxm 48-rhfnyjq 'aatrnbdyjcnb: cnjbvjcnm ghjdtltyyjuj bccktljdfybz cjcnfdkzkf 10.500 ljkkfhjd, d nj dhtvz rfr j;blftvsq 'aatrn jn 'njuj bccktljdfybz cjcnfdbk 500.000 ljkkfhjd (Nielsen 1994). dkzzcm vtnjljv "lkz vfkjuj ,.l;tnf", vtnjl 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb yt vj;tn lfnm "bltfkmys[" htpekmnfnjd bkb gjvjxm dfv jnscrfnm dct lj tlbyjq jib,rb d bynthatqct.

ghtltkztv rjkbxtcndj exfcnybrjd

ghbywbgt 'dhbcnbxtcre. jwtyre gjkmpjdfntkmcrjuj bynthatqcf vj;tn dsgjkybnm b jlby xtkjdtr, jlyfrj jgsn hf,jns d ytcrjkmrb[ ghjtrnf[ gjrfpsdftn, xnj ghb bcgjkmpjdfybb njkmrj jlyjuj 'rcgthnf ehjdtym htpekmnfnjd jcnfdkztn ;tkfnm kexituj. hbvthyj d itcnb vjb[ ghjtrnf[ 'rcgthn, hf,jnfdibq jlby, yfitk kbim 35% ghj,ktv c .pf,bkbnb. lyfrj, d cdzpb c ntv, xnj hfpyst 'rcgthns vjuen yfqnb hfpyst ghj,ktvs, ujhfplj ,jktt dscjrjuj htpekmnfnf vj;yj ljcnbxm j,]tlbybd ecbkbz ytcrjkmrb[ 'rcgthnjd. f bc.2 gjrfpfyj jnyjitybt rjkbxtcndf yfqltyys[ ghj,ktv r rjkbxtcnde 'rcgthnjd, ghbybvfdib[ exfcnbt d ntcnbhjdfybb. hfabr zcyj gjrfpsdftn, xnj ytcrjkmrj exfcnybrjd yfvyjuj kexit, xtv jlby. s cxbnftv hfpevysv juhfybxbnmcz gznm. 'rcgthnfvb, b e; rjytxyj b[ xbckj yt ljk;yj ,snm vtymit nht[. jxyjt xbckj 'rcgthnjd pfdbcbn jn cnjbvjcnb ghjtrnf b cnjbvjcnb j;blftvjuj htpekmnfnf. jkmitt xbckj 'rcgthnjd nht,etncz nfv, ult hjkm .pf,bkbnb jxtym df;yf, bkb nfv, ult j;blftncz ,jkmifz jnlfxf jn j,yfhe;tybz jib,jr d cdzpb c xhtpdsxfqyjq df;yjcnm. cbcntvs bkb tt ibhjrjvfcinf,ysv bcgjkmpjdfybtv.

bc. 2

hbdfz ltvjycnhbhetn jnyjitybt vt;le xbckjv yfqltyys[ ghj,ktv b xbckjv 'rcgthnjd. hbdfz jnj,hf;ftn chtlybt lfyyst, dsdtltyyst yf jcyjdfybb itcnb ghjtrnjd.

cdjtq hf,jnt bkmcty b fylfe'h ghtlcnfdbkb vjltkm, jcyjdfyye. yf ajhvekt, gjpdjkz.otq ghtlcrfpfnm xbckj yfqltyys[ ghj,ktv, jcyjdsdfzcm yf xbckt exfcnybrjd 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb:

ProblemsFound(i) = N(1 - (1-l)i )

ult ProblemsFound(i) j,jpyfxftn rjkbxtcndj hfpkbxys[ ghj,ktv, yfqltyys[ ghb j,]tlbytybb htpekmnfnjd hf,jns i ytpfdbcbvs[ 'rcgthnjd. N j,jpyfxftn j,ott rjkbxtcndj ghj,ktv d bynthatqct, f l j,jpyfxftn chtlytt rjkbxtcndj ghj,ktv, rjnjhst yf[jlbn jlby 'rcgthn. itcnb ghjtrnf[ pyfxtybt l rjkt,fkjcm jn 19 lj 51 ghjwtynf, f echtlytyyjt pyfxtybt cjcnfdkzkj 34 ghjwtynf. yfxtybz gthtvtyyjq N dfhmbhjdfkbcm jn 16 lj 50 ghjwtynjd, f echtlytyyjt pyfxtybt hfdyzkjcm 33. cgjkmpez 'nb pyfxtybz d ajhvekt, ds gjkexbnt rhbde., rjnjhfz jxtym cbkmyj ghb,kb;tyf r njq, xnj ghtlcnfdktyf yf bc.2, [jnz njxyfz ajhvf rhbdjq ,eltn pfdbctnm jn dfib[ rjyrhtnys[ chtlyb[ pyfxtybq N b l, rjnjhst d dfitv rjyrhtnyjv ghjtrnt vjuen jnkbxfnmcz jn yfib[ pyfxtybq.

kz njuj, xnj,s jghtltkbnm jgnbvfkmyjt xbckj 'rcgthnjd, ytj,[jlbvj cjjnytcnb cnjbvjcnm 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb c t jnlfxtq. thdsq 'ktvtyn ghb dsxbcktybb - 'nj cnjbvjcnm ghjdtltybz ntcnf, drk.xf.ofz abrcbhjdfyyst b gthtvtyyst hfc[jls. brcbhjdfyyst hfc[jls 'nj nt, rjnjhst ghbltncz pfgkfnbnm dyt pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, crjkmrj 'rcgthnjd ,eltn ghbdktxtyj r ntcnbhjdfyb.: cnjbvjcnm cjcnfdktybz gkfyf ntcnbhjdfybz, cnjbvjcnm gjlujnjdrb vfnthbfkjd, yfgbcfybz jnxtnf. thtvtyyst hfc[jls - 'nj nt ljgjkybntkmyst hfc[jls, rjnjhst yf,tuf.n dczrbq hfp, rjulf r ntcne ghbdktrftncz jxthtlyjq ljgjkybntkmysq 'rcgthn. .lf d[jlbn jgkfnf hf,jns 'rcgthnf, cnjbvjcnm jwtyrb tuj jnxtnf, cnjbvjcnm j,jheljdfybz bkb lheub[ htcehcjd. cyjdsdfzcm yf jgsnt ytcrjkmrb[ ghjtrnjd vs cxbnftv, xnj gjcnjzyyst hfc[jls yf 'dhbcnbxtcre. jwtyre cjcnfdkz.n ult-nj 3.700 - 4.800 ljkkfhjd, f gthtvtyyst hfc[jls - 410 - 900 ljkkfhjd yf rf;ljuj 'rcgthnf.

fpevttncz, rjyrhtnyst cevvs hfc[jljd pfdbczn jn ghjtrnf, jn dfitq rjvgfybb b jn ckj;yjcnb jwtybdftvjuj bynthatqcf. rfxtcndt jnghfdyjq njxrb cxbnfqnt, xnj abrcbhjdfyyfz cnjbvjcnm 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb hfdyf 4.000 ljkkfhfv, f gthtvtyyfz cnjbvjcnm - 600 ljkkfhfv yf rf;ljuj 'rcgthnf. nfrjv ckexft j,ofz cnjbvjcnm ntcnbhjdfybz ghb gjvjob i 'rcgthnjd hfccxbnsdftncz gj ajhvekt $(4,000 + 600i).

sujlfvb jn 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb zdkz.ncz yfqltyyst ghj,ktvs c .pf,bkbnb, [jnz d ytrjnjhs[ ckexfz[ dsujljq vj;yj yfpdfnm gj,jxysq j,exf.obq 'aatrn, rjulf 'rcgthns gjdsif.n ehjdtym cdjb[ pyfybq, chfdybdfz cdjb jnxtns c jnxtnfvb lheub[ 'rcgthnjd yf j,otv cj,hfybb. yfitv ghjtrnt cnjbvjcnm rf;ljq ytj,yfhe;tyyjq jib,rb cjcnfdkzkf 15.000 ljkkfhjd. fpevttncz, d dfitv rjyrhtnyjv ghjtrnt cnjbvjcnm ,eltn lheufz. fghbvth lkz ghjuhfvv, rjnjhst bcgjkmpe.ncz dyenhb dfitq rjvgfybb, jwtybdfnm cnjbvjcnm rf;ljq jib,rb, yfqltyyjq dj dhtvz ntcnbhjdfybz, vj;yj gj j;blftvjve hjcne ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb nhelf gjkmpjdfntktq; lkz ghjlernjd, rjnjhst ,elen ghjlfdfnmcz yf hsyrt, jwtyre vj;yj jcyjdsdfnm yf ghtlgjkfuftvjv hjcnt ghjlf; ,kfujlfhz ,jktt dscjrjve ehjdy. eljdktndjhtybz gjregfntktq bkb ,jktt dscjrbv jwtyrfv cnjhjyyb[ 'rcgthnjd. ,hfnbnt dybvfybt, xnj d gk.c ds pfgbcsdftnt ct,t njkmrj nt ghj,ktvs, rjnjhst ,skb j,yfhe;tys lj jnghfdrb ghjlernf yf ghbkfdjr. fr rfr dct j,yfhe;tyyst ghj,ktvs bcghfdbnm ytdjpvj;yj, cnjbvjcnm j,yfhe;tyyjq, yj ytbcghfdktyyjq ghj,ktvs, yb;t cnjbvjcnb j,yfhe;tyyjq b bcghfdktyyjq.

bc. 3

hbdfz gjrfpsdftn dj crjkmrj hfp jnlfxf jn 'dhbcnbxtcrjq jwtyrb dsit hfc[jljd yf tt ghjdtltybt. fyyst dpzns bp ghjtrnf, j rjnjhjv bltn htxm d ntrcnt. gnbvfkmyjt rjkbxtcndj exfcnybrjd ntcnf - 4 xtkjdtrf. hb 'njv jnlfxf jn yb[ d 62 hfpf dsit hfc[jljd.

f hbc.3 ghtlcnfdktys hfpkbxyst cjjnyjitybz jnlfxb jn ntcnf r tuj cnjbvjcnb ghb hfpkbxyjv rjkbxtcndt exfcnybrjd ntcnf. hbdfz gjrfpsdftn, xnj gnbvfkmyjt rjkbxtcndj exfcnybrjd ntcnf - 4 xtkjdtrf. nj gjlndth;lftn j,obt yf,k.ltybz, xnj 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf kexit dctuj hf,jnftn, rjulf d ytq ghbybvftn exfcnbt jn nht[ lj gznb 'rcgthnjd. yfitv ghbvtht, tckb 'dhbcnbxtcrfz jwtyrf j,jikfcm ,s d 6.400 ljkkfhjd, f j,ofz cnjbvjcnm yfqltyys[ ghj,ktv c .pf,bkbnb cjcnfdbkf ,s 395.000 ljkkfhjd.

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